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Full text of "An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future progress in the British Isles"

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Landscape Architecture 


Harry W. Shepherd 

In the Press, and will be Published in December, 1824. 






ficotp attfc practice 






3 Statistical fltteto of its present State, 



By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S., &c. 


Illustrated ivith upwards of 700 Engravings on Wood, by JBranston. 

-L HOUGH the term Encyclopaedia applied to any single art may be sufficiently indicative 
of the comprehensive manner in which it is intended to treat of that art ; yet it may not be 
improper to state the grounds on which this work lays claim to being the most complete 
body of Agriculture hitherto submitted to the public. 

The subject of Agriculture admits of two grand divisions; the improvement and 
general management of landed property, which may be termed territorial economy; and 
the cultivation and treatment of its more useful animal and vegetable productions, which 
is properly husbandry or agriculture in a more limited sense. Numerous as have been 
the publications on rural matters during the last twenty years, there are but few of them 
whose titles might lead to a supposition that they embraced both departments. Of 
these few, the two principal may be cited : the " Complete Farmer," as the most volu- 
minous, and the " Code of Agriculture," as the most recent. The " Complete Farmer, 
or Dictionary of Husbandry," in two thick quarto volumes, with numerous plates, was 
published in 1807 ; it is copious to excess; was the best dictionary of husbandry at the 
time it was published, but is now obsolete, both as to its letter-press and engravings, 

The "Code of Agriculture," in one vol. 8vo., published in 1817, professes to be 
" a general view of the principles of the art, and an account of its most approved prac- 
tices." (Pref. p. 1 1.) By inspecting the contents of the work, however, it will be found 
that the term Agriculture, when applied to the Code, must be taken in its more limited 
sense, and that the book, like the " Complete Farmer, 'V extends only to the husbandry 

The Encyclopaedia of Agriculture combines territorial economy and husbandry : it is 
arranged on the model of the Encyclopaedia of Gardening, and some idea of its com- 
prehensiveness may be formed from the following outline of its contents. 


BOOK I. Among ancient and modern nations. 
Chap. I. Ages of antiquity. Sections and subsections. Egypt, Greece, Jews, &c. 

II. Romans. Roman authors, proprietors, occupants, natural circumstances, culture, produce, 

science of Roman farming, extent and decline of Roman agriculture. 

III. Middle ages. Italy, France, Germany, Britain, Saxon Britons, Norman Britons, &c. &c. 

Ultra European countries. , 

IV. Modern times. Italy, Switzerland, France, Holland, Germany, Poland, Russia, Sweden, 

Norway, Spain, Portugal, European Turkey, Britain. 

V. Ultra European countries. Asia, Asiatic Turkey, Persia, Tartary, Arabia, Hindostan, 
Cochin China, China, Australasia, &c. Africa, Abyssinia, Egypt, Coast, Cape of Good 
Hope, Islands. North, America, United States, British Possessions, Mexico, West Indies. 
South America. 

BOOK II. Agriculture, as influenced by geographical, civil, and political circumstances. 
Chap. I. Geographical. 

II. Civil and political. 
III. Character of the agriculture of Britain. 


BOOK I. Vegetable kingdom. 
Chap. I. Systematic botany. 

II. Vegetable anatomy. External structure, internal structure. 

III. Vegetable chemistry. Compounds, simple^ 

IV. Vegetable physiology. Germination, food, nutrition, developement, sexuality, propagation, 


V. Vegetable pathology. Wounds, diseases, decay. 
VI. Vegetable distribution. Geographical, physical, civil, characteristic, economical, systematic, 

arithmetical distribution in Britain. 
VII. Vegetable culture. Its origin and principles. 

BOOK II. Animal kingdom. 
Chap. I. Systematic soology. 

II. Animal anatomy. External, internal. 

III. Animal chemistry. Simples, compounds. 

.. IV. Animal physiology. Digestion, circulation, reproduction. ' 
V. Animal pathology! Diseases, accidents, decay. 
VI. Animal distribution. 
VII. Principles of animal culture. Breeding, rearing, fattening. 

BOOK III. Mineral kingdom and the atmosphere in reference to agriculture. 
Chap. I. Geological structure of the globe. 

II. Earths and soils. Classification, nomenclature, analysis, use, improvement, &c. 

III. Manures. Animal, vegetable, theory of action, species, preservation, application. Mineral 

manures, operation, species, application, &c. 

IV. Meteorology. Heat, light, electricity, water, air, climate of Britain. 

BOOK IV. Mechanical agents employed in agriculture. 
Chap. I. Implements. Tools, instruments, utensils, hand-machines. 

II. Machines and implements for beasts of labor. Ploughs, cultivators, hoes," drills,' harrows, 
rollers, rakes, reaping machines, threshing machines, hay machines, carts, waggons, 
steamers, boilers, cutters, &c. 

III. Edifices. Farm house, houses for live stock, dead stock, crop, labor, sheds, shelters, &c. 

IV. Fences, gates, &c. 

BOOK V. Operations of agriculture. 
Chap. I. Manual. Common, simple, on the soil, with plants, with animals, mixed. 

II. Operations with laboring cattle. On the soil, on the road, in machinery, mixed. 

III. Scientific operations. Of measurement, quantities, value, accounts, order, neatness, and 



BOOK I. Valuation, transfer, purchase, &c. of landed property. 
Chap. I. Tenures. 
II. Estimation. 
HI. Sale. 

IV. Purchase. 

BOOK II. Laying out of landed property. 
Chap. I. Appropriating commonable lands. Origin, general principles, practice of commissioner* of 

II. Consolidating detached property. By exchange, purchase, &c. 

III. Roads. Former principles, general principles, principles of M'Adam, kinds, direction, form, 

materials, paved roads, rail roads, preservation, repairs, &c. 

Chap. IV. Canals. Kinds, direction, powers by act of parliament, execution, preservation. 

V. Mills, manufactories, villages, markets, cottages, c. 
VI. Mines, quarries, pits, and metalliferous bodies, c. 
VII. Fisheries. Marine fisheries, river, lake, and stream fisheries. 

VIII. Plantations and woodlands. Soils, trees, formation, culture, management, sale, &c. 
IX. Orchards. Soil, situation, climate, sorts of trees, culture, gathering, storing, cyder making, &c. 
X. Culturable lands. Farms, farmeries, market gardens, orchards, nurseries, cottage lands, AC. 

BOOK III. Improvement of landed property. 

Chap. I. Draining. Theory, bogs, hills, vallies, mixed soils, retentive soils, draining implements, &c. 
II. Embanking. Theory, banks, sluices, course of rivers, jetties, piers, &c. 

III. Irrigation. Theory, terms in use, implements in use, flowing, flooding, catchwork, warping, 

wells, ponds, tanks, and other reservoirs in fields or farm yards, boring for water, .filtering 
for the farmery or domestic purposes. 

IV. Bringing waste lands into culture. Improving the climate, soil, roads, water, rivers, wastes, 

bogs, mountains, rocks, woods, &c. 
V. Improving the condition of lands already in a state of cultivation. Buildings, roads, fields, 

fences, water-courses, climate, &c. 
VI. Execution of improvements. By the landlord, by the tenant; general cautions, &c. 

BOOK IV. Management of landed property. 
Chap. I. Executive establishment. Duties, qualifications, stewards, substewards, bailiffs, cround- 

officers, &c. 

II. Administrator or manager. Principles of conduct, tenants, letting, selling, rents, reductions, 
covenants, cottagers, accounts, maps, &c. 

BOOK V. Selection, hiring, and stocking of farms. 
Chap. I. Considerations as to the farm before hiring. Climate, soil, subsoil, elevation, surface, aspect, 

markets, extent, tenure, rent, taxes, vicinage, &c. 
II. Considerations as to the farmer before hiring. Personal character, professional knowledge, 

experience, capital, &c. 
, III. Choice of stock. Live stock for labor, breeding, feeding, implements, servants, &c. 

IV. Management. Accounts, arrangement of labor, servants, markets, domestic and personal 


BOOK VI. Culture of farm lands. 

Chap. I. General processes. Rotations, fallows, manures, lime, composts. 
II. Culture of cereal grasses. Wheat, rye, barley, oats, other species. 
III. Leguminous agricultural plants. Pea, bean, tare, others, 
i IV. Roots or leaves. Potatoe, turnip, carrot, parsnip, beet or mangold, cabbage tribe, others. 

V. Herbage plants. Clovers, lucerne, saintfoin, others. 

VI. Cultivated grasses. Hay grasses, temporary, permanent, pasture grasses, Woburn experiments. 

VII. Management of permanent grass lands. Mowing or meadow, pastures for feeding, rearing, 

improvement of grass lands by temporary conversion to tillage, draining, paring, 
dragging, &c. 
VIII. Plants grown for various arts and manufactures. Cloathing arts, brewery, distillery, oil 

plants, domestic economy, medicine. 

IX. Marine Plants. Process of kelp making, establishing kelp plantations on marine shores, &c. 
X. Weeds. Annuals, biennials, perennials. 

BOOK VII. Economy of live stock and the dairy. 
Chap. I. Horse. Varieties, organology, criteria, breeding, rearing, training, feeding, managing 

working, shoeing, diseases. Ass, mule, hinny. 

II. Neat cattle. Varieties, organology, criteria, &c. Buffalo, dairy cows, dairy management. 
III. Sheep. Varieties, organology, criteria, &c. 
. IV. Swine. Goat, rabbit, and various others. 

V. Birds. Gallinaceous, anserine, various birds of luxury, of song, diseases, &c. 
VI. Fish and amphibious animals. Carp, tortoise, c. 

VII. Cultivated insects and worms. Silkmoth, leech, &c. 

VIII. Vermin or animals noxious in agriculture. Quadrupeds, birds, insects, worms, &c. 


BOOK I. Present state of agriculture in the British Isles. 
Chap. I. Practitioners. Operators, commercial cultivators, professors, artists, patrons. 
II. Kinds of farms. 

III. Topographical survey. England, county by county. Wales, ditto. Scotland, ditto. Ireland 


IV. Literature of agriculture. British, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Rassian 

Swedish, American. 
V. Police and laws. 

BOOK II. Future progress of agriculture in Britain. 
Chap. I. Improvement by increase of profits. 

II. By increased taste for agricultural knowledge. 
III. By better education of practitioners. 


Whoever will compare the above rude outline with the contents of any agricultural 
work extant, will be convinced of the superior comprehensiveness of the Encyclopaedia ; 
and when the immense number of engravings is considered, illustrative of the history of 
agriculture, of its implements, machines, buildings, operations, farms, estates, roads, 
waters, plants, weeds, animals, vermin, &c. , it may be safely affirmed that no preceding 
work (unless it be the Encyclopaedia of Gardening) ever contained such a body of in- 
struction within the same limits. 


This Day is Published, the Second Edition, conqdete, in One large Volumc,8vo. of 1234 pages, 
closely printed, with Seven Hundred and Fifty-seven Engravings on Wood, Price 2. 





"Cfie 'Cfieorp ana practice 








a Statistical flieto of it0 present State, 



By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S., &c. 

1 HIS Work is by far the most complete body of Gardening ever published, con- 
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pleasure grounds, and parks both of this and other countries ; of many curious fruits and 
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#li tge latent Jmprotemewg ; 




BY j. C.ILOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. & c . 









Add to Lib . 




Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, 
Ne w- Street- Square. 





THE term Encyclopaedia, applied to a single art, is meant to convey 
the idea of as complete a treatise on that art as can be composed at 
the time of its publication. No art has been more extended in its 
objects, or improved in its practices within the last fifty years than 
Gardening. During that period numerous books have been written 
in various departments of the subject ; but in no work has the whole 
Art of Gardening been included. The only books which have any 
pretensions to completeness are the Gardener's Dictionaries : but 
though some of these are copious on the culture of plants, and 
others, in botanical description ; yet in none is the subject of design, 
taste, and the arrangement of gardens, adequately treated of; and 
scarcely any thing is contained in these books, either on the History 
or Statistics of Gardening. In the voluminous edition of Miller's Dic- 
tionary, by Professor Martyn, though the title announces " the addi- 
tion of all the modern improvements of landscape-gardening," there is 
not an article bearing that title throughout the work ; nor a single 
quotation or abridgement from the writings of Wheatley, G. Mason, 
Price, Repton, or any modern author, on the art of laying out 

The Encyclopaedia of Gardening now submitted to the public 
treats of every branch of the Art, and includes every modern im- 
provement to the present year. 

Though -this work, like every other of the kind, can only be consi- 
dered as a compilation from books, yet, on various subjects, especially 
in what relates to Gardening History and Statistics, it was found ad- 
visable to correspond with a number of persons both at home and 
abroad. The favours of these Correspondents are here thankfully 
acknowledged ; and their farther assistance, as well as that of every 
Reader willing to correct an error or supply a deficiency, is earnestly 
entreated, in order to render any future edition of the work as per- 
fect as possible. 

Besides modern books, it became necessary to consult some com- 
paratively ancient and scarce works only to be met with in par- 
ticular collections. Our respectful acknowledgments are, on this 

A 2 


account, due to the Council and Secretary of the Linnaean Society ; 
to the Council and Secretary of the Horticultural Society ; to Robert 
Brown, Esq. the possessor of the Banksian library ; and to William 
Forsyth, Esq., whose collection of British works on Gardening is more 
than usually complete. 

It remains only to mention, as a key to this work, that to save 
room, the prencms and other additions to names of persons are not 
inserted ; only contracted titles of the books referred to are given ; 
and the names of gardens or country residences are mentioned, with- 
out, in many cases, designating their local situation. By turning to 
the General Index, the names of persons will be found, with the 
addition of their prenoms and other titles, where known, at length ; 
and there the abridged titles of books are also given complete, and 
the names of residences, accompanied by that of the county or 
country in which they are situated. The botanical nomenclature 
which has been followed is that of Sweet's Hortus Suburbanus Lon- 
dinenstSj with only one or two exceptions ; the reasons for which are 
given where they occur. The systematic names of insects, or other 
animals, or of minerals, are generally those of Linnaeus : some ex- 
ceptions are also noted. In various parts of the work etymological 
and other explanations will be found, which, to one class of readers, 
may be unnecessary. But it is to be considered that we address 
ourselves to Practical Gardeners as well as to the Patrons of Gar- 
dening ; and our opinion is, that to enlighten, and generally to raise 
the intellectual character of the former, will ultimately be found the. 
most efficient mode of improving them in their profession, and thus 
rendering them more truly valuable to the latter. 

By referring to the Kalendarial Index, those parts of this work 
which treat of Garden Culture and Management may be consulted 
monthly, as the operations require to be performed ; and by recourse 
to the General Index, the whole may be consulted in detached por- 
tions, as in a Dictionary of Gardening. 

Although this second edition forms a less bulky volume than the 
first, yet it contains considerably more printed matter ; besides above 
a hundred new engravings. These important additions we have been 
enabled to make by printing all those parts of the work which may be 
considered as of secondary importance, in a smaller type than that of 
the general text. 

J. C. L. 

Bayswater, Ajnil 8, 1824. 








Of the Origin and Progress of Gardening in the 
earliest ages of Antiquity, or from the 10th 
.century before the vulgar aera to the found- 
ation of the Roman Empire 

I. Of the fabulous Gardens of Antiquity - ib. 

II. Jewish Gardens. B.C. 1500. - - 4 

III. Phseacian Gardens. B.C. 900. - - ib. 

IV. Babylonian or Assyrian Gardens. B.C. 

2000. - - - - 5 

V. Persian Gardens. B. C. 500. - 6 

VI. Grecian Gardens. B. Q 300. - - ib. 

VII. Gardening in the ages of Antiquity, as 

to Fruits, Culinary Productions, and 
Flowers - - 7 


Chronological History of Gardening, from the 
time of the Roman Kings, in the sixth cen. 
tury B. C. to the Decline and Fall of the 
Empire in the fifth century of our sera - 9 

I. Roman Gardening as an Art of Design and 

Taste ... ib. 

II. Roman Gardening considered as to the Cul- 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 13 

III. Roman Gardening in respect to its Pro- 

ducts for the Kitchen and the Dessert ib. 

IV. Roman Gardening considered in respect 

to the Propagation and Planting of Tim- 
ber-trees and Hedges - - - 14 

V. Roman Gardening as a Science, and as to 

- the Authors it produced - 15 


Chronological History of Gardening, in conti- 
nental Europe from the Time of the Romans 
to the' present Day, or from A. D. 500 to A. D. 
1823. - . . . 

I. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State 

of Gardening in Italy 

1. Italian Gardening, in respect to Design 

and Taste 

2. Italian Gardening in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 

3. Italian Gardening in respect to its Products 

for the Kitchen and the Dessert 

4. Italian Gardening, in respect to the plant- 

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges 

5. Italian Gardening, as empirically practised 

6. Italian Gardening, as a Science, and as to 

the Authors it has produced 

II. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State 

of Gardening in Holland and Flanders - 

1. Dutch Gardening, as an Art of Design and 


2. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the Cul 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 

3. Dutch Gardening in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Fruits and Culinary Vegetables - 

- 16 


- ib. 

- ib. 

. 23 

- ib. 

- ib. 



4. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the plant- 

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges - 31 

5. Dutch Gardening, as empirically practised 32 

6. Dutch Gardening, as a Science, and in re- 

spect to the Authors it has produced - 33 

III. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 

Gardening in France - . ib. 

1. French Gardening, as an Art of Design 

and Taste - . . ib. 

2. French Gardening, in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 39 

3. French Gardening, in respect to its horti- 

cultural Productions . - 40 

4. French Gardening, in respect to the plant- 

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges - 41 

5. French Gardening, as empirically prac- 

tised - . .42 

6. French Gardening, as a Science, and s to 

the Authors it has produced - - 43 

IV. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 

Gardening in Germany - ib. 

1. German Gardening, as an Art of Design 

and Taste - - ib. 

2. German Gardening, in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 47 

3. German Gardening, in respect to horticul- 

tural'Productipns - - 49 

4. German Gardening, as to planting Timber- 

trees and Hedges - - - 50 

5. German Gardening, as empirically prac- 

tised . ib. 

6. German Gardening, as a Science, and as to 

the Authors it has produced - - 51 

V. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 

Gardening in Switzerland 

VI. -Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 
Gardening in Sweden and Norway 

VII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 

Gardening in Russia - 55 

1. Russian Gardening, as an Art of Design 

and Taste 

2. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Rowers and Plants of Ornament 59 

3. Russian Gardening, in respect to its horti- 

cultural Productions - ib. 

4. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Timber-trees and Hedges - 60 

5. Russian Gardening, as empirically prac- 

tised - ib. 

6. Russian Gardening, as a Science, and as 

to the Authors it has produced - 61 

VIII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State 

of Gardening in Poland - - ib. 

IX. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 

Gardening in Spain and Portugal - 63 

1. Spanish Gardening, as an Art of Design 

. and Taste - - 64 

2. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in re- 

spect to the Culture of Flowers and 
Plants of Ornament - - 65 

3. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in re- 

spect to its horticultural Productions and 
Planting - . .66 

X. Of the Rise, Progress, and present state* of 

Gardening in European Turkey - 'ib. 

A 3 


CHAP. IV. Page 

Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of 
Gardening in the British Isles - - 68 

I. British Gardening, as an Art of Design and 

Taste - - - - 69 

1. Gardening in England, as an Art of De- 

sign and Taste - - ib. 

2. Gardening in Scotland, as an Art of Design 

and Taste - - - 80 

3. Gardening in Ireland, as an Art of Design 

and Taste - - 82 

II. British Gardening, in respect to the Cul- 

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 83 

1. Gardening in England, in respect to the 

Culture of Flowers and the Establishment 
of Botanic Gardens - - 84 

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the 

Culture of Flowers and the Establish- 
ment of Botanic Gardens - - 86 

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to Flori- 

culture and Botany . ... 87 

III. British Gardening, in respect to its horti- 

cultural Productions - - - 88 

1. Gardening in England, in respect to its 

horticultural Productions - - ib. 

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to its 

horticultural Productions - - 91 

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to its hor- 

ticultural Productions - - 92 

IV. British Gardening, in respect to the plant- 

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges - ib. 

1. Gardening in England, in respect to the 

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges - ib. 

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the 

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges - 93 

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to the 

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges - 94 

V. British Gardening, as empirically practised ib. 

VI. British Gardening, as a Science, and as to 

the Authors it has produced - - 96 

CHAP. V. Page 

Of the present State of Gardening in Ultra- 
European Countries - - 97 

I. Syrian, Persian, Indian, and African Gar- 

dens of modern Times ' ~ - 98 

II. Chinese Gardening - 101 

III. Gardening in Anglo- North America, or 

the United States and British Provinces 104 

IV. Gardening in Spanish North America, or 

Mexico - - - 106 

V. Gardening in South America - - 107 

VI. Gardening in the British Colonies, and in 

other Foreign Settlements of European 
Nations - ib. 



CHAP. I. Page 

Gardening as affected by different Forms of 
Government, Religions, and States of Society 110 

I. Gardening as affected by different Forms of 

Government and Religions - -111 

II. Gardening as aflected by different States of 

Society - - ib. 

Gardening as affected by different Climates, 

Habits of Life, and Manners - -112 

I. Influence of Climate, in respect to Fruits 
culinary Plants, Flowers, Timber-trees 
and horticultural Skill 


III. Of the Climate and Circumstances of Bri- 

tain, in respect to Gardening - - 118 

II. Influence of Climate and Manners on Gar 
dening, as an Art of Design and Taste 





CHAP. I. Page 

Origin, Progress, and present State of the Study 
of Plants - 120 


Glossology, or the Names of the Parts of Plants 122 


Phytography, or the Nomenclature and De- , 
scription of Plants - 123 

I. Names of Classes and Orders - <*. 

II. Names of Genera 

III. Names of Species 

IV. Names of Varieties and Subvarieties 

V. Descriptions of Plants 

VI. Of forming and preserving Herbarians 

VII. Of Methods of Study 


Taxonomy, or the Classifications of Hants . ib- 

I. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according 

to the Linnsean System 

II. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according 

to the Jussieuean System 


Vegetable Organology, or the external Struc 
ture of Plants 

I. Perfect Plants # 
I. Conservative Organs ib. 
. Conservative Appendages - ib. 

3. Reproductive Organs - 139 

4. Reproductive Appendages - ib. 

II. Imperfect Plants - - 140 

1. Filices, Equisitacese, and Lycopodineae ib. 

2. Musci - - ib. 

3. Hepatic* - 1 

4. Algae and Licbense ~- *. 

5. Fungi - - 1 

CHAP. VI. Page 

Vegetable Anatomy, or the internal Structure 
of Plants . - 142 

I. Decomposite Organs . . ib. 

II. Composite Organs - - -144 

III. Elementary or Vascular Organs - 146 


Vegetable Chemistry, or primary Principles of 
Plants . . .147 

I. Compound Products . . ib. 

II. Simple Products . . - 157 


Functions of Vegetables \ <- . I 'ib. 

I. Germination of the Seed - - 158 

II. Food of the vegetating Plant . -160 

III. Process of Vegetable Nutrition - .165 

IV. Process of Vegetable Developement - 172 

V. Anomalies of Vegetable Developement -177 

VI. Of the Sexuality of Vegetables - .181 

VII. Impregnation of the Seed . .182 

VIII. Changes consequent upon Impregnation 183 

IX. The propagation of the Species - -184 

X. Causes limiting the Propagation of the Spe- 

cies - - . .186 

XI. Evidence and Character of Vegetable Vi- 

tality - . . 187 


Vegetable Pathology, or the Diseases and Casu- 
alties of Vegetable Life - . 191 

I. Wounds and Accidents - - ib. 

II. Diseases - .i . - 192 

III. Natural Decay . . - 195 


Vegetable Geography and History, or the Dis- 
tribution of Vegetables relatively to the Earth 
and to Man - . .196 

I. Geographical Distribution of Vegetables - 197 

II. Physical Distribution of Vegetables - ib. 

III. Civil Causes affecting the Distribution of 

Plants . . .902 


IV. Characteristic or Picturesque Distribution ^ 

of Vegetables - 

V. Systematic Distribution of Vegetables 20 

VI. Economical Distribution of Vegetables 206 

VII. Arithmetical Distribution of Vegetables ib 

VIII. Distribution of the British Flora, indige 

nous and exotic . n 


Origin of Culture, as derived from the Study of 
Vegetables - - - 21 




Of Earths and Soils . . _ 217 

1. Of the Geological Structure of the Globe and 

the Formation of Earths and Soils . ib. 

II. Classification and Nomenclature of Soils -219 

III. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils - 221 

1. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by 

means of the Plants which grow on 
them .... ft. 

2. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by 

chemical Analysis - - ib. 

3. Of discovering the Qualities of a Soil 

mechanically and empirically . . 222 

IV. Of the Uses of the Soil to Vegetables . 223 

V. Of the Improvement of Soils - - 226 
1. Pulverisation - . _ $ 

. 2. Of the Improvement of Soils by Compres- 
sion . . . .228 

3. Of the Improvement of Soils by Aeration 

or Fallowing . . _ ib 

4. Alteration of the constituent Parts of Soils 229 

5. Changing the Condition of Lands, in re- 

spect to Water ... 231 

6. Changing the Condition of Lands, in re- 

spect to Atmospherical Influence - 232 

7. Rotation of Crops . 233 

Of Manures ... 234 

I. Of Manures of Animal and Vegetable Origin 235 
1. The Theory of the Operation of Manures 

of Animal and Vegetable Origin - ib. 

; 2. Of the different Species of Manures of 

Animal and Vegetable Origin . 236 

, 3. Of the fermenting, preserving, and apply- 
ing of Manures of Animal and Vegetable 
Origin - _ 241 

I 1. Of Manures of Mineral Origin - . 243 

1. Theory of the Operation of Mineral Ma- 

nures - . . ib 

2. Of the different Species of Mineral Ma- 

nures . 244 


Of the Agency of Heat, Light, Electricity, 
and Water, in Vegetable Culture - . 249 

I. Of Heat and Light - . & 

II. Of Electricity - - - - 253 

III. Of Water . . #. 


Of the Agency of the Atmosphere in Vegeta- 
tion - . 254 

I. Of the Elements of the Atmosphere - _ ib. 

II. Of the Means of prognosticating the Weather 264 

III. Of the Climate of Britain - -266 




Implements of Gardening 

II. Instruments 

1 Instruments of Operation 

2. Instruments of Direction 

3. Instruments of Designation 

III. Utensils - -. .282 
1. Utensils of Preparation and Deportation - ib. 

2. Utensils of Culture - . -283 

3. Utensils of Protection - .'286 

4. Utensils for entrapping Vermin . 287 

IV. Machines . . //,. 

1. Machines of Labor . 288 

2. Machines for Vermin, and Defence against 

the enemies of Gardens - . 292 

3. Meteorological Machines . . 293 

V. Various Articles used in Gardening Oper- 

ations . . 295 

1. Articles of Adaptation . ib. 

2. Articles of Manufacture - . 297 

3. Articles of Preparation . ib. 


Structures used in Gardening . . 298 

I. Temporary or Moveable Structures . ib. 

1. Structures Portable, or entirely Moveable ib. 

2. Structures partly Moveable - - 300 

II. Fixed Structures ... 303 

III. Permanent Horticultural Structures -310 

1. Of the Principles of Design in Hot-houses 311 

2. Forms of Hot-house Roofs . . 314 

3. Details of the Construction of Roofs, or 

the glazed part of Hot-houses - - 318 

4. Glazing of Hot-house Roofs - . 319 

5. Walls and Sheds of Hot-houses - - 322 

6. Furnaces and Flues ... 323 

7. Steam Boilers and Tubes - . 326 

8. Trellises - - . .328 

9. Paths, Pits, Stages, Shelves, Doors, &c. - 329 

10. Details for Water, Wind, and Renewal of 

Air ii- ' . 331 

IV. Mushroom-houses - _ . 332 

V. Cold Plant-habitations . 334 

Edifices used in Gardening - . ib. 

I. Economical Buildings - . . _ ib. 

II. Anomalous Buildings - . 339 

1. Of the Ice-house and its Management - ib. 

2. Of the Apiary and the Management of 

Bees . . 341 

3. Of the Aviary, and of Menageries, Pisci- 

naries, &c. - 346 

III. Decorative Buildings - . 348 

1. Useful Decorative Buildings - - ib. 

2. Convenient Decorations - . 355 

3. Characteristic Decorations - - 360 


Of the Improvement of the Mechanical Agents 
of Gardening - - - 361 




Operations of Gardening, in which Strength is 
chiefly required in the Operator - - 363 

I. Mechanical Operations common to all Arts 

of Manual Labor - - - ib 

II. Garden-labors on the Soil - - 364 

III. Garden-labors with Plants - - 367 


Operations of Gardening in which Skill is more 

required than Strength - - - 369 

. Of transferring Designs from Ground to 
Paper or Memory - - ib. 

I. Of transferring Designs from Paper or 

Memory to Ground - - . 373 

1. Transferring Figures and Designs to plane 

Surfaces - - . ib. 

2. Tranferring Figures and Designs to irregu- 

lar Surfaces - .. . .375 

3. Of the Arrangement of Quantities - 377 

II. Of carrying Designs into Execution - 373 


Scientific Processes and Operations .. - 384 

1. Preparation of fermenting Substances for 

Hot-beds, Manures, and Composts - ib'. 

I. Operations of Propagation - - 387 

1. Propagation by natural Methods - - ib. 

2. Propagation by Layering I . . -388 

3. Propagation by Inarching - - 390 

4. Propagation by Grafting .. . 391 

5. Propagation by Budding . . 3<>7 

6. Propagation by Cuttings . ' - 399 



III. Operations of Rearing and Culture - -Wl 
1. Sowing, Planting, and Watering - ib. 
'2. Transplanting ... 402 
3. Pruning - - - 406 
k Training - - - 411 
.-;. Blanching - - 415 

IV. Operations for inducing a State of Fruit- 

fulness in barren and unblossoming Trees 
and Plants - - ib. 

V. Operations for retarding or accelerating 

Vegetation - - 418 

1. Operations for retarding Vegetation - ib. 

2. Operations for accelerating Vegetation - 419 

VI. Operations to imitate warm Climates - 423 

VII. Operations of Protection from Atmospher- 

ical Injuries - - 424 

VIII. Operations relative to Vermin, Diseases, 

and other Casualties of Plants and 
Gardens - - - 426 


1. Of the Kinds of Vermin most injurious 

to Gardens . . 426 

2. Operations for subduing Vermin - 436 

3. Operations relative to Diseases and other 

Casualties _ 437 

IX. Operations of Gathering, Preserving, and 

Keeping . . 438 


Operations relative to the final Products de- 
sired of Gardens, and Garden-scenery - 443 

I. Of the Vegetable Products desired of Gar- 

dens . 444 

II. Of the Superintendence ami Management 

of Gardens - ,..... - 445 

III. Of the Beauty and Order of Garden- 

scenery . . . .451 







The Formation of a Kitchen-garden 

- 455 

I. Situation 

- ib. 

II. Exposure and Aspect 

- 456 

III. Extent .... 

- 457 

IV. Shelter and Shade 

- 458 

V. Soil 

- 460 

VI. Water - ... 

- 463 

VII. Form - 

- 464 

VIII. Walls ... - 

- 465 

IX. Ring-fence and Slip 
X. Placing the Culinary Hot-houses 


Melonry - 

- ib. 

XI. Laying out the Area 

. 473' 


Of the Distribution of Fruit-trees in a Kitchen- 
garden - 476 

I. Of the Selection and Arrangement of Wall 

Fruit-trees - - 477 

II. Of the Selection and Arrangement of 

Espaliers and Dwarf-standards - . 479 

III. Of tall Standard Fruit-trees in a Kitchen- 

garden ----- 480 

IV. Fruit-shrubs - - - - 481 


Of the Formation and Planting of an Orchard, 
subsidiary to the Kitchen-garden - - 482 


Of the general Cultivation and Management 
of a Kitchen-garden - 485 

I. Culture and Management of the Soil ib. 

II. Manure - - - - 48G 

III. Cropping - - 487 

IV. Thinning - 489 

V. Pruning and Training 490 

VI. Weeding, Stirring the Soil, Protecting 

Supporting, and Shading - 493 

VII. Watering - - ib. 

VIII. Vermin, Insects, Diseases, and Accidents 494 

IX. Gathering and Preserving Vegetables and 

Fruits, and sending them to a Distance 495 

X. Miscellaneous Operations of Culture and 

Management - ib. 


- 496 

Of the general Management of Orchards 

I. General Culture - - . 

II. Pruning Orchard-trees - - 497 

III. Of gathering and storing Orchard-fruits - 499 

IV. Of packing Orchard and other Fruits for 

Carriage - - 501 

Construction of the- Culinary Forcing Struc- 

tures and Hot-houses 



I. Of the Construction of the Pinery - -502 

II. Of the Construction of the Vinery 506 

III. Construction of the Peach-house 508 

IV. Construction of the Cherry-house and Fig 

house 510 

V. Of Constructing Hot-houses in Ranges' ib. 

VI. Construction of Culinary Pits, Frames, and 

Mushroom-houses ' - - ib. 

VII. Details in the Construction of Culinary 

Hot-houses - - - 512 


Of the general Culture of Forcing Structures 
and Culinary Hot-houses - - 513 

I. Culture of the Pinery - -514 

1. Varieties of the Pine and General Mode of 

Culture - f ' ' - ib. 

2. Soil - - - - ib. 

3. Artificial Heat - - - 515 

4. Propagation of the Pine-apple - 516 

5. Of rearing the Pine-apple in the Nursing 

Department - - - 517 

6. Succession Department - - 521 

7. Fruiting Department - 525 

8. General Directions common to the Three 

Departments of Pine-apple Culture - 531 

9. Compendium of a Course of Culture - 537 

10. Recent Improvements in the Culture of 

the Pine-apple - - 538 

II. Of the Culture of the Vinery - - 541 

1. Of the General Culture of the Grape in 

Vineries - - - ib. 

2. Of particular Modes of cultivating the 

Grape, adapted to particular Situations 553 

3. Of Gathering and Keeping forced Grapes 5i6 

4. Of the Insects and Diseases attendant on 

forced or Hot-house Grapes - - 5oi 

III. Culture of the Peach-house - -558 

IV. Of the Culture of the Cherry-house - 563 

V. Of the Culture of the Fig-house - -566 

VI. Of the Culture and Forcing of the Cucum- 

, ber - - - - - 569 

VII. Of the Culture of the Melon - -580 

VIII. Forcing the Strawberry in Hot-houses, 

Pits, and Hot-beds - - - 588 

IX. Forcing Asparagus in Pits and Hot-beds 590 

X. Forcing Kidneybeans - - - 592 

XI. Forcing Potatoes - ... 593 

XII. Forcing Peas - - - 595 

XIII. Forcing Salads, Pot-herbs, &c. - - 596 

XIV. Culture of the Mushroom - - ib. 


Horticultural Catalogue. Hardy Herbaceous 

Culinary Vegetables - - - 606 

I. The Cabbage Tribe - - - 607 

1. White Cabbage - - - /A. 

2. Red Cabbage - - - 610 

3. Savoy - - ib. 

4. Brussels Sprouts - 611 

5. Borecole - - ib. 

6. Cauliflower - iiJ 

7. Broccoli *.'-' -' - el* 


8. Of Insects which infest the Cabbage Tribe 617 

8. Hyssop . 677 

II. Leguminous Plants 

- 618 

9. Chamomile - ib. 

1. Pea 

- ib. 

10. Elecampane - - ib. 

2. Garden-bean 

- 620 

11. Licorice - 678 

3. Kidneybean 


12. Wormwood - - - ib 

III. Esculent Roots 


13. Blessed Thistle - . ib. 

1. Potatoe 

- ib. 

14. Balm - - - ib. 

2. Jerusalem Artichoke 

. 628 

XI. Plants used as Preserves and Pickles - 679 

3. Turnip 

- ib. 

1.; Love- Apple - - - ib. 

4. Carrot 

- 630 

2. Egg-Plant - - ib. 

5. Parsnep 

- 631 

3. Capsicum . -680 

I). Red Beet 
7. Skirret 

- 632 
- ib. 

4. Samphire, three Species of different Orders 
and Genera - - - ib. 

8. Scorzonera, or Viper's Grass 
9. Salsify, or Purple Goat's Beard 
10. Radish 

- 633 
- ib. 
- 634 

XII. Edible Wild Plants, neglected, or not in 
Cultivation - - - 681 
1. Greens and Pot-herbs from Wild Plants - ib. 

IV. Spinaceous Plants 

- 635 

2. Roots of Wild Plants edible - - 682 

1. Spinage ... 

- ib. 

3. Leguminous Wild Plants edible - - 683 

2. White Beet 

. 636 

4. Salads from Wild Plants - - ib. 

3. Orache, or Mountain Spinage 

- 637 

5. Substitutes for Chinese Teas from Wild 

4. Wild Spinage 

- ib. 

Plants - - . ib 

5. New Zealand Spinage 

- \b. 

6. Wild Plants applied to various Domestic 

6. Sorrel 

- 638 

Purposes . . ib. 

7. Herb-patience, or Patience- Dock 
V. Alliaceous Plants 

- 639 
- ib. 

7. Poisonous Native Plants to be avoided in 
searching for edible Wild Plants - 684 

1. Onion 
2. Leek - - 


XIII. Foreign hardy herbaceous Culinary Ve- 
getables, little used as such in Britain - 684 

3. Chive 

- 642 

XIV. Edible Fungi . . 685 

4. Garlic 

- ib. 

1. Cultivated Mushroom ' '' . ib 

5. Shallot .... 

- ib. 

2. Morel - - .686 

G. Rocambole 

. 643 

3. Truffle, or Subterraneous Puff-ball - ib 

VI. Asparaginous Plants 

- ib. 

XV. Edible Fuel - . ib. 

1. Asparagus - - 

- ib. 

2. Sea-kale 

. 648 


3. Artichoke 
4. Cardoon, or Chardoon 
5. Rampion 

- 650 
- 651 

- 652 

Horticultural Catalogue. Hardy Fruit-trees, 
Shrubs, and Plants . . - 687 
I. Kernel-Fruits - - - 688 

1 ADD!P A 

7. Alisander, or Alexanders 

- 653 

-n.ppit: * to. 

2. Pear . . . - - 703 

8. Bladder- Campion 
9. Thistle 

- ib. 
- ib. 

3. Quince - . - 710 
4. Medlar . . . . ib 

VII. Acctarious Plants 

- 654 

5. True-Service - - - 711 

1. Lettuce 

- ib. 

II. Stone-Fruits - - - ib. 

2. Endive 

- 655 

I. Peach . ... ib. 

3. Succory, or Wild Endive 

- 656 

2. Nectarine - - - 718 

4. Dandelion 

- 657 

3. Apricot . . - 719 

5. Celery - 

- ib. 

4. Almond - - . - 721 

6. Mustard .... 

- 660 

5. Plum . . . . -722 

7. Rape 

- ib. 

6. Cherry . . . - 725 

8. Corn-Salad, or Lamb-Lettuce 

- ib. 

III. Berries - - - 728 

9. Garden-Cress - - 

. 661 

1. Black, or Garden Mulberry . - ib. 

10. American Cress 

- ib. 

2. Barberry . . - 730 

11. Winter Cress ... 

. 662 

3. Elder . . " . -731 

12. Water- Cress 

- ib. 

4. Gooseberry . . . - ib. 

13. Brook-lime 

- 663 

5. Black Currant - - - 735 

14. Garden. rocket 

- ib. 

6. Red Currant - - - - - 736 

15. Scurvy-grass ... 
16. Burnet 

- ib. 
- ib. 

7. Raspberry - - - 737 
8. Cranberry . . - - 738 

17. Wood-Sorrel 

. 664 

9. Strawberry - - - 739 

18. Small Salads 

- ib. 

IV. Nuts . - ... 742 

VIII. Pot-herbs and Garnishings 

- ib. 

1. Walnut - - - - ib. 

1. Parsley 

- ib. 

2. Chestnut - , - -743 

2. Purslane 

- 665 

3. Filbert - - - 744 

3. Tarragon 

- ib. 

V. Native, or neglected Fruits, deserving Cul- 

4. Fennel 

- ib. 

tivation - - 745 

5. Dill 

. 666 

6. Chervil 

- ib. 


7. Horse-radish 
8. Indian Cress, or Nasturtium 
9. Marigold, or Pot-marigold 

~. 667 
- 668 

Horticultural Catalogue. Exotic Fruits - 746 
I. Exotic Fruits in general Cultivation - 747 
1. Pine-apple - - - - ib. 

10. Borage 
IX. Sweet Herbs 

~- ib. 

2. Grape- Vine - 748 

1. Thyme 


3. Fig ... . 759 
4. Melon - - 763 

2. Sage ... 


5. Cucumber - - 764 

3. Clary ... 
4. Mint 


- 670 

II. Exotic Fruits, well known, but neglected 

5. Marjoram 
6. Savory 
7. Basil 

- ib. 

- 671 

as such - - . 765 
1. Orange Tribe - ib. 
2. Pomegranate - - 777 

8. Rosemary 
9. Lavender 
10. Tansy 
11. Costmary, or Alecost 
X. Plants used in Tarts, Confectionary, 
Domestic Medicine 

I 672 
- ib. 

'. 673 

3. Olive .... ib. 
4. Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear . . 778 
III. Exotic Fruits little known, some of which 
merit Cultivation for their Excellence 
or Rarity . . -779 
IV. Exotic Esculents, not hitherto cultivated 

1. Rhubarb 

- ib. 

as such ~ 785 

2. Pompion and Gourd 
3. Angelica 

- 674 
- 676 


4. Anise 

- ib. 

Horticultural Productions which may be ex- 

5. Coriander 
6. Caraway 

- ib. 

pected from a first-rate Kitchen-garden ma- 
naged in the best Style - - 787 

7. Rue 

'- 677 

I. January . . fb. 


II. February 

III. March 

IV. April 

V. May 

VI. June 
VII July 

II 11. August 

IX. September 

X. October 

XI. November 

XII. December 



Of the Formation of the Flower-garden 

Of Planting the Flower-garden 

Of Forming the Shrubbery 

- ib 

- 7 

- ib 

- ib 

- ib 

- ib. 

- ib. 

- ib. 

- 789 

- ib. 

- 797 

- 802 

CHAP. IV. ; 

Of Planting the Shrubbery . 

Of the Hot-houses used in Ornamental Horti- 



- 811 


Of the General Culture and Management of the 
Flower-garden and Shrubbery . . 820 


General Culture and Management of the Orna- 
mental or Botanic Hot-houses - - 824 


Floricultural Catalogue. Herbaceous Plants 828 

I. Florists', or Select Flowers - - ib. 

1. Hyacinth - - - 828 

2. Tulip . - . 831 

I. Ranunculus . - 834 

4. Anemone - - . 836 

5. Crocus - - . 838 

6. Narcissus - - . 839 

7. Iris . - - 840 

8. Fritillary - . - 841 

9. Lily . . .842 
10. AmaryUideae - . . ib. 

II. Ixiae and Gladioli - . 843 
12. Tuberose - - . ib 
la Pzeony - - -844 

14. Dahlia . . . j&. 

15. Auricula - _ 846 

16. Primula, or Primrose Family . 853 

17. Carnation - - - 855 

18. Pink - . .860 

19. Double Rocket . - 861 

20. Cardinal Flower - - 862 

21. Pyramidal Bellflower - - 863 

22. Chrysanthemum - - ib. 

23. Hydrangea - - - 864 

24. Balsam ... 865 

25. Mignonette - - - 866 

II. Border-Flowers - - ib. 

1. Species and Varieties of Perennial fi- 

brous, ramose, tuberous, and creeping J 
rooted Herbaceous Border Flowers, ar- 
ranged as to their Time of Flowering, 
Height, and Color - - 867 

2. Species and Varieties of bulbous-rooted 

Border-Flowers - - 874 

3. Species and Varieties of Biennial Border- 

Flowers . - - 877 

4. Species and Varieties of Hardy Annual 

Border-Flowers. - - 878 

5. Species and Varieties of Half-hardy 

Annual Border-Flowers - - 881 

III. Flowers for particular Purposes - ib. 

1. Flowers which reach from five to seven 

feet in height, for covering naked Walls, 
or other upright Deformities, and for 
shutting out distant Objects which it is 
desirable to exclude - . 882 

2. Flowers for concealing Defects on hori- 

zontal Surfaces: as naked sub-barren 
Sl>ots, unsightly Banks, &c. - - ib. 

3. Flowers which will grow under the Shade 

and Drip of Trees . - 

4. Flowers for ornamenting Pieces of Water, 

or planting Aquariums . - 

5. Flowers for ornamenting Rocks, or Ag- 

gregations of Stones, Flints, Scoria; 
formed in imitation of Rocky Surfaces, 
&c. - - - - 

6. Evergreen-leaved Flowers, or such as are 

adapted for preserving an Appearance 
of Vegetation on Beds and Borders 



during the Winter Months - . ib. 

7. Flowers for Edgings to Beds or Borders - 885 

8. Highly odoriferous Flowers . ib. 

9. Other selections of Flowers . ib 

10. Botanical and other Assemblages of 

Plants. Dial- Plants, Parasites, Ferns 
and Mosses, Alpines, and a Selection 

for a small Garden - - ib. 


Catalogue of Hardy Trees, with showy Flowers 887 

I. Deciduous Trees with showy Flowers - 888 

II. Evergreen Trees - . . 889 


Ornamental Shrubs . - - ib 

I. Select Shrubs -.. . . ib 

1. Rose - - . ib. 

2. Select American and other Peat-Earth 

Shrubs, viz. of Magnoliaceae, Mag. 
; nolia; of Rhodoraceae, Rhodendron, 
Azalea, Kalmia ; of the genera Cistus, 
Arbutus, Vaccinium, Andromeda, 
Erica, Daphne, and various others - 893 

II. General Catalogue of Shrubs - - 895 

1. Deciduous Shrubs, arranged as to their 

Time of Flowering, Height, and Color 

of the Flower . ib. 

2. Evergreen Shrubs - _ 898 

3. Climbing and Twining Shrubs , 900 

III. Selections of Shrubs for particular Pur- 

poses . . 901 

1. Shrubs for concealing vertical and hori- 

zontal Deformities - - ib 

2. Shrubs of rapid and bulky Growth - ib. 

3. Shrubs which thrive under the Shade and 

Drip of Trees ... fa 

4. Shrubs for planting by the Sides of Pieces 

of Water, or in Marshy Grounds, and 
among Rocks . 902 

5. Shrubs for forming Edgings and Hedges 

in Gardens - - ib. 

6. Shrubs whose Flowers or Leaves have vo- 

latile Odors, and diffuse them in the 
surrounding Air - . fa 

7. Shrubs ornamental by their Fruit as well 

as Flowers - . - ib 

8. Selections of Shrubs for botanical or 

economical Purposes, parasitic Trees, 
and Shrubs for a small Shrubbery . ib. 


Frame Exotics - . . 903 

I. Frame Woody Plants . . fa 

I. Frame SucOilents '. - 904 

II. Frame Herbaceous Plants - . ib 
[V. Frame Bulbs - . . ib. 

V. Frame Biennials - . . fa 

VI. Frame Annuals - . ib. 


hreen-house Plants - . * . 905 

. Select Green-house Plants . . fa 

1. Geranium - - . . " fa 

2. Exotic Heaths - - " 806 

3. Camellia - - - 909 

4. Various Genera which may be considered 

as select Green-house Plants, showy, 
fragrant, and of easy culture - 911 

I. Woody Green-house Plants . fa 

II. Climbing Green-house Plants - . 917 
V. Succulent Green-house Plants . . 918 
r. Bulbous Green- house Plants . . fa 

VI. Herbaceous and stemless Green-house 

Plants - - - 919 

VII. Of Selections of Green-house Plants for 

particular Purposes - Q19 


)ry-s-tove Plants 

. ib 


I. Woody Dry-stove Plants 

II. Climbing Dry-stove Plants 

I IT. Succulent Dry-stove Plants 

IV. Bulbous Dry-st*ve Plants 

V. Herbaceous Dry-stove Plants 


Hot-house, or Bark-stove Plants 

I. Woody Bark-stove Plants 

II. Climbing Bark-stove Plants 

III. Bulbous-rooted Bark-stove Plants 

IV. Perennial Herbaceous Bark-stove, Plants - 

V. Annual Herbaceous Bark-stove Plants 

VI. Aquatic Stove Plants 

VII. Scitaminous, or Reedy Stove Plants 

VIII. Selections of Bark-stove Plants for par- 
ticular Purposes 

IX. Selection of Dry and Bark-stove Plants, 

for such as have only one Hot-house to 
contain them 

- ib. 

- 933 


Monthly Catalogue of the leading Productions 
of Ornamental Horticulture - - ib. 




Of the Uses of Trees and Plantations, and the 
Profits attending their Culture - - 935 

I. Of the Uses of Trees individually, as Objects 

of Consumption - - ib. 

II. Of the Uses of Trees collectively as Plant- 

ations - - - 937 

III. Of the Profits of Planting - - 940 

Of the different kinds of Trees and Plantations ib. 

I. Of the Classification of Trees relatively to 

their use and effect in Landscape - ib. 

II. Of the Classification of Plantations, or 

Assemblages of Trees . 912 

Of the Formation of Plantations, in which 

Utility is the principal Object - . 943 


On forming Plantations, in which Ornament 
or Effect is the leading Consideration - 950 

Of the Culture and Management of Plantations 958 


Of appropriating the Products of Trees, pre- 
paring them for Use or Sale, and estimating 
their Value - 967 

Of the Formation of a Nursery-Garden for the 

Propagation and Rearing of Trees and 

- 973 


Of the Culture and Management of a Nursery 
for Trees and Shrubs - - 974 


I. Coniferous Trees and Shrubs, their Seeds, 

Sowing, and Rearing - - 975 

II. Trees and Shrubs bearing Nuts, Acorns, 

Masts, Keys, &c. their Sowing and 
Rearing - ... 977 

III. Trees and Shrubs with berried Stones, 

their Sowing and Rearing - - 978 

IV. Trees and Shrubs bearing Berries and 

Capsules with small Seeds - - 979 

V. Trees and Shrubs bearing leguminous 

Seeds, their Sowing and Rearing - ib. 

VI. Trees and Shrubs bearing small soft Seeds, 

their Sowing and Rearing - - 980 

VII. Culture common to all the Classes of 

Tree-seeds - - ib. 

VIII. Of propagating Trees by Layers, Cut- 
tings, Suckers, Grafting, &c. - - 981 


Arboricultural Catalogue - - 982 

I. Resinous or Coniferous Trees - . 983 

II. Hard- wooded non-resinous Trees - 987 

III. Soft-wooded Trees - . <); 



Of the Principles of Landscape- Gardening - 995 

I. Of the Beauties of Landscape-Gardening, 

as an inventive and mixed Art, and of the 
Principles of their Production - - 996 

II. Of the Beauties of Landscape-Gardeningj 

considered as an imitative Art, and of 
the Principles of their Production - 998 

Of the Materials of Landscape- Gardening - 1002 

I. Of operating on Ground - - ib. 

II. Of operating with Wood - -1005 

III. Of operating with Water - -1009 

IV. Rocks - - . 1013 

V. Buildings - - - 1014 

VI. Of the Accidental Accompaniments to 

the Materials of Landscape - - 1016 


Of the Union of the Materials of Landscape. 
Gardening, in forming the constituent Parts 
of a Country- Residence - - 1018 


Of the Union of the constituent Scenes in 
forming Gardens or Residences of particular 
Characters ; and of laying out Public Gar- 
dens - 10S1 

I. On laying out Private Gardens, or Resi- 

dences - - - 1022 

II. Public Gardens - - 1028 

1. Public Gardens for Recreation - ib. 

2. Public Gardens of Instruction . 1030 

3. Commercial Gardens - 1033 

Of the Practitioners of Landscape! Garden ing 1036 

I. Of the Study of the given Situations and 

Circumstances, and the Formation of a 
Plan of Improvement - 1037 

II. Of carrying a Plan into Execution - 1038 





CHAP. I. Page 

Of the different Conditions of Men engaged in 

the Practice or Pursuit of Gardening - 1040 

I. Of Operators, or Serving Gardeners - . ib. 


II. Tradesmen-Gardeners - , . 1041 

III. Garden Counselors, Artists, or Professors 1042 

IV. Patrons of Gardening ... ib. 


Of the different Kinds of Gardens in Britain, 
relatively to the different Classes of 
Society, and the different Species of 
Gardeners . 1043 

I. Private British Gardens - . ib 


II. Commercial Gardens 

III. Public Gardens 

- 1057 


Topographical Survey of the British Isles 

in respect to Gardening - - 1060 

I. Gardens and Country- Residences of Eng- 

land 1061 

II. Wales - - - 1084 

III. Scotland - - - -,1086 
IV Ireland 1093 


I. Of the Literature of Gardening - - 1097 
1. British Works on Gardening - - 1099 

II. Of the Literature of Gardening in Foreign 

Countries - - 1115 

1. Works on Gardening published in France, 

exclusive of Translations - - ib. 

2. Works on Gardening published in Ger. 

many, including Denmark and Swit- 
zerland, exclusive of Translations - 1122 

3. Works on Gardening published in Italy, 

exclusive of Translations - - 1128 

4. Works on Gardening originated and 

published in Holland, exclusive of 
Translations - - - 1129 

5. Works on Gardening, published in Sweden, 

Norway, and Iceland, exclusive of 
Translations - - - ib. 

6. Works on Gardening, published in Po- 

land and Russia - 1131 

7. Works on Gardening, published in Por- 

tugal and Spain - - ib. 

8. Works on Gardening, published in North 

America - - - Ib. 


- 1131 


Of the Professional Police, and Public Laws 
relative to Gardeners and Gardening 



CHAP. I. Page 

Of the Improvement of the Taste of the 
Patrons of Gardening - - - 1133 


Of the Education of Gardeners - "- 1135 

I. On the degree of Knowledge which may be 

attained by Practical Men, and on the ge- 
neral Powers of the human Mind, as to 
Attainments - ib. 

II. Of the Professional Education of Gar- 

deners - - 1136 

III. Of the Intellectual Education which a 

Gardener may give himself, independ- 
ently of acquiring his Profession - 1138 

IV. Moral, Religious, and Physical Education 

of Gardeners - - - 1141 

V. Of Economical Education, or the general 

Conduct and Economy of a Gardener's 
Life - 1143 






THE earth, Herder observes, is a star among other stars, and man, an improving 
animal acclimated in every zone of its diversified surface. The great mass of this 
star is composed of inorganic matters called minerals, from the decomposing surface of 
which proceed fixed organic bodies called vegetables, and moving organic bodies called 
animals. Minerals are said to grow, or undergo change only ; vegetables to grow and 
live ; and animals to grow, live, and move. Life and growth imply nourishment ; 
and primitively, vegetables seem to have lived on minerals ; and animals, with some 
exceptions, on vegetables. Man, supereminent, lives on both ; and, in consequence 
of his faculty of improving himself and other beings, has contrived means of increasing 
the number, and ameliorating the quality of those he prefers. This constitutes the 
chief business of private life in the country, and includes the occupations of housewifery, 
or domestic economy, agriculture, and gardening. 

Gardening, the branch to which we here confine ourselves, as compared with agri- 
culture, is the cultivation of a limited spot, by manual labor, for culinary and orna- 
mental products ; but relative to the present improved state of the art, may be defined 
the formation and culture, by manual labor, of a scene more or le_ss extended, for 
various purposes of utility, ornament and recreation. 

Thus gardening, like most other arts, has had its origin in the supply of a primitive 
want ; and, as wants became desires, and desires increased, and became more luxurious 
and refined, its objects and its province became extended ; till from an enclosure of a few 
square yards, containing, as Lord Walpole has said, " a gooseberry-bush and a cab- 
bage," such as may be seen before the door of a hut on the borders of a common, it has 
expanded to a park of several miles in circuit, its boundaries lost in forest scenery, 
a palace bosomed in wood near its centre ; the intermediate space varied by artificial 
lakes or rivers, plantations, pleasure-grounds, flower-gardens, hot-houses, orchards, and 
potageries : producing for the table of the owner and his guests, the fruits, flowers, 
and culinary vegetables, of every climate of the world ! displaying the finest verdant 
landscapes to invite him to exercise and recreation, by gliding over velvet turf, or po- 
lished gravel walks, sheltered, shady, or open in near scenes ; or with horses and chariots 
along rides and drives " of various view" in distant ones. 

From such a variety of products and objects, and so extended a scene of operations, 
have arisen the different branches of gardening as an art ; and from the general use 
of gardens, and of their products by all ranks, have originated their various kinds, and 
the different forms which this art has assumed as a trade or business of life. Gardening 
is practised for private use and enjoyment, in cottage, villa, and mansion gardens ; 
for public recreation, in umbrageous and verdant promenades, parks, and other scenes, 
in and near to large towns ; for public instruction, in botanic and experimental 
gardens ; for public example, in national or royal gardens ; and for the purpose of 
commerce, in market, orchard, seed, physic, florists', and nursery gardens. 

To aid in what relates to designing and laying out gardens, artists or professors have 
arisen ; and the performance of the operative part is the only source df living of a nu- 
merous class of serving gardeners, who acquire their art by the regular routine of ap- 
prenticeship, and probationary labor for some years as journeymen. 


The products of the kitchen-garden form important articles of human food for all 
ranks of society ; and furnish the chief luxuries of the tables of the rich, and a main 
support of the families of the poor. One oF the first objects of a colonist on arriving 
at a new settlement is to plant a garden, as at once a proof of possession, and a pledge 
of immediate enjoyment ; and indeed the history of the civilisation of mankind bears 
evidence, that there are few benefits which a cultivated people can bestow on savage 
tribes, greater than that of distributing among them the seeds of good fruits and oler- 
aceous herbs, and teaching them their culture. 

The pleasure attending the pursuit of gardening is conducive to health and repose 
of mind ; and a taste for the enjoyment of gardens is so natural to man, as almost to be 
universal. Our first most endearing and most sacred associations, Mrs. Holland ob- 
serves, are connected with gardens ; our most simple and most refined perceptions of 
beauty are combined with them ; and the very condition of our being compels us to the 
cares, and rewards us with the pleasures attached to them. Gardening has been the 
inclination of kings and the choice of philosophers, Sir William Temple has observed ; 
and the Prince de Ligne, after sixty years' experience, affirms, that the love of gardens is 
the only passion which augments with age : " Je voudrois," he says, " ^chauffer tout 
1'univers de mon gdut pour les jardins. lime semble qu'il est impossible, qu'un me"- 
chant puisse 1'avoir. II n'est point de vertus que je ne suppose a celui qui aime a 
parler et a faire des jardins. Peres de famille, inspirez la jardinomanie a vos enfans." 
(Memoires et Lettres, torn, i.) 

That which makes the cares of gardening more necessary, or at least more excusable, 
the former author adds, is, that all men eat fruit that can get it ; so that the choice is 
only, whether one will eat good or ill ; and for all things produced in a garden, whether 
of salads or fruits, a poor man will eat better that has one of his own, than a rich man 
that has none. 

To add to the value and extend the variety of garden productions, new vegetables 
have been introduced from every quarter of the globe ; to diffuse instruction on the sub- 
ject, numerous books have been written, societies have been established, and premiums 
held out for rewarding individual merit; and where professorships of rural economy 
exist, gardening may be said to form a part of public instruction*. 

A varied and voluminous mass of knowledge has thus accumulated on the subject 
of gardening, which must be more or less necessary for every one who would practise 
the art with success, or understand when it is well practised for him by others. To 
combine as far as practicable the whole of this knowledge, and arrange it in a syste- 
matic form, adapted both for study and reference, is the object of the present work. 
The sources from which we have selected, are the modern British authors of decided 
reputation and merit ; sometimes recurring to ancient or continental authors, and occa- 
sionally, though rarely, to our own observation and experience ; observation in all 
the departments of gardening, chiefly in Britain, but partly also on the Continent ; and 
exjyerience during nearly twenty years' practice as an architect of gardens. 

With this purpose in view, Gardening is here considered, in 


I. As to its origin, progress, and f 1. Among the different nations of the world. 

present state, (. 2. Under different political and geographical circumstances. 

C 1. The study of the vegetable kingdom. 

TT A . , , , 3 2. The study of the natural agents of vegetable growth and culture. 
, II. As a science founded - < 3 Tne gtudy of the mec h an ical agents employed in gardening; 
(_ 4. The study of the operations of gardening. 

rl. The practice of horticulture. 
III. As an art, comprehending ) | gj JljSSSe 

(_ 4. The practice of landscape gardening. 

A Kalendarial Index to those parts of the work which treat of culture and manage- 
ment, points out the operations as they are to be performed in the order of time and of 
the season : and 

A General Index explains the technical terms of gardening ; gives an outline of the 
culture of every genus of plants, native or introduced in British gardens ; and presents 
an analysis of the whole work in alphabetical order. 



1. The history of gardening may be considered chronologically, or in connection with 
that of the different nations who have successively flourished in different parts of the 
world ; politically, as influenced by the different forms of government which have pre- 
vailed ; and geographically, as affected by the different climates and natural situations of 
the globe. The first kind of history is useful as showing what has been done ; and what 
is the relative situation of different countries as to gardens and gardening'; and the 
political and geographical history of this art affords interesting matter of instruction as 
to its past and future progress. 



2. The chronological history of gardening may be divided into three periods ; the ages 
<f antiquity, commencing with the earliest accounts and terminating with the foundation 
of the Roman empire ; the ancient ages, including the rise and fall of the Roman, empire 
and the modern times, continued from thence to the present day. 


Of the Origin and Progress of Gardening in the earliest ages of Antiquity, or from the 
10th century before the vulgar aera to the foundation of the Roman Empire. 

3. All ancient history begins with fable and tradition ; no authentic relation can reach 
farther back than the organisation of the people who followed the last grand revolution 
sustained by our globe. Every thing which pretends to go farther must be fabulous, 
and it is only the primeval arts of war and husbandry which can by any means go so far. 
The traditions collected by Herodotus, Diodorus, Hesiod, and some other authors, when 
freed from the mythological and mysterious terms in which they are enveloped, seem to 
carry us back to that general deluge, or derangement of the surface strata of our globe, 
of which all countries, as well as most traditions, bear evidence. As to gardening, these 
traditions, like all rude histories, touch chiefly on particulars calculated to excite 
wonder or surprise in ignorant or rude minds, and accordingly the earliest notices of 
gardens are confined to fabulous creations of fancy, or the alleged productions of princes 
and warriors. To the first may be referred the gardens of Paradise and the Hesperides j 
and to the others the gardens of the Jews, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks. 

SECT. I. Of the fabulous Gardens of Antiquity. 

4. The fabulous gardens of antiquity are connected with the religions of those times. 
These religions have been arranged by philosophers (De Paw's Dissert,} in three divisions ; 
Barbarism, Scythism, and Helenism. To the latter belong the Hebrew, Greek, and 
Mahomedan species. Each of these has its system of creation, its heaven and its hell, 
and, what chiefly concerns us, each system has its garden. The garden of the Jewish 
mythology is for the use of man ; that of the Grecian polytheism is appropriated to the 
Gods ; and the Mahomedan paradise is the reward held out to the good in a future 

5. Gan-eden, or the Jewish Paradise, is supposed to have been situated in Persia, 
though the inhabitants of Ceylon say it was placed in their country, and according to the 
Rev. Dr. Buchanan (Researches in India, &c.), still point out Adam's bridge and Abel's 
tomb. Its description may be considered as exhibiting the ideas of a poet, whose object 
was to bring together every sort of excellence of which he deemed a garden susceptible ; 
and it is remarkable that in so remote an age (B. C. 1600) his picture should display so 
much of general nature. Of great extent, watered by a river, and abounding in timber 
and woodiness, paradise seems to have borne some resemblance to a park and pleasure- 
grounds in the modern taste ; to which indeed its amplified picture by Milton has been 
thought by Walpole and others to have given rise. When Adam began to transgress in 

B 2 


the garden he was* turned out to till the ground, and paradise was afterwards guarded by 
a miraculous sword, which turned every way to meet trespassers. ( See Genesis ii. 3. ; 
Bishop Huet on the Situation of Paradise, 1691, 12mo. ; Burners Theory of the Earth, 
book ii. chap. 2. ; Sickler's Geschichte der obst cultur, &c. 1801. 1 Band.} 

6'. The gardens of Hesperides were situated in Africa, near Mount Atlas, or, accord- 
ing to some, near Cyrcnaica. They are described by Scylax, a geographer of the sixth 
century, B. C., as lying in a place eighteen fathoms deep, steep on all sides, and two 
stadia in diameter, covered with trees of various kinds, planted very close together, and 
interwoven with one another. Among the fruit-trees were golden apples (supposed to be 
oranges), pomegranates, mulberries, vines, olives, almonds, and walnuts ; and the orna- 
mental trees included the arbutus, myrtle, bay, ivy, and wild olive. This garden con- 
tained the golden apples which Juno gave to Jupiter on the day of their nuptials. They 
were occupied by three celebrated nymphs, daughters of Hesperus, and guarded by a 
dreadful dragon which never slept. Hercules carried off the apples by stratagem, but 
they were afterwards returned by Minerva. What finally became of the nymphs of the 
garden, or of the apples, we are as ignorant as we are of the fate of paradise, or the tree 
" in the midst thereof," which contained the forbidden fruit, and of which, as Lord 
Walpole observes, " not a slip or a sucker has been left behind." 

7. The promised garden of Mahomet, or the heaven of his religion, is said to abound 
in umbrageous groves, fountains, and Houri, or black-eyed girls : and the enjoyments, 
which in such scenes on earth last but for a moment, are to be there prolonged for a 
thousand years. 

8. Dr. Sickler's opinion of these gardens is, that Eden and Hesperides allude to, or are 
derived from, one "original tradition. Paradise, he considers as a sort of figurative 
description of the finest district of Persia ; and he traces various resemblances between 
the apples of Eve and of Juno ; the dragon which never slept, and the flaming sword 
which turned everyway. Some very learned and curious speculations on this subject are 
to be found in the introduction to his Geschichte der obst cultur. With respect to the 
paradise of Mahomet, it is but of modern date, and may probably have been suggested 
by the gardens described in " Solomon's Song," and other poems ; though some allege 
that the rural coffee-houses which abound in the suburbs of Constantinople gave the first 
idea to the prophet. 

SECT. II. Jewish Gardens. B. C. 1500. 

9. King Solomons garden is the principal one on record ; though many others belong- 
ing both to Jewish princes and subjects are mentioned in the Bible. Solomon was at 
once a botanist, a man of learning, of pleasure, and a king. The area of his garden 
was quadrangular, and surrounded by a high wal] ; it contained a variety of plants, 
curious as objects of natural history, as the hyssop, (a moss, as Hasselquist thinks,) 
" which springeth out of the wall ;" odoriferous and showy flowers, as the rose, and the 
lily of the valley, the calamus, camphire, spikenard, saffron, and cinnamon ; timber-trees, 
as the cedar, the pine, and the fir ; and the richest fruits, as the fig, grape, apple, palm, 
and pomegranate. (Curtii Sprengel Historia Rei herbaria, lib. i. c. 1.) It contained water 
in wells, and in living streams, and, agreeably to eastern practices, aviaries and a seraglio. 
The seraglio Parkhurst supposes was at once a temple of worship and of pleasure, and he 
quotes the words of Ezekiel (xiii. 20.) in their literal translation: " lam against, saith 
the Lord, your luxurious cushions, wherewith ye ensnare souls in the flower-gardens." 
Ashue or Venus was the deity who was worshipped by a company of naked females : Dr. 
Brown (Antiq. of the Jews,) describes the mode of worship ; and concludes by lamenting 
that depravity in man, which converts the beauties of nature into instruments of sin. 
The situation of Solomon's garden was in all probability near to the palace, as were those 
of his successors, Ahasuerus and Ahab. (Esther vii. 8.) 

10. We know little of the horticulture of the Jews; but like that of the eastern nations 
in general, it was probably then as it still is in Canaan, directed to the growing of 
cooling fruits, to allay thirst and moderate heat ; aromatic herbs to give a tone to the 
stomach, and wine to refresh and invigorate the spirits. Hence, while their agricultural 
produce was wheat, barley, rye, millet, vetches, lentils, and beans, their gardens produced 
cucumbers, melons, gourds, onions, garlic, anise, cummin, coriander, mustard, and various 
spices. Their vineyards were sometimes extensive : Solomon had one at Baalhamon 
which he let out at 1000 pieces of silver per annum. (Cant. viii. 11, 12.) 

SECT. III. Plueacian Gardens. B. C. 900. 

11. The garden of Alcinous, the Phaeacian king, was situated in an island of that 
name, by some considered Corfu, in the Ionian sea, and by others, and with more reason, 
an Asiatic island. It is minutely described by Homer in the Odyssey, and may be 
compared to the garden of an ordinary farm-house in point of extent and form ; but in 
respect to the variety of fruits, vegetables, and flowers cultivated, was far inferior. It 


embraced the front of the palace ; contained something less than four acres, surrounded 
by a hedge, (the first, as Harte remarks, which we read of in history,) and interspersed 
with three or four sorts of fruit-trees, some beds of culinary vegetables, and some borders 
of flowers ; it contained two fountains or wells, the one for the use of the garden, and the 
other for the palace. 

12. The gardens of Laertes, described in the same work, appear to have been similar to 
the above in character and extent, use being more studied than beauty ; and vicinity to the 
house or palace, for the immediate access of the queen or housewife, being a greater 
desideratum than extent, variety of products, or prolonged recreation. 

1 3. The reality of the existence of these gardens is very doubtful. They are by many 
ranked with those of Adonis ( Virg. Georg. ii. 87.), Paradise, Hesperides ( Virg. JEn. 
iv. 484.), and Venus (AliBeys Travels, vol. i.), and considered with them as mere 
creations of the fancy. Sir W. Temple is of opinion that the principal gardens of Ionia 
may have had some resemblance to those described by Homer, as lying in the barren 
island of Phaeacia ; but that the particular instance stated as belonging to Alcinous is 
wholly poetical. (Temple's Works. Essay on Gardens.} Gouget rejects altogether the 
idea of Pha^acia being an European isle, and considers the Phaeacians as a Greek colony 
in one of the islands of Asia. (Origine de Loix, &c. torn. iii. 174.) 

SECT. IV. Babylonian or Assyrian Gardens. B. C. 2000. 

14. The gardens of Cyrus at Babylon (Plin. xix. 4.), or of the kings of Assyria, 
or, according to Bryant (Anal, of Ancient Mythology, vol. iii. p. 100.), of the chiefs of 
the ancient people called Semarim, were distinguished by their romantic situations, great 
extent, and diversity of uses and products, and were reckoned in their days among the 
wonders of the world. 

15. The form of these gardens was square, and, according to Diodorus and Strabo, each 
side was four hundred feet in length, so that the area of the base was nearly four acres. 
They were made to rise with terraces constructed in a curious manner above one another, 
in the form of steps, somewhat like those of the Isola Bella in the Logo Maggiore in Italy, 
and supported by stone pillars to the height of more than three hundred feet, gradually 
diminishing upwards till the area of the superior surface, which was flat, was reduced 
considerably below that of the base. This building was constructed by vast stone beams 
placed on pillars of stone, (arches not being then invented,) which were again covered 
with reeds, cemented with bitumen, and next were laid a double row of bricks united 
by cement. Over these were laid plates of lead, which effectually prevented the moisture 
from penetrating downwards. Above all was laid a coat of earth, of depth sufficient for 
plants to grow in it, and the trees here planted were of various kinds, and were ranged 
in rows on the side of the ascent,, as well as on the top, so that at a distance it appeared 
as an immense pyramid covered with wood. The situation of this extraordinary effort 
was adjoining or upon the river Euphrates, from which water was supplied by machinery 
for the fountains and other sources for cooling the air and watering the garden. (Dr. 
Falconer's Historical View of the Gardens of Antiquity, &c. p. 17.) 

16. The prospect from these elevated gardens was grand and delightful. From the upper 
area was obtained a view not only of the whole city, and the windings of the Euphrates, 
which washed the base of the superstructure three hundred feet below ; but of the cul- 
tivated environs of the city and surrounding desert, extending as far as the eye could 
reach. The different terraces and groves contained fountains, parterres, seats and 
banquetting-rooms, and combined the minute beauties of flowers and foliage, with 
masses of shade and extensive prospects; the retirement of the grove in the midst of- 
civic mirth and din ; and all the splendor and luxury of eastern magnificence in art, 
with the simple pleasures of verdant and beautiful nature. " This surprising and la- 
borious experiment," G. Mason observes, " was a strain of complaisance in King 
Nebuchadnezzar to his Median queen, who could never be reconciled to the flat and 
naked appearance of the province of Babylon, but frequently regretted each rising hill 
and scattered forest she had formerly delighted in, with all the charms they had presented 
to her youthful imagination. The King, who thought nothing impossible for his power 
to execute, nothing to be unattempted for the gratification of his beloved consort, de- 
termined to raise woods and terraces even within the precincts of the city, equal to those 
by which her native country was diversified." (Essay on Design, &c. p. 9.) 

17. An elevated situation seems in these countries to have been an essential re- 
quisite to a royal garden; probably because the air in such regions is more cool and 
salubrious, the security from hostile attack of any sort more certain, and the 
prospect always sublime. " When Semiramis came to Chanon, a city of Media," ob- 
serves Diodorus Siculus (lib. ii. cap. 13.}, " she discovered on an elevated plain, a 
rock of stupendous height, and of considerable extent. Here she formed another para- 
dise, exceeding large, enclosing a rock in the midst of it, on which she erected sumptuous 
buildings for pleasure, commanding a view both of the plantations and the encampment. " 

B 3 


19. The existence of these gardens, however, is very problematical. Bryant (student 
ythology} gives his reasons for disbelieving the very existence of Queen Semiramis, who. 
Dr. Sickler says, was not a queen, but a (beysclddferinn) concubine. Bryant acknowledges, 
however, that paradises of great extent, and placed in elevated situations, were with great 
probability ascribed to the ancient people called Semarim. Quintus Curtius (lib. xv. 
cap. 5.) calls these gardens " fabulous wonders of the Greeks:" and Herodotus, who 
describes Babylon, is silent as to their existence. Many consider their description as 
representing a hill cut into terraces, and planted : and some modern travellers have fan- 
cied that they could discover traces of such a work. The value of such conjectures is 
left to be estimated by the antiquarian ; we consider the description of this Babylonian 
garden as worth preserving for its grandeur and suitableness to the country and climate. 

SECT. V. Persian Gardens. B. C. 500. 

19. The Persian Kings were very fond of gardens, which, Xenophon says, were 
cultivated for the sake of beauty as well as fruit. " Wherever the Persian king, 
Cyrus, resides, or whatever place he visits in his dominions, he takes care that the 
Paradises, shall be filled with every thing, both beautiful and useful, the soil can 
produce." (Xen. Memorab. lib. v. p. 829.) The younger Cyrus was found by Ly- 
sander, as Plutarch informs us, in his garden or paradise at Sardis, and on its being 
praised by the Spartan general, he avowed that he had conceived, disposed and adjusted 
the whole himself, and planted a considerable number of trees with his own hands. 
Cyrus had another paradise at Celenae, which was very extensive, and abounded in wild 
beasts ; and we are informed that the same prince " there mustered the Grecian forces 
to the number of thirteen thousand." (De Cyri Exped. lib. i.) 

20. A paradise in the Island of Panchcea, near the coast of Arabia, is described by 
Diodorus Siculus, as having been in a flourishing state in the time of Alexander's 
immediate successors, or about B. C. 300. It belonged to a temple of Jupiter ^Try- 
philius, and had a copious fountain, which burst at once into a river, was cased with 
stone near half a mile, and was afterwards used for irrigation. It had the usual accom- 
paniments of groves, fruit-trees, thickets, and flowers. 

21. The grove of Orontes in Syria, is mentioned by Strabo (lib. xvi.) as being in his 
time nine miles in circumference. It is described by Gibbon as " composed of laurels 
and cypress, which formed in the most sultry summers a cool and impenetrable shade. 
A thousand streams of the purest water issuing from every hill preserved the verdure of 
the earth, and the temperature of the air ; the senses were gratified with harmonious 
sounds, and aromatic odours ; and the peaceful grove was consecrated to health and joy, 
to luxury and love." (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap, xiii.) 

22. In Persian gardens of a more limited description, according to Pliny and other Ro- 
man authors, the trees were arranged in straight lines and regular figures ; and the margins 
of the walks covered with tufts of roses, violets, and other odoriferous flowering plants. 
Among the trees, the terebinthmate sorts, the oriental plane, and, what may appear to 
us remarkable, the narrow-leaved elm, (now called English, but originally, as Dr. 
Walker and others consider, from the Holy Land), held conspicuous places. Buildings 
for repose, banqueting, voluptuous love; fountains for cooling the air, aviaries for 
choice birds, and towers for the sake of distent prospect, were introduced in the best 

SECT. VI. Grecian Gardens. B. C. 300. 

23. The Greeks copied the gardening of the Persians, as they did their manners and 
architecture, as far as the difference of climate and state of society would admit. 
Xenophon, a Greek philosopher of the fourth century before Christ, admired the gardens 
of the Persian prince Cyrus, at Sardis ; and Diogenes Laertius informs us that Epicurus 
delighted in the pleasures of the garden, and made choice of one as the spot where he 
taught his philosophy. Plato also lays the scene of his dialogue of beauty on the 
umbrageous banks of the river Ilissus. In the first eclogue of Theocritus, the scene 
is laid under the shade of a pine-tree, and the beauty of Helen is compared to that of a 
cypress in a garden. It would appear from this and other circumstances, that the love 
of terebinthinate trees, so general in Persia, and the other eastern countries, was also 
prevalent in Greece ; and the same flowers (made choice of for their brilliant colors 
and odoriferous perfumes) appear to have been common to both countries. Among 
these may be enumerated the narcissus, violet, ivy, and rose. (Historical View, &c. 
p. 30. etseq.) There are many curious observations on this subject in Stackhouse's edition of 
Theophrastus. Lord Bacon, in his Essay on Gardens, and G. Mason, already quoted, 
concur in considering gardening as rather a neglected art in Greece, notwithstanding the 
progress of the sister art of architecture, which gave rise to the remark of the former, 
" that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately sooner tlian 
to gaxden finely, as if gardening were the greater perfection." 


24. The vale of Tempe, however, as described in the third book of ./Elian's vari- 
ous history, and the public gardens of Athens according to Plutarch, prove that their phi- 
losophers and great men were alive to the beauties of verdant scenery. The academus 
or public garden of Athens, Plutarch informs us, was originally a rough uncultivated 
spot, till planted by the general Cimon, who conveyed streams of water to it, and laid it 
out in shady groves, with gymnasia, or places of exercise, and philosophic walks. 
Among the trees were the olive, plane, and elm ; and the two last sorts had attained to 
such extraordinary size, that at the siege of Athens by Sylla, in the war with Mithridates, 
they were selected to be cut down, to supply warlike engines. In the account of these 
gardens by Pausanias we learn, that they were highly elegant, and decorated with temples, 
altars, tombs, statues, monuments, and towers ; that among the tombs were those of 
Pirithous, Theseus, CEdipus, and Adrastes; and at the entrance was the first altar 
dedicated to love. 

25. The passages of the Greek writers which relate to gardens have been amply illustrated 
by the learned German antiquarian Ba3ttinger (Racemazionen zur Gartenkunst der 
Altai) ; on which it may be remarked, that the qualities chiefly enlarged on are, shade, 
coolness, freshness, breezes, fragrance, and repose effects of gardening which are felt 
and relished at an earlier period of human civilisation than picturesque beauty, or other 
poetical and comparatively artificial associations with external scenery ; for though 
gardening as a merely useful art may claim priority to every other, yet as an art of 
imagination, it is one of the last which has been brought to perfection. In fact, its 
existence as such an art, depends on the previous existence of pastoral poetry and 
mental cultivation ; for what is nature to an uncultivated mind ? 

SECT. VII. Gardening in the ages of Antiquity, as to Fruits, Culinary Productions, and 


26. The first vegetable production which attracted man's attention as an article of food, 
is supposed to have been the fruit of some tree ; and the idea of removing such a tree to a 
spot, and enclosing and cultivating it near his habitation, is thought to be abundantly 
natural to man, and to have first given rise to gardens. All the writers of antiquity agree 
in putting the fig at the head of the fruit-trees that were first cultivated. The vine is the 
next in order, the fruit of which serves not only for food, like that of the fig, but also for 
drink. Noah the Jewish Bacchus, and Osiris the Bacchus of the Egyptians and Greeks, 
are alike placed in the very first age of the postdiluvian world. The almond and pome- 
granate were early cultivated in Canaan (Gen. xliii. 5. 11. and Numb. xx. 5.), and it 
appears by the complaints of the Israelites in the wilderness, that the fig, grape, pomegra- 
nate, and melon, were known in Egypt from time immemorial. 

27. The first herbage made use of by man, would be the most succulent leaves or stalks 
which the surface around him afforded ; of these every country has some plants which are 
succulent even in a wild state, as the chenopodeae. Sea cale, and asparagus, were known to 
the Greeks from the earliest ages, and still abound in Greece, the former on the sandy plains, 
and the latter on the sea shores. One of the laws of Solon prohibits women from eating 
crambe in child-bed. Of the green seeds of herbage plants, the bean and other legu- 
minoseae were evidently the first in use, and it is singular that Pythagoras should have 
forbidden the use of beans to his pupils because they were so much of the nature of flesh ; 
or, in the language of modern chemistry, because they contained so much vegeto-animal 

28. The first roots, or rootlike parts of plants made use of, must have been some of the 
surface bulbs, as the onion, (Numb. xi. 5.) and the edible crocus (C. aureus, Fl. Grtec.} of 
Syria. Underground bulbs and tubers, as the orchis, potatoe, and earthnut, would be 
next discovered : and ramose roots, as those of the lucerne in Persia, and arracacha (Ligus- 
ticum sj). /*) in Mexico, would be eagerly gnawed wherever they could be got at. Bulbs of 
culture, as the turnip, would be of much later discovery, and must at first have been found 
only in temperate climates. 

29. The use of plants for preternatural, religious, funereal, medical, and scientific pur- 
poses, like every other use, is of the remotest antiquity. Rachel demanded from her 
sister the mandrakes (Mandragora ojficinalis, W.) (Jig. 1. from the Flora Grczca], whose 
roots are thought to resemble the human form, which Reuben had brought from the fields ; 
impressed, as she no doubt was, with the idea of the efficacy of that plant against sterility. 
Bundles of flowers covered the tables of the Greeks, and were worn during repasts, be- 
cause the plants, of which they consisted, were supposed to possess the virtue of preserving 
the wearer from the fumes of wine, of refreshing the thinking faculty, preserving the 
purity of ideas, and the gaiety of the spirits. - Altars were strewed with flowers both 
by Jews and Greeks ; they were placed on high places, and under trees, as old clothes 
are still sacrificed on the trunks of the Platanus in Georgia and Persia. God appeared 
to Moses in a bush. Jacob was embalmed, in all probability, with aromatic herbs. 

B 4 



PART f. 

Aristotle's materia medica was chiefly plants. 
Solomon wrote on botany as a philosopher, and 
appears to have cultivated a general collection, 
independently of his plants of ornament. 

30. Floivers, as decorations, must have been 
very soon used ori account of their brilliant colors 
and smell. The Greeks, Theophrastus informs 
us, (Hist. Plant, lib. vi. c. 5. ) cultivated roses, 
gilly-flowers, violets, narcissi, and the iris ; and 
we read in Aristophanes (Achani. v. 212.), that 
a market for flowers was held at Athens, where 
the baskets were very quickly disposed of. From 
the writings of other authors, we learn that a con- 
tinual use was made of flowers throughout all 
Greece. Not only were they then, as now, the 
ornament of beauty, and of the altars of the gods, 
but youth crowned themselves with them in the 
ftes : priests in religious ceremonies ; and guests 
in convivial meetings. Garlands of flowers were 
suspended from the gates in times of rejoicing ; 
and, what is still more remarkable, and more 
remote from our manners, the philosophers them- 
selves wore crowns of flowers, and the warriors 
ornamented their foreheads with them in days of 
triumph. These customs existed in every part 
of the East. There were at Athens, as after- 
wards at Rome, florists, whose business it was to 
weave crowns (coronarue) and wreaths of flowers. 

Some of these crowns and garlands were of one species of flower; others of different 
species ; or of branches of peculiar plants, relating to some symbolical or mythological 
idea. Hence the term, coronarue, was applied to such plants as were consecrated to those 
uses, and of which some were cultivated, and others gathered in the fields ; but the name 
was applied to all such as were distinguished by the beauty or fragrance of their flowers. 
{Curt. Spreng. Hist. R. Herb. lib. i. & ii. ; Paschalis de Coronis, lib. x. ; Sabina by 
Battinger, in N. Mon. Mag. Jan. and Feb. 1819. ; Theojrfirastus by Stackhouse, c.) 

31. The first implement used in cultivating the soil, all antiquarians agree, must have been 
of the pick kind. A medal of the greatest antiquity, dug up in the island of Syracuse, 
contained the impression of such an implement (fig. 2. a). Some of the oldest Egyptian 

hieroglyphics have similar representations (6) ; and Eckeberg has figured what may be 
considered as the primitive spade of China (c). In the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, when Peru was discovered by the Spaniards, the gardeners of that country had no 
other spade than a pointed stick, of which the more industrious made use of two at a time. 
(d) The Chinese implement bears the highest marks of civilisation, since it has a hilt or 
cross handle, and a tread for the foot ; and consequently supposes the use of shoes or 
sandals by the operator, and an erect position of his body. The Roman spade (ligo\ 
those of Italy (zappa), and of France (becJie}, are either flattened or two-clawed picks, 
which are worked entirely by the arms, and keep the operator constantly bent almost to 
the ground ; or long-handled wooden spatula? also worked solely by the arms, but with 
the body in a more erect position. Both kinds equally suppose a bare-footed operator, 
like the Grecian and Peruviafi gardeners, and those of Prance and Italy at the present day. 


32. It is said that the browsing of a goat gave the first idea of pruning the vine, as chance, 
which had set fire to a rose-tree, according to Acosta (Histoire Nat. dcs Indes], gave 
the first idea of pruning the rose. Theophrastus informs us that fire was applied to the 
rose-trees in Greece to enrich them, and that without that precaution they would bear no 

33. The origin of the art of grafting has been very unsatisfactorily accounted for by 
Pliny and Lucretius. The crossing, rubbing, and subsequent growing together of 
two branches of a crowded tree or thicket, are more likely to have originated the 
idea; but when this was first noticed, and how grafting came to be used for the 
amelioration of fruits, will probably ever remain a secret. Macrobius, a Roman author 
of the fifth century, according to the taste of his time, says, Saturn taught the art to the 
inhabitants of Latium. It does not appear to have been known to the Persians, or the 
Greeks, in the time of Homer, or Hesiod ; nor, according to Chardin, is it known to the 
Persians at this day. Grafting was not known in China till very lately ; it was shown 
to a few gardeners by the Missionaries, as it was to the natives of Peru and South 
America, by the Spaniards. Some, however, infer from a passage in Manlius, that 
it may have been mentioned in some of Hesiod's writings, which are lost. 

34. The culture of fruits and culinary plants must have been preceded by a considerable 
degree of civilisation. Moses gave some useful directions to his people on the culture of the 
vine and olive. For the first three years, they are not to be allowed to ripen any fruit ; the 
produce of the fourth year is for the Lord or his priests ; and it is not till the fifth year 
that it may be eaten by the planter. This must have contributed materially to their 
strength and establishment in the soil. The fruit-trees in the gardens of Alcinous were 
planted in quincunx ; there were hedges for shelter and security, and the pot-herbs and 
flowers were planted in beds ; the whole so contrived as to be irrigated. Melons in Persia 
were manured with pigeon's dung, as they are to this day in that country. After being 
sown, the melon tribe produce a bulk of food sooner than any other plant; hence 
the value of this plant in seasons of scarcity, and the high price of doves' dung during 
the famine in Samaria (2 Kings, vi. 25.), when a cab, not quite three pints of corn mea- 
sure, cost five pieces of silver. 


Chronological History of Gardening, from the time of the Roman Kings, in the sixth .century 
. C., to the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the fifth century of our <sra. 

35. Gardening among the Romans we shall consider, 1. As an art of design or taste : 
2. In respect to the culture of flowers and plants of ornament : 3. As to its products 
for the kitchen and the dessert : 4. As to the propagation of timber-trees and hedges : and 
5. As a science, and as to the authors it has produced. In general it will be found 
that the Romans copied their gardening from the Greeks, as the latter did from the 
Persians, and that gardening like every other art extended with civilisation from east to 

SECT. I. Roman Gardening as an Art of Design and Taste. 

36. The first mention of a garden in the Roman History is that of Tarquinius Super- 
bus, B. C. 534, by Livy and Dionysius Halicarnassus. From what they state, it can 
only be gathered that it was adjoining to the royal palace, and abounded with flowers, 
chiefly roses and poppies. The next in the order of time are those of Lucullus, situated 
near Baiae, in the bay of Naples. They were of a magnificence and expense rivalling 
that of the eastern monarchs ; and procured to this general, the epithet of the Roman 
Xerxes. They consisted of vast edifices projecting into the sea ; of immense artificial 
elevations ; of plains formed where mountains formerly stood ; and of vast pieces of 
water, which it was the fashion of that time to dignify with the pompous titles of Nilus 
and Euripus. Lucullus had made several expeditions to the eastern part of Asia, and 
it is probable, he had there contracted a taste for this sort of magnificence. Varro 
ridicules these works for their amazing sumptuosity ; and Cicero makes his friend Atticus 
hold cheap those magnificent waters, in comparison with the natural stream of the river 
Fibrenus, where a small island accidentally divided it. (De Legibus, lib. ii. ) Lucullus, 
however, had the merit of introducing the cherry, the peach, and the apricot from the 
East, a benefit which still remains to mankind. (Plutarch in vita Luculli ; Sallust ; and 
Varro de Re Rustica.} 

37. Of the gardens of the Augustan age of Virgil and Horace, generally thought to be 
that in which taste and elegance were eminently conspicuous, we know but little. In a 
garden described by the former poet in his Gcorgics (lib. iv. 121.), he places only 


chicory, cucumbers, ivy, acanthus, myrtle, narcissus, and roses. Both Virgil and Pro- 
pertius mention the culture of the pine-tree as beloved by Pan, the tutelar deity of 
gardens ; and that the shade of the plane, from the thickness of its foliage, was particu- 
larly agreeable, and well adapted for convivial meetings. The myrtle and the bay they 
describe as in high esteem for their odor ; and to such a degree of nicety had they 
arrived in this particular, that the composition or mixture of odoriferous trees became a 
point of study ; and those trees were planted adjoining each other, whose odors assimi- 
lated together. Open groves in hot countries are particularly desirable for their shade, 
and they seem to have been the only sort of plantation of forest-trees then in use. From 
Cicero and the elder Pliny, we learn that the quincunx manner of planting them was 
very generally adopted ; and from Martial, that the manner of clipping trees was first 
introduced by Cneus Matius, a friend of Augustus. Statues and fountains, according to 
Propertius, came into vogue about the same time, some of them casting out water in the 
way of jets-d'eau, to occasion surprise, as was afterwards much practised in Italy in the 
dawn of gardening in the sixteenth century. 

38. The gardens and pleasure'grounds of Pliny the consul are described at length 
in his Letters, and delineations of their ichnography have been published by Felibien 
in 1699, and by Castell in 1728. Some things, which could only be supplied by the 
imagination, are to be found in both these authors ; but on the whole their plans, 
especially those of Castell, may be considered as conveying a tolerably correct idea of 
a first-rate Roman villa, as in die Laurentinum, and of an extensive country-residence, 
as in the Thuscum. 

39. The Villa Laurentinum was a winter residence on the Tiber, between Rome 
and the sea ; the situation is near Paterno, seventeen miles from Rome, and is now 
called San Lorenzo. The garden was small, and is but slightly described. It was 
surrounded by hedges of box, and where that had failed, by rosemary. There were 
platforms and terraces ; and figs, vines, and mulberries were the fruit-trees. Pliny 
seems to have valued this retreat chiefly from its situation relatively to Rome and the 
surrounding country, which no walls, fortresses, or belt of wood, hid from his view. On 
this region he expatiates with delight, pointing out all " the beauty of his woods, his rich 
meadows covered with cattle, the bay of Ostia, the scattered villas upon its shore, and 
the blue distance of the mountains ; his porticoes and seats for different views, and his 
favorite little cabinet in which they were all united. So great was Pliny's attention in 
thjs particular, that he not only contrived to see some part of this luxurious landscape 
from every room in his house, but even while he was bathing, and when he reposed him- 
self ! for he tells us of a couch which had one view at the head, another at the feet, and 
another at the back." (Preface to Malthus's Introduction to Girardin's Essay, &c. p. 20.) 
We may add with Eustace and other modern travellers, that the same general appear- 
ance of woods and meadows exists there to this day. 

40. Pliny's Thuscum, or Tusculan Villa (Jig. 3. ), now Frascati, was situated in a 
natural amphitheatre of the Apennines, whose lofty summits were then, as now, crowned 
with forests of oak, and their fertile sides richly covered with corn-fields, vineyards, 
copses, and villas. Pliny's description of this retreat, though well known, is of import- 
ance, as showing what was esteemed good taste in the gardens and grounds of a highly 
accomplished Roman nobleman and philosopher, towards the end of the first century, 
under the reign of Trajan, when Rome was still in all her glory, and the mistress of the 
world in arts and in arms. 

41. A general tour of the Tusculan Gardens is given by Malthus and Dr. Fal- 
coner. Their extent, Malthus thinks, may have been from three to four acres, and 
their situation round the house. 

Beginning there, the xystus or terrace (5), says the author of the Historical Essay, is described as in 
the front of the portico, and near to the house ; from this descended a lawn covered with acanthus or 
moss (13), and adorned with figures of animals cut out in box-trees, answering alternately to one another. 
This lawn was again surrounded by a walk enclosed with tonsil evergreens sheared into a variety of forms. 
Beyond this was a place of exercise (2), of a circular form, ornamented in the middle with box-trees 
sheared as before into numberless different figures, together with a plantation of shrubs kept low by clip- 
ping. The whole was fenced in by a wall covered by box rising in different ranges to the top. 

Proceeding from another quarter of the house, there was a small space of ground, shaded by four 
plane-trees (7), with a fountain in the centre, which, overflowing a marble basin, watered the trees and 
the verdure beneath them. Opposite to another part of the building was a plantation of trees, in form of 
a hippodrome (6), formed of box and plane trees alternately planted, and connected together by ivy. Be- 
hind these were placed bay-trees, and the ends of the hippodrome, which were semicircular, were formed 
of cypress (8). The internal walks were bordered with rose-trees, and were in a winding direction, which 
however terminated in a straight path, which again branched into a variety of others, separated from one 
another by box-hedges ; and these, to the great satisfaction of the owner, were sheared into a variety of 
shapes and letters (10), some expressing the name of the master, others that of the artificer, while here and 
there small obelisks were placed, intermixed with fruit-trees. 

Further on was another walk, ornamented with trees sheared as above described, at the upper end of 
which was an alcove of white marble shaded by vines, and supported by marble pillars, from the seat of 
which recess issued several streams of water, intended to appear as if pressed out by the weight of those 
which reposed upon it, which water was again received in a basin, that was so contrived as to seem al- 
ways full without overflowing. Corresponding to this was a fountain, or jet ePeau, that threw out water 
to a considerable height, and which ran off as fast as it was thrown out. An elegant marble summer- 




house opening into a green enclosure, and furnished with a fountain similar to that last described, fronted 
the above. Throughout the walks were scattered marble seats, near to each of which was a little fountain ; 
and throughout the whole small rills of water were artificially conducted among the walks, that served to 
entertain the ear with their murmurs as well as to water the garden. (Historical View, &c. p. 53. ; Pliny'3 
Epistles, b. v. letter 6. j Felibien, Plans et Descr. ,- CasteWs Villas of the Ancients.) 

42. The details of the Tusculan Villa are thus given by Castell. (Fig. 3.) 

( 1 ) Villa, or house. 

( 2 ) Gestatio, or place of exercise for chariots. 

( 3 ) Ambulatio, or walk surrounding the terr 

( 4 ) The sloiM.', with the forms of beasts cut in box. 

( 5 ) The xystus, or terrace, before the porticus, and on the 
sides of the house. 

( 6 ) The hipixxlrome, or plain so called, on the north side of 
the house. 

( 7 | Plane trees on the straight bounds of the hippodrome. 

( 8 ) Cypress trees 011 the semicircular bounds of the hippo- 

( 9 ) The stibadium and other buildings in the garden. 

(10) KOI cut into names and other forms. 

ill) The pratulum, or little meadow in the garden. 

(12) The imitation of the natural face of some country In the 

(13) Ths walk, covered with acanthus or moss. 

14) The meadows before the gestatio. 

15) The tops of the hills, covered with aged trees. 

16) The underwood on the declivities of the lulls. 

17) Vinevards below the underwood. 
IS) Corn-fields. 

19) The river Tiber. 

20) The temple of Ceres, built by Mustius. 

21) The farmery. 
(22) Vivarium, or park. 
(25) Kitchen-garden. 

(24) Orchard. 

(25) Apiary. 

f'^ti) i o<-hlearium, or snailery. 

(27) Glirarium, or place for dormice. 

(28) Osier-ground. 

(29) Aqueduct. 

(ViUat qf the Ancient*, p. &!., and Plate Tkucfum. 


That the style of Pliny's villas gave the tone to the European taste in gardening up 
nid of the 17th century is sufficiently obvious. It is almost superfluous to remark. 

to the end of the 1 7th century is sufficiently ob 


observes the author of the Historical View, the striking resemblance which Pliny's 
gardens bear to the French or Dutch taste. The terraces adjoining to the house ; the 
lawn declining from thence ; the little flower-garden, with the fountain in the centre ; 
the walks bordered with box, and the trees sheared into whimsical artificial forms ; toge- 
ther with the fountains, alcoves, and summer-houses, form a resemblance too striking to 
bear dispute. " In an age," observes Lord Walpole, " when architecture displayed all its 
grandeur, all its purity, and all its taste ; when arose Vespasian's amphitheatre, the 
temple of Peace, Trajan's forum, Domitian's bath, and Adrian's villa, the ruins and 
vestiges of which still excite our astonishment and curiosity ; a Roman consul, a polished 
emperor's friend, and a man of elegant literature and taste, delighted in what the mob 
now scarcely admire in a college-garden. All the ingredients of Pliny's garden corre- 
spond exactly with those laid out by London and Wise on Dutch principles ; so that 
nothing is wanting but a parterre to make a garden in the reign of Trajan serve for the 
description of one in the reign of King William." The open country round a villa was 
managed, as the Roman agricultural writers inform us, in the common field system lately 
prevalent in Britain ; there were few or no hedges, or other fences, or rows of trees, but 
what was not under forest was in waste, with patches of fallow or corn. Thus it appears 
that the country residence of an ancient Roman, not only as to his garden, as Lord Wal- 
pole has observed, but even as to the views and prospects from his house, as Eustace 
and Malthus hint, bore a very near resemblance to the chateau of a French or German 
nobleman in the 18th century, and to not a few in France and Italy at the present day. 
The same taste as that displayed by Pliny appears to have prevailed till the fall of the 
Roman empire ; and by existing in a faint degree in the gardens of religious houses 
during the dark ages, as well as in Pliny's writings, has thus been handed down to 
modern times. 

44. The progress of gardening among the Romans was much less than that of architecture. 
Professor Hirschfield remarks ( Theorie des Jardins, torn. i. p. 25.), that as the descriptions 
of the ancient Roman authors make us better acquainted with their country-houses than, 
with their gardens, and as the former appear more readily submitted to certain rules than 
the latter, we are apt to bestow on the gardens the reputation which really belongs to the 
country-houses, and give the one a value which does not belong to the other. The 
different manner in which the ancients speak of country-houses and of gardens, may 
lead us to judge which of the two objects had attained the highest degree of perfection. 
The descriptions of the first are not only more numerous but more detailed. Gardens are 
only mentioned in a general manner ; and the writer rests satisfied with bestowing appro- 
bation on their fertility and charms. Every country-house had its gardens in the days 
of Pliny ; and it is not too much, taking this circumstance in connection with the re- 
marks of Columella, to hazard a conjecture that even the Romans themselves considered 
their gardens less perfect than their houses. Doubtless the Roman authors, so attentive 
to elevate the glory of their age in every thing concerning the fine arts, would have en- 
larged more on this subject, if they had been able to produce any thing of importance. 
To decide as to the perfection which a nation has attained in one of the arts, by their 
perfection in another, is too hazardous a judgment ; the error has been already committed 
in regard to the music of the ancients, and must not be repeated in judging of their gardens. 
The Romans appear in general to have turned their attention to every thing which 
bore the impression of grandeur and magnificence; hence their passion for building 
baths, circuses, colonnades, statues, reservoirs, and other objects which strike the eye. 
Besides, this taste was more easily satisfied, and more promptly, than a taste for plant- 
ations, which required time and patience. In all probability the greater number contented 
themselves with the useful products of the soil, and the natural beauty of the views, 
bestowing the utmost attention to the selection of an elevated site commanding distant 
scenery. Cicero (De Legg. iii. 15.) informs us that it was in their country- villas that 
the Romans chiefly delighted in displaying their magnificence ; and in this respect, the 
coincidence in habits between ourselves and that great people is a proud circumstance. 

45. The Roman taste in gardens has been condemned as unnatural ; but such criticism 
we consider as proceeding from much too limited a view of the subject. Because the 
Roman gardens were considered as scenes of art, and treated as such, it does not follow 
that the possessors were without a just feeling for natural scenery. Where all around 
is nature, artificial scenes even of the most formal description will please, and may be 
approved of by the justest taste, from their novelty, contrast, and other associations. 
If all England were a scattered forest like ancient Italy, and cultivation were to take 
place only in the open glades or plains, where would be the beauty of our parks and 
picturesque grounds ? The relative or temporary beauties of art should therefore not be 
entirely rejected in our admiration of the more permanent and absolute beauties of nature. 
That the ancient Romans admired natural scenery with as great enthusiasm as the 
moderns, is evident from the writings of their eminent poets and philosophers ; scarcely 
one of whom has not in some part of his works left us the most beautiful descriptions 


of natural scenery, and the most enthusiastic strains of admiration of all that is grand, 
pleasing, or romantic in landscape ; and some of them, as Cicero and Juvenal, have 
deprecated the efforts of art in attempting to improve nature. " Whoever," says 
G. Mason, " would properly estimate the attachment to rural picturesque among the 
heathen nations of old, should not confine their researches to the domains of men, but 
extend them to the temples and altars, the caves and fountains dedicated to their deities. 
These, with their concomitant groves, were generally favorite objects of visual pleasure, 
as well as of veneration. " (Essay on Design, p. 24.) 

SECT. II. Roman Gardening considered as to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of 


46. Flowers were rare in Roman gardens under the kings, and during the first ages of 
the republic. But as luxury began to be introduced, and finally prevailed to a great de- 
gree, the passion for flowers became so great that it was found necessary to suppress it by 
sumptuary laws. The use of crowns of flowers was forbid to such as had not received 
the right to use them, either by the eminence of their situation, or by the particular per- 
mission of the magistrates. Some acts of rigor towards offenders did not hinder their 
laws from being first eluded, and at last forgotten, till that which was originally a distinc- 
tion became at last a general ornament. Men the most elevated in dignity did not hesitate 
to set up that elegance of dress and of ornament which is repugnant to the idea of a war- 
like people ; and Cicero, in his third harangue against Verres, reproaches this proconsul 
with having made the tour of Sicily in a litter, seated on roses, having a crown of flowers 
on his head, and a garland at his back. 

47. The Floralia, or flower -feasts, were observed on the last four days of April; they 
were attended with great indecency, but they show that the common people also carried 
a taste for flowers to excess. (Pliny, xiii. 29. ; Tertullian. Opera.) 

48. The luxury of flowers under Augustus was carried to the extreme of folly. Helio- 
gabalus caused his beds, his apartments, and the porticoes of his palace to be strewed with 
flowers. Among these, roses were the sort chiefly employed, the taste for that flower 
being supposed to be introduced from Egypt, where, as Athenaeus informs us, Cleopatra 
paid a talent for the roses expended at one supper ; the floor of the apartment in which 
the entertainment was given, being strewed with them to the depth of a cubit. This, how- 
ever, is nothing to what Suetonius relates of Nero, who spent upwards of four millions of 
sesterces, or above thirty thousand pounds, at one supper, on these flowers. From Horace 
it appears that roses were cultivated in beds ; and from Martial, who mentions roses out 
of season as one of the greatest luxuries of his time, it would appear that it was then the 
caprice, as at present, to procure them prematurely, or by retardation. Columella enume- 
rates the rose, the lily, the hyacinth, and the gilly-flower, as flowers which may embellish 
the kitchen-garden ; and he mentions, in particular, a place set apart for the production 
of late roses. Pliny says, the method by which roses were produced prematurely was, 
by watering them with warm water when the bud began to appear. From Seneca and 
Martial it appears probable they were also forwarded by means of sjyecularia, like certain 
culinary productions to be afterwards mentioned. 

49- Scientific assemblages of plants, or botanic gardens, appear to have been unknown to 
the Romans, who had formed no regular system of nomenclature for the vegetable king- 
dom. Pliny informs us that Anthony Castor, one of the first physicians at Rome, had 
assembled a number of medical plants in his garden, but they were, in all probability, for 
the purposes of his profession. Between 200 and 300 plants are mentioned in Pliny's 
History, as used in agriculture, gardens, medicine, for garlands, or other purposes, and 
these appear to be all that were known or had names in general use. (Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
lib. xii. xxvi. inclusive.) 

SECT. III. Roman Gardening in respect to its Products for the Kitchen and the Dessert. 

50. The term Hortus in the laws of the Decemviri, which are supposed to be as old as 
the establishment of the Romans as a people, is used to signify both a garden and a 
country-house, but afterwards the kitchen-garden was distinguished by the appellation 
Hortus Pinguis. Pliny informs us, that a husbandman called a kitchen-garden a second 
dessert, or a flitch of bacon, which was always ready to be cut ; or a sallad, easy to be 
cooked and light of digestion, and judged there must be a bad housewife (the garden 
being her charge) in that house where the garden was in bad order. 

51. The principal fruits introduced to Italy by the Romans, according to Hirschfield 
(Theorie des Jardins, vol. i. p. 27.) and Sickler (Geschichte, 1 Sand."), are the fig 
from Syria, the citron from Media, the peach from Persia, the pomegranate from Africa, 
the apricot from Epirus, apples, pears, and plums from Armenia, and cherries from 
Pontus. The rarity and beauty of these trees, he observes (Theorie des Jardins, 
vol.i. p. 27.), joined to the delicious taste of their fruits, must have enchanted 
the Romans, especially on their first introduction, and rendered ravishing to the sight, 


gardens which became insensibly embellished with the many productions which were 
poured into them from Greece, Asia, and Africa. 

52. The fruits cultivated by the Romans, in the summit of their power y are described by 
Pliny (lib. xv.), and with the exception of the orange and pine-apple, gooseberry, cur- 
rant, and raspberry, include almost all those now in culture in Europe. 

Of kernel fruits they had, apples, twenty -two sorts at least : They had round berried and long-berried sorts, one so long that 

sweet apples (tneliinala) for eating, and others for cookery. They it was called dadyliJes, the grapes being like the fingers on the 

had one sort without kernels. Of pears, they had thirty-six hand. Martial speaks favorably of the hard-skinned grape for 

kinds, both summer and whiter fruit, melting and hard ; some eating. Of //<*, they had many sorts, black and white, large 

-were called IWralia : we have our pound pear. Of quinces, and small ; one as large as a pear, another no larger than an 

thev had three sorts, one was called chrysamela, from its yellow olive. Of muUterries, they had two kinds of the black sort, a 

flesh ; they boiled them with honey, as we make marmalade. larger and smaller. Pliny speaks also of a mulberry growing 

Of services, they had the apple-shaped, the pear-shaped, and a on a briar; but whether this means the raspberry, or the 

small kind, probably the same as we gather wild. Of medlars, common brambleberry, does not appear. Strawberries thev had, 

two sorts, larger and smaller. but do not appear to have prized : the climate is too warm to 

Of ttone fruits, they had peaches, four sorts, including nee- produce this truit in perfection, unless on the hills, 

tarines, apricots, almonds. Of plums, they had a multiplicity Of nuts thev had hazel-nuts and tilberds, which thev roasted ; 

of sorts, black, white, and variegated ; one sort was called beech, mast, pistacia, &c. Of walnuts they had soft-shellwJ 

arinia, from its cheapness; another damascena, which had and hard-shelled, as we have. In the golden age, when men 

much stone and little flesh : we may conclude it was what we lived upon acorns, the gods lived upon walnuts ; hence tlie 

now call prune*. Of cherries, they had eight kinds, a red one, name Juglaiis, Joins Giant. Of chestnuts, they had six sorts, 

a black one, a kind so tender as scarcely to bear any carriage, some more easily separated from the skin than "others, and one 

a hard-fleshed one (auracina), like our Bigarreau, a small one with a red skin ; they roasted them as we do. 

with bitterish flavor (laurea), like our little wild black, also a Of leguminous fnats, the carob bean, ccratoitia silwua. 

dwarf one not exceeding three feet high. Of the olict, several Of reeinous or terebiiithinate fruits they used the kernels of 

sorts. four sorts of pine, including, as is still the case in Tuscany, the 

Of berries they had grapes. They had a multiplicity of these, seeds of the Scotch pine. 

both thick-skinned \duradna) and thin-skinned: one vine Of aicurhHactmit fnatt, they had the gounl, encumber, niul 

growing at Rome produced 12 amphorae of juice, 84 gallons. .<;,, in great variety. 

53. The grape and the olive were cultivated as agricultural products ivitli the greatest at- 
tention, for which ample instructions are to be found in all the Roman writers on 
Geoponics. Some plantations mentioned by Pliny are supposed still to exist, as of olives 
at Terni and of vines at Fiesoli. Both these bear marks of the greatest age. 

54. The culinary vegetables cultivated by the Romans were chiefly the following : 

Of the brassica tribe, several varieties. Cabbages, Columella Of the aUiaccout tribe, the onion, and garlick of several sorts, 
says, were esteemed both by slaves and kings. QfsaUads, endive, lettuce, and chicory, mustard and others. 

Of leguminous plants, the pea, bean, and kidney-bean. Of pot and tweet herbs, parsley, orache, alisanders, dittander, 

Of esculent roots, the turnip, carrot, parsnip, beet, skirret, elecampane, fennel, and chervil, and a variety of others. 
and radish. Mushrooms, and fuci were used ; and bees, snails, dormice, 

Of spinactoui plants, they appear to have had at least sorrel. &c. were cultivated in or near to their kitchen gardens, in ap- 

Of atparaginous plants, asparagus. propriate places. 

55. The luxury of forcing vegetable productions it would appear had even been at- 
tempted by the Romans. Specularia, or plates of the lapis specularis, we are informed by 
Seneca and Pliny, could be split into thin plates, in length not exceeding five "feet (a 
remarkable circumstance, since few pieces larger than a fifth of these dimensions are now 
any where to be met with); and we learn from Columella (lib. xii. cap. 3.), Martial 
(lib. viii. 14. & 68.), and Pliny (lib. xix. 23.), that by means of these specularia, Tiberius, 
who was fond of cucumbers, had them in his garden throughout the year. They were 
grown in boxes or baskets of dung and earth, placed under these plates, and removed to 
the open air in fine days, and replaced at night. Sir Joseph Banks (Hort. Tr. i. 148.) 
conjectures, from the epigrams of Martial referred to, that both grapes and peaches were 
forced ; and Daines Barrington supposes that the Romans may not only have had hot- 
houses, but hot-walls to forward early productions. Flues, Sir Joseph Banks observes 
(Hort. Tr. i. 147), the Romans were well acquainted with; they did not use open fires in 
their apartments, as we do, but in the colder countries at least, they always had flues under 
the floors of their apartments. Lysons found the flues, and the fire-place from whence 
they received heat, in the Roman villa he has described in Gloucestershire. Similar flues 
and fire-places were also found in the extensive villa lately discovered on the Blenheim 
estate in Oxfordshire. In Italy the Romans used flues chiefly for baths or sudatories, 
and in some of these which we have seen in the disinterred Greek city of Pompeii, the 
walls round the apartment are flued, or hollow, for the circulation of hot air and smoke. 

56. The luxury of ice in cooling liquors was discovered by the Romans at the time 
when they began to force frifits. Daines Barrington notices this as a remarkable circum- 
stance, and adds, as a singular coincidence, the coeval invention of these arts in England. 

SECT. IV. Roman Gardening considered in respect to tJie Propagation and Planting of 
Timber-trees and Hedges. 

57. The Romans propagated trees by the methods now in common use in our nurseries. 
Fruit-trees were generally grafted and inoculated ; vines, figs, and olives raised by cuttings, 
layers, or suckers ; and forest-trees generally propagated by seeds and suckers. 

58. Though forest-trees were reared with great care round houses in the city (ffor. Ep* 
i. 10. 22.), yet it does not appear clear that they were planted in masses or strips expressly 
for useful purposes. They were planted in rows in vineyards on which to train the vine ; 
and the sorts generally preferred were the poplar and the elm. Natural forests and 
copses, then, as now, supplied timber and fuel. Trees which do not stole (arbores cceduce), 
were distinguished from such as being cut over spring up again (succiste repullulant} : of 
the former class was the larch, which was most in use as timber. Pliny mentions a beam 
120 feet long and 2 feet thick. 


59. Willows were cultivated for binding the vines to the trees that supported them ; 
for hedges ; and for making baskets ( Virg. G. ii. 4. 36.) : moist ground was preferred for 
growing them, Udum salictum. 

60. Hedges were of various sorts, but we are not informed what were the plants 
grown in those used for defence. They surrounded chiefly vineyards and gardens ; for 
agriculture was then, as now, carried on in the common or open field manner. 

SECT. V. Roman Gardening as a Science, and as to the Authors it produced. 

61. The gardening of the Romans ivas entirely empirical, and carried on with all 
the superstitious observations dictated by a religion founded on polytheism. Almost 
every operation had its god, who was to be invoked or propitiated on all occasions. " I 
will write for your instruction," says Varro to Fundasius, " three books on husbandry, 
first invoking the twelve dii consentes." After enumerating the gods which preside over 
household matters, and the common field operations, he adds, " adoring Venus as the 
patroness of the garden, and offering my entreaties to Lympha, because culture is 
drough't and misery without water." The elements of agriculture, he says, are the same 
as those of the world water, earth, air, and the sun. Agriculture is a necessary and 
great art, and it is a science which teaches what is to be planted and done in every 
ground, and what lands yield the greatest profit. It should aim at utility and pleasure, 
by producing things profitable and agreeable, &c. 

62. Lunar days were observed, and also lucky and unlucky days, as described by 
Hesiod. Some things, Varro observes, are to be done in the fields while the moon is 
increasing ; others on the contrary when she is decreasing, as the cutting of corn and 
underwood. At the change of the moon pull your beans before daylight ; to prevent 
rats and mice from preying on a vineyard, prune the vines in the night-time : sow vetches 
before the twenty-fifth day of the moon, &c. " I observe these things," says Agrasius, 
(one of fifty authors who Varro says had written on husbandry, but whose writings are 
now lost,) " not only in shearing my sheep, but in cutting my hair, for I might become 
bald if I did not do this in the wane of the moon." 

63. Religion and magic were also called in to the aid of the cultivator. Columella says 
that husbandmen who are more religious than ordinary, when they sow turnips, pray 
that they may grow both for themselves and for their neighbours. If caterpillars attack 
them, Democritus affirms that a woman going with her hair loose, and bare-footed, 
three times round each bed will kill them. Women must be rarely admitted where 
cucumbers or gourds are planted, for commonly green things languish and are checked 
in their growth by their handling of them. 

64. Of vegetable physiology they seem to have been very ignorant. It was a doctrine 
held by Virgil, Columella, and Pliny, that any scion may be grafted on any stock ; and 
that the scion partaking of the nature of the stock, had its fruit changed in flavor accord- 
ingly. Pliny mentions the effect of grafting the vine on the elm, and of drawing a vine 
shoot through the trunk of a chestnut ; but modern experience proves that no faith is to be 
given to such doctrines, even though some of these authors affirm to have seen what 
they describe. 

65. Equivocal generation was believed in. Some barren trees and shrubs, as the 
poplar, willow, osier, and broom, were thought to grow spontaneously ; others by 
fortuitous seeds, as the chestnut and oak ; some from the roots of other sorts of trees, as 
the cherry, elm, bay, &c. Notwithstanding the ignorance and inaccuracy which their 
statements betray, the Romans were aware of all our common, and some of our uncom- 
mon practices : they propagated plants as we do ; pruned and thinned, watered, forced, 
and retarded fruits and blossoms, and even made incisions and ringed trees to induce 

66. There is no Roman author exclusively on gardening, but the subject is treated, more 
or less, by Cato, Varro, Virgil, Pliny, and Columella. 

Cato and Varro lived, the former B. C. 150, and the latter B. C. 28 : both wrote treatises on rural affairs, 
De Re Rustica ; but, excepting what relates to the vine and the fig, have little on the subject of gardens. 

Virgil's Georgics appeared in the century preceding the commencement of our aera. Virgil was born in 
Mantua about B. C. 70 ; but lived much at Rome and Naples. He appears to have taken most of his 
ideas from Cato and Varro. 

Pliny's Natural History was written in the first century of our sera. Pliny was born at or near Rome, 
and lived much at court. The.twelfth to the twenty-sixth book inclusive are chiefly on husbandry, gardens, 
trees, and medical plants, 

.The Rural (Economy of Columella is in twelve books, of which the eleventh, on Gardening, is in verse. 
He was born at Gades, now Cadiz, in Spain, but passed most of his time in Italy. 



CJironological History of Gardening, in continental Europe from the Time of the Romans 
to the present Day, or from A. D. 500 to A. D. 1823. 

67. The decline of the Roman Empire commenced with the reign of the emperors. 
The ages, Hirschfield observes, which followed the fall of the republic, the violence 
committed by several of the emperors, the invasion of the barbarians, and the ferocity 
introduced by the troubles of the times, extinguished a taste for a country life, in pro- 
portion as they destroyed the means of enjoying it. So many injuries falling on the 
best provinces of the Roman empire, one after another, soon destroyed the country- 
houses and gardens. Barbarism triumphed over man and the arts, arms again became 
the reigning occupation, superstition allied itself to warlike inclinations, and spread 
over Europe a manner of thinking far removed from the noble simplicity of nature. 
The mixture of so many different nations in Italy did not a little contribute to corrupt 
the taste ; the possessions of the nobles remaining without defence, were soon pillaged 
and razed, and the earth was only cultivated from necessity. Soon afterwards the first 
countries were considered those where one convent raised itself beside another. Archi- 
tecture was only employed in chapels and churches, or on warlike forts and castles. 
From the establishment of the ecclesiastical government of the Popes in the eighth to the 
end of the twelfth century, the monks were almost the only class in Europe who occu- 
pied themselves in agriculture ; many of these, carried away by their zeal, fled from the 
corruption of the age, and striving to overcome their passions, or indulge their gloomy 
humor, or, as Herder observes, to substitute one passion for another, retired into 
solitary deserts, unhealthy valleys, forests, and mountains ; there they labored with 
their own hands, and rendered fertile, lands till then barren from neglect, or in a state of 
natural rudeness. 

68. Thus the arts of culture were preserved by the monks during the dark ages. The 
sovereigns, in procuring pardon of their sins by bestowing on the monks extensive tracts 
of country and slaves, recompensed their activity as rural improvers. The monks 
of St. Basil and St. Benedict, Harte informs us, rendered many tracts fertile in Italy, 
Spain, and the south of France, which had lain neglected ever since the first incursions of 
the Goths and Saracens. Others were equally active in Britain in ameliorating the soil. 
Walker (Essays') informs us that even in the remote island of lona, an extensive estab- 
lishment of monks was formed in the sixth century, and that the remains of a corn-mill 
and mill-dam built by them still exist ; and indeed it is not too much to affirm, that 
without the architectural and rural labors of this class of men, many provinces of Europe 
which at present nourish thousands of inhabitants would have remained deserts or 
marshes, the resorts only of wild beasts, and the seminaries of disease ; and architecture 
and gardening, as arts of design, instead of being very generally diffused, would have 
been lost to the greater part of Europe. 

69. At length the dawn of light appeared with the art of printing, Luther, and Hen. VIII. 
Commerce began to flourish in Italy and Holland, arts of peace began to prevail, and 
the European part of what was formerly the Roman empire gradually assumed these 
political divisions which it for the greater part still retains. We shall take a cursory 
view of the progress of gardening in each of these states, from the dark ages to the present 

SECT. I. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Italy. 

70. The blessings of peace and of commerce, the remains of ancient grandeur still 
existing, and the liberty which some cities had acquired through the generosity and splen- 
dor of some popes and princes, united with other causes in the revival of the arts in Italy 
rather than in any other country. 

SUBSECT. 1. Italian Gardening, in respect to Design and Taste. 

71. The earliest notice of Italian gardening is in the work of Pierre de Crescent, a 
senator of Bologna. He composed in the beginning of the fourteenth century a work 
on agriculture, which he dedicated to Charles II. king of Naples and Sicily. In the 
eighth book of this work the author treats of gardens of pleasure. These he divides 
into three classes ; those of persons of small fortune : those of persons in easy circum- 
stances ; and those of princes and kings. He teaches the mode of constructing 
and ornamenting each ; and of the royal gardens observes, that they ought to have 
a menagerie and an aviary ; the latter placed among thickets, arbors, and vines. Each 
of the three classes ought to be decorated with turf, shrubs, and aromatic flowers. 

72. Gardening, with the other arts, was revived and patronised by the Medici family in the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, and the most celebrated gardens of these times, as 
Roscoe informs us, were those of Lorenzo de Medici, and of the wealthy Bernard Ru- 


cellai. They were in the geometric and architectural taste of those of Pliny, and served 
as models or precedents for other famous gardens which succeeded them till within the 
last sixty years, when, as Eustace observes, a mixture of the modern or natural-like 
manner was generally admitted. 

73. The taste for distributing statues and urns in gardens is said to .have been revived 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century by Cardinal D'Este, from the accidental 
circumstance of his having formed a villa on the site of that of the emperor Adrian, 
near Rome, where finding a number of antiquities, he distributed them over the newly 
arranged surface. This mode was soon imitated by Francis I. of France, and afterwards 
by the other countries of Europe. Gardens of plants in pots and vases, began to be 
introduced about the same time, and were used to decorate apartments, balconies, and 
roofs of houses as at present. 

74. About the end of the sixteenth century, the celebrated Montaigne travelled in Italy, 
and has left us some accounts of the principal gardens of that age. He chiefly enlarges 
on their curious hydraulic devices, for which the garden of the Cardinal de Ferrara at 
Tivoli was remarkable. (Jour, en ItaL torn, ii.) 

75. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, Z,' Adamo, a poem, was written and 
published at Milan in 1617, by G. B. Andreini, a Florentine. The prints, Warton 
observes, (Essay on Pope,} that are to represent paradise are full of dipt hedges, square 
parterres, straight walks, trees uniformly lopt, regular knots and carpets of flowers, groves 
nodding at groves, marble fountains, and water-works. This may be considered as a poetic 
assemblage of the component parts of a fine Italian garden in the seventeenth century. 

76. After the middle of the seventeenth century, the celebrated Evelyn, the author of 
Sylva, visited Italy, and has described a number of its principal gardens. 

At Genoa he saw the palace of Hieronymo del Negro, " on the terrace or hilly garden, there is a grove of 
stately trees, among which are sheep, shepherds, and wild beasts, cut very artificially in a grey stone ; 
fountains, rocks, and fish-ponds. Casting your eyes one way, you would imagine yourself in a wilder- 
ness and silent country ; sideways, in the heart of a great city." 

At and near Florence, he says, there are more than a thousand palaces, and country-houses of note. 
He particularises those of Boboli at the ducal residence (now the palace Pitti), in the town, which still 
exist and are kept in tolerable order. 

In and near Rome, he mentions those of the Borghese family, and of Cardinal Aldobrandini at Frascati, 
" surpassing, in my opinion, the most delicious places I ever beheld for its situation, elegance, plentiful 
waters, groves, ascents, and prospects." He admires several hydraulic conceits, some of which still exist, 
and also that " of a copper ball, supported by a jet of air issuing from the floor, and continually 
dancing about." 

At Tivoli he visited the palace and gardens of Este, which are mentioned with similar encomiums. 

Of the palaces and gardens of Lombardy, he observes, " No disgrace in this country to be some gener- 
ations in finishing their palaces, that, without exhausting themselves by a vast expence at once, they may 
at last erect a sumptuous pile." " An Italian nobleman," Forsyth remarks, " will live on a crown a day, 
but spend millions for the benefit of posterity, and the ornament of his country." 

At Vilmarini, near Vicenza, he found an orangery, " eleven score paces long, full of fruit and blossoms. 
In the centre of the garden, a magnificent wire cupola, supported by slender brick piers, and richly covered 
with ivy. A most inextricable labyrinth." (Memoirs by Bray, vol. i. 75 207.) 

77. In the beginning of the eighteenth century Italy was visited by Volkman, a German 
traveller, whom Hirschfield considers as deserving credit, and a good judge. He repre- 
sents the Italian gardens as inferior to those of France in point of superb alleys, lofty dipt 
hedges, and cabinets of verdure ; but, he adds, that they please the greater part of tra- 
vellers from the north of Europe, more than the French gardens, from the greater variety 
of plants which they contain, and their almost perpetual luxuriance and verdure. 
Among the fine gardens, he includes those of Venerie, Stupigni, and Vigne de la Reine, 
near Turin, which do not appear to have been visited by Evelyn. The beauties of most 
of the gardens near Rome, he considers as depending more on their situations, distant 
views, classic remains and associations, luxuriant vegetation, and fine climate, than on 
their design, which, he says, exhibits " all the puerilities of the French taste, without its 
formal grandeur." (Nachrichten von Italien, 1 ster band.} 

78. About the middle of the eighteenth century the English style of gardening began to 
attract attention in Italy, though partly from the general stagnation of mind, and partly 
from the abundance of natural beauty already existing, it has never made much progress 
in that country. Unfortunately," observes Eustace (Tour, i. 426.), a traveller abun- 
dantly partial to Italy, " the modern Romans, like the continental nations in general, are 
not partial to country residence. They may enjoy the description or commend the 
representation of rural scenes and occupations in books and pictures ; but they feel not 
the beauties of nature, and cannot relish the calm, the solitary charms of a country life." 
The Italians in general, he elsewhere adds (i. 98.), have very little taste in furnishing a 
house, or in laying out grounds to advantage. Notwithstanding these remarks, and the 
known paucity of specimens of landscape gardening in Italy, an Italian author of 
eminence, Professor Malacarne of Padua, has lately claimed for Charles Imanuel, first 
Duke of Savoy, the honor of having invented and first displayed an English garden or 
park in the neighbourhood of Turin ; and which park he proves by a letter of Tasso, 
that poet wished to immortalise " as much as he could," in the well-known stanza of his 
Jerusalem, which Chaucer copied, and which Warton and Eustace suggest as more 



likely to have given the first idea of an English garden, than Milton's description of 
Paradise. (New Mori. Mag. for July 1820. ; Pindemonte su i Giardini Inglese, Verona, 

79. Of the jiresent state of gardening in Italy, as an art of design, we shall submit a 
slight sketch, partly from writers of the present century, and partly from our own inspec- 
tion in 1819. The grand object of an Italian nobleman is to produce a huge pile of 
architecture, externally splendid, and to collect a gallery of pictures and statues. The 
furnishing of this pile for domestic use, or even the internal finishing of great part of it, 
he cares little about ; and the park or gardens are inferior objects of attention. The 
Romans, when at the highest point of power, seem to have had exactly the same taste, as 
may be gathered from their writings, and seen in the existing ruins of the Villa Adriana, 
near Tivoli, and many others. 

80. Near Turin, the palace and gardens of Venerie still exist, but are only remarkable 
for extent, and for an old orangery nearly six hundred feet in length. The surface of the 
park is irregular, and the trees distributed in avenues, alleys, and geometrical figures ; 
the grounds of some of the numerous white villas near the city are romantic, and 
command extensive prospects ; but very few aspire to the character of fine gardens. 

81. At Genoa the best garden is that of Sig. di Negro, situated within the city. It 
is elevated, irregular, and singularly varied ; rich in views of the town, the sea, and the 
mountains ; abounds in fruits, botanical riches, shady and open walks, turrets, and 
caves. There is one large cave in which dinner-parties are frequently given by the pro- 
prietor ; and once a year, we believe on his birth-day, this grotto is decorated with 
some hundreds of religious puppets in gilt dresses, accompanied with pictures of saints, 
sculls, crucifixes, relics, tapers, and lamps. This forms a part of the gardener's business, 
who preserves these paraphernalia through the rest of the year in a sort of museum. 
We mention the circumstance as characteristic of the Italian taste for spectacle, so different 
from that of the English. The gardens of Hipolito Durazo, and of Grimaldi, are 
more extensive, but less select than those of S. di Negro. Like them they are singularly 
varied in surface, and rich in marine views. The whole coast from Savonna to Genoa, 
and from Genoa to Nervi, is naturally very irregular, and abounds in beautiful gardens, 
abundantly stocked with orange trees, partly in pots, and in the warmest situations trained 
against walls, or planted as standards. We visited many of these gardens, and the only 
general fault seemed to be the want of order and keeping ; properties which are essential 
to the full effect of every style in every country. 

82. The gardens of Lombardy are the most luxuriant in vegetation, not only in Italy, 
but perhaps in Europe. The climate is not so favorable for the perfection of the grape 
and the orange as that of Naples, nor for the production of large turnips and succulent 
cabbages as that of Holland ; but it possesses a medium of temperature and humidity 
between the two climates which is perhaps favorable to a greater number of vegetable 
productions, than any one climate on the face of our globe. There are few princely 
gardens in this kingdom, but many of moderate size well stocked with trees and plants 
of ornament, and sometimes neatly kept. 

The gardens of the Brenta still retain marks of their ancient celebrity. 

The extent and beauty of those of the Isola Bella (figA.), have been greatly exaggerated by Eustace, 
and other travellers. The justest description appears to us to be that of Wilson. " Nothing," he says, 
" can be so noble as the conversion of a barren rock, without an inch of earth on its surface, into a 
paradise of fertility and luxury. This rock, in 1640, produced nothing but mosses and lichens, when 
Vitaliano Boromeo conceived the idea of turning it into a garden of fruits and flowers. For this purpose, 
he brought earth from the banks of the lake, and built ten terraces on arches, one above the other, to the 
top of the island on which the palace is posted. This labor has produced a most singular pyramid of 
exotics and other plants, which make a fine show, and constitute the chief ornament of this miracle of 
artificial beauty. The orange and lemon trees are in great luxuriance, and the grove of laurels (L. nobilis] 
is hardly to be equalled any where in Europe ; two of them in particular are said to be the largest 
known in existence." ( Wilson's Tours, vol. iii. p. 449.) 

At Monza, the royal residence, near Milan, is the finest garden scenery in Italy. The park contains 
upwards of 3000 acres, of a gently varied fertile surface. It is chiefly laid out in the regular style ; but 
contains also an English garden of considerable extent and beauty. It is well watered, and the walks are 
not so numerous as to disturb the unity and repose of the scenes. The culinary, flower, botanic, and 


fruit gardens, orangeries, and hot-houses, are all good, and as well managed as the penuriousness of the 
present vice-king will admit. Very fine avenues lead from this residence to Milan. The whole was begun 
in Beauharnois' time, under the direction of Sig. Villaresi, one of the most scientific gardeners in Italy, 
and is still managed under his direction, but with greatly diminished resources. 

There are various gardens pointed out to strangers as English, veramente Inglcse, near Milan, and also 
at Verona, Vicenza, Brescia, Porta, c. ; and Buonaparte caused a small public garden to be made in 
Venice. " In many of the villas on the lake of Como," Wilson observes, " it is most delightful to behold 
the lofty crags frowning over the highly cultivated gardens, with hot-houses of exotic plants, neat terraces, 
and ornamental summer-houses, subduing the natural wildness of the situation." Most of those which 
we visited were too much ornamented, and too full of walks, seats, arbors, and other ornaments, for that 
repose and simplicity which, according to our ideas, is essential to an English garden. Art, in most of 
these gardens, is as much avowed as in the French style; whereas, in the true English garden, though art 
is employed, yet it is not avowed and ostentatiously displayed ; on the contrary, the grand object is to fol- 
low the directions of the Italians themselves, and study that the art " che tuttofa, nullo si scopre." 

83. At Florence, the ducal gardens of Boboli are the most remarkable. They oc- 
cupy two sides of a conical hill, and part of a bottom, and consist of three parts ; a 
botanic and exotic garden close to the palace Pitti and the celebrated museum ; a kitchen- 
garden, near the hill top ; and, a geometric garden which occupies the greater part of 
the hill. The scene abounds in almost every ingredient of the style in which it is 
laid out. The ground being very steep, almost all the walks slope considerably ; but a 
few, conducted horizontally, are level, and serve, if the expression be admissible, as rest- 
ing walks. There are abundance of seats, arbors, vases, planted with agaves and 
orange-trees ; and a prospect tower on the summit, from which, as well as from many 
other points, are obtained fine views of Florence and the environs. In the lower part or 
bottom is a handsome basin of water, with an island and fountains in the centre, verged 
with a marble parapet ornamented with vases of orange-trees, and surrounded by 
shorn hedges and statues. On the whole, nothing has been spared to render these gardens 
complete of their kind, and the effect is perhaps as perfect as the situation, from its irre- 
gularity and steepness, admits of. The public promenade to the Cassino, deserves notice 
as among the best in Italy. It consists of shady avenues, extending for several miles on 
a flat surface near the Arno, varied by occasional views of villas and distant scenery. 
The trees are chiefly elms and chestnuts. There are numerous private gardens round 
Florence, but none of them remarkable. The fortuitous scenery of Vallombrosa and 
other romantic situations, are the grand attractions for strangers. On mount Fiesole 
and thence to Bologna, are some country-seats with lodges, and winding approaches, 
which, considering the arid soil, are highly beautiful, and come the nearest to those 
of England of any in the warmer regions of Italy. The Tuscans, Sigismondi ob- 
serves (Agr. Tosc.}, are the more to be condemned for having neglected gardening, since 
their countryman, Proposto Lastri, has rendered De Lille's poem in Italian in a style 
equal to the original. But the gens d leur aise, and the nobles, he says, have no love of 
rural nature, and only come into the country after vintage to shoot for a few days, and 
indulge in feasting. They come in large parties with their ladies, and in a few weeks 
expend what they have been niggardly laying aside during the rest of the year. He men- 
tions the Chevalier Forti at Chiari, and Sig. Falconcini at Ceretto, as having delightful 
gardens ; adding that the country-seats of the Luquois are in the best taste of any in Italy. 

84. The villas of Rome, Forsyth observes, are to this day the " ocelli Italia." Their 
cassinos generally stand to advantage in the park, light, gay, airy, and fanciful. In the 
ancient villas the buildings were low, lax, diffused, and detached. In the modern, they 
are more compact, more commodious, and rise into several stories. In both, the gardens 
betray the same taste for the unnatural, the same symmetry of plan, architectural groves, 
devices cut in box, and tricks performed by the hydraulic organ. (Rem. on Italy, 173.) 
A few cardinals, he elsewhere observes, created all the great villas of Rome. Their riches, 
their taste, their learning, their leisure, their frugality, all conspired in this single 
object. While the eminent founder was squandering thousands on a statue, he would 
allot but one crown for his own dinner. He had no children, no stud, no dogs to keep ; he 
built indeed for his own pleasure, or for the admiration of others ; but he embellished 
his country, he promoted the resort of rich foreigners, and he afforded them a high intel- 
lectual treat for a few pauls, which never entered into his pocket. This taste generally 
descends to his heirs, who mark their little reigns by successive additions to the stock. 
How seldom are great fortunes spent so elegantly in England ! How many are absorbed 
in the table, the field, or the turf! Expenses which centre and end in the rich egotist 
himself ! What English villa is open like the Borghese, as a common drive to the whole 
metropolis? (Rem. on Italy, 216.) 

The Villa Borghese is the most noted in the neighbourhood of Rome. It has a variety of surface 
formed by two hills and a dell, and a variety of embellishments, cassinos, temples, grottoes, aviaries, 
modern ruins, sculptured fountains, a crowd of statues, a lake, an aqueduct, a circus ; but it wants the 
more beautiful variety of an English garden ; for here you must walk in right lines, and turn, at right 
angles, fatigued with tffe monotony of eternal ilex. (Remarks, &c. 216.) Eustace says these gardens are 
laid out with some regard both for the new and the old system, because winding walks are tp be found 
intersecting the long alleys. This is true ; but the whole is so frittered down by roads, walks, paths, and 

nersectng te long alleys. This is true ; but te woe s so rere own y roas, was, pas, an 
alleys, and so studded with statues and objects of art, as to want that repose, simplicity, and massive 
appearance, essential, at least, to an Englishman's idea of an English garden. Simplicity, however, is 
a beauty less relished among the nations of the continent than in this country, and less-relished by the 
Italians than by any other continental nation. 

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The Villa PanfiH displays the most architectural gardens of any about Rome. Here, as Forsyth ob- 
serves, laurel porticoes of ilex, green scutcheons, and clipt coronets, are seen vegetating over half an acre; 
theatres of jets d'eau, geometrical terraces, built rocks, and measured cascades. 

A number qf other villas might be enumerated ^ but as far as respects gardens, the description, if faithful, 
might be tiresome and monotonous. Even Eustace allows, that " howsoever Italian gardens may differ in 
extent and magnificence, their principal features are nearly the same ; the same with regard to artificial 
as well as natural graces. Some ancient remains are to be found in all, and several in most of them. They 
are all adorned with the same evergreens, and present, upon a greater or less scale, the same Italian and 
ancient scenery. They are in general much neglected, but for that reason the more rural." (Classical 
Tour, vol. i. chap. 18.) 

85. At Frascati, Belvidere, a villa of Prince Borghese, commands most glorious pros- 
pects, and is itself a fine object, from the scenic effect of its front and approaches. Be- 
hind the palace is an aquatic stream, which flows from Mount Algidus, dashes pre- 
cipitately down a succession of terraces, and is tormented below into a variety of tricks. 
The whole court seems alive at the turning of a cock. Water attacks you on every side ; 
it is squirted in your face from invisible holes ; it darts up in a constellation of jets d'eau ; 
it returns in misty showers, which present against the sun a beautiful Iris. Water is made 
to blow the trumpet of a centaur, and the pipe of a cyclops ; water plays two organs ; 
makes the birds warble, and the muses tune their reeds ; sets Pegasus neighing, and all 
Parnassus on music. " I remark," says Forsyth, " this magnificent toy as a speci- 
men of Italian hydraulics. Its sole object is to surprise strangers, for all the pleasure 
that its repetitions can impart to the owners is but a faint reflection from the pleasure of 

86. At Naples the gardens possess the same general character as those of Rome, though, 
with the exception of Caserta, they are less magnificent. 

The royal gardens at Portici are chiefly walled cultivated enclosures, abounding in oranges, figs, and 
grapes, with straight-alleys and wooded quarters entirely for shade. There is one small department, of a 
few perches, devoted to the English taste ; but it is too small to give any idea of that style. There is also 
a spot called La Favorita, in which, says Starke (Letters, ii. 125.), the present king has placed swings 
and wooden horses, or hurly-burlies, (such as are to be seen at our fairs), for his own particular amusement, 
and that of his nobility. The approach to this garden is through the palace court, great part of which is 
occupied as a barrack by troops. The filth and stench of this court is incredible; and yet it is overlooked 
by the windows of the king's dining-room, who sat down to dinner, on his return from the chace, as we 
passed through the palace on the 2d of August, 1819. We know no scene to which it could be compared, 
but that of the court .of some of the large Russian inns in the suburbs of Petersburgh. 

The gardens of Prince Leopold at Villa Franca almost adjoin those of the king. They are less extensive, 
but kept in much better order by a very intelligent German. The orange-groves and trellises in both 
gardens are particularly fine ; and in that of Prince Leopold, there is a tolerable collection of pfents. 
There is in Naples a royal garden, in the geometric style, combining botany and some specimens of the 
English manner, which is now enlarging, and has the advantage of an elevated situation and fine marine 

The Chiaja is a public garden on the quay, used as a promenade. The outline is a parallelogram, the 
area arranged in three alleys, with intermediate winding walks, fountains, rock-works, basins, statues, 
parterres with and without turf, and oranges, flowers, &c. in pots. It is surrounded by a parapet sur- 
mounted by an iron fence, and contains cassinos for gambling, cafes, baths, taverns, &c. The view to the 
bay, and the breezes thence arising, are delightful. It is justly reckoned one of the finest walking prome- 

Extensive gardens qf pots and boxes are common on the roofs of the palaces, and other houses in Naples. 
Viewed from the streets they have a singular effect, and from their beauty and fragrance, from the fresh 
breezes in these elevated regions, and the comparative absence of that stench with which the lower atmo- 
sphere of Naples is almost contiriually charged, they are very agreeable to the possessors. 

87. Tlie royal residence of Caserta is about seventeen miles from Naples. The palace, 
in which, as Forsyth observes, the late king sought grandeur from every dimension, is 
situated in an immense plain, and is a quadrangle, the front of which is upwards of seven 
hundred feet long. It was begun in 1752, roofed in 1757, but is not yet, and probably 
never will be finished. The park extends from the palace to a range of mountains at two 
miles distance, some of which it includes. It may be said to consist of four parts ; open 
pasture, almost without trees, near the palace ; woody scenery, or thick groves and copses, 
partly near to, but chiefly at a considerable distance from, the palace ; mountainous scenery 
devoted to game and the chace, at the extreme distance ; and an English garden on one 
side, skirting the mountains. There are besides, St. Lucio a large village, a silk-manu- 
factory, a farm, &c.; all of which are described by different tourists; minutely by Vasi, 
in his Guide to Naples and its Environs, and plans of the whole are given by L. Van- 
vitelli, in his Disegni del Reale Palazzo di Caserta. 

The cascade and canal of Caserta constitute its most remarkable feature, and that which renders this 
park in our opinion, the most extraordinary in Europe. The water is begun to be collected above thirty 
miles' distance among the mountains, and after being conducted to a valley about five miles from Caserta, 
is carried over it by an aqueduct consisting of three tiers of arches, nearly two hundred feet high, and 
two thousand feet long The volume of water is four feet wide by three and a half feet deep, and moves, 
as near as we could estimate, at the rate of one foot in two seconds. Arrived at the back of the mountain 
Gazzano a tunnel is cut through it, and the stream bursting from a cave about halfway between the base 
and the summit, forms a cascade of fifty feet directly in front of the palace. The waters are now in a large 
basin from which, under ground, tunnels and pipes proceed on two sides, for the purposes of supplying 
the lakes or rivers in the English garden, the fish-ponds, various jets d'eau, and for irrigation to maintain 
the verdure of the turf. From the centre of this basin proceeds a series of alternate canals and cascades of 
uniform breadth, and in a direct line down the slope of the hill, and along the plain to within a furlong or 
little more of the palace. Here it terminates abruptly, the waters being conveyed away under ground for 
other purposes. The effect of this series of canals and cascades, viewed from the garden-front of the palace, 
or from the middle entrance-arch, through that " long obscure portico or arcade which pierces the whole 
depth of the quadrangle, and acts like fhe tube of a telescope to the waters," is that of one continued sheet 




of smooth or stagnant water resting on a slope ; or of a fountain which had suddenly burst forth and 
threatened to inundate the plain ; but for this idea the course of the water is too tame, tranquil, and regu- 
lar, and it looks more like some artificial imitation of water than water itself. In short the effect is still 
more unnatural than it is extraordinary ; for though jets and fountains are also unnatural, yet they pre- 
sent nothing repugnant to our ideas of the nature of things ; but a body of water seemingly reposing on a 
slope, and accommodating itself to the inclination of the surface, is a sight at variance wi'th the laws of 
gravity. Unquestionably the cascade at the extremity is a grand object of itself; but the other cascades 
are so trifling, and so numerous, as in perspective, and viewed at a distance, to produce this strange effect 
of continuity of surface. As a proof that our opinion is correct we refer to the views of Caserta, which are 
got up by the Neapolitan artists for sale ; had these artists been able to avoid the appearance in question, 
even by some departures from truth, there can be no doubt they would not have hesitated to do so A 
bird's-eye view of this canal, in Vanvitelli's 
seen from 

unit; ucpanuica iiuiii iiuiu, tut:ic mn uc iiu uuuui tiitry wuuiu nut nave IIUMUUCU LU uu su 

view of this canal, in Vanvitelli's work (fig. 5.), gives but a very imperfect idea of the reality, 
the surface of the ground, and especially from the palace and lower parts of the park. 

Forsyth seems to have paid little attention to this water, having been chiefly struck with the palace. 
Eustace says, " The palace is one of the noblest edifices of the kind in Europe ; the gardens extensive, re- 
gular, but except a part in the English style, uninteresting. From a reservoir on the mountain Gazzano, 
the water is precipitated down the declivity to the plain, where, collected in a long straight canal, it loses 
its rapidity and beauty, and assumes the appearance of an old fashioned stagnant pook" (Tour in Italy, 
vol. i. p. 602.) Wilson says, the cascade of Caserta might have been made the finest of its kind in the 
world ; but it has been spoiled by a love of formality, which has led the copious stream drizzling over regu- 
lar gradations of steps into a long stagnant canal. (Tours, &c. vol. ii. p. 217.) 

The English garden of Caserta was formed by GraefTer, a German, author of a Catalogue of Herba- 
ceous Plants, who had been some time in England. He was sent to the king of Naples about 1760, by 
Sir Joseph Banks, and has formed and preserved as perfect a specimen of English pleasure-ground as any 
we have seen on the continent. The verdure of the turf is maintained in summer by a partially concealed 
system of irrigation ; and part of the walks were originally laid with Kensington gravel. Every exotic, 
which at that time could be furnished by the Hammersmith nursery, was planted, and many of them form 
now very fine specimens. Among these the Camellias, Banksias, Proteas, Magnolias, Pines, &c. have attained 
a large size, and ripen their seeds. There is a good kitchen'and botanic garden, and extensive hot-houses, 
chiefly in the English form ; but now much out of repair. Indeed this remark will apply to the whole 
place, excepting the palace. Graffer laid out the gardens of the Duke de San Gallo, at Naples, and various 
others. He was not liked by the peasants of St. Lucio, who, taking the advantage of him, when thrown 
from a cabriolet, stabbed him mortally before he could recover himself, in 1816. 

88. In Sicily are some gardens of great extent. A few are mentioned by Swinburne ; 
and an account of one belonging to a Sicilian prince, remarkable for its collection of 
monsters, is given in Brydone's Tour. 

SUBSECT. 2. Italian Gardening' in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of 


89. Flowers appear to have been little cultivated by the Italians previously to the 10th 
century. The introduction of the Christian religion as a national worship, though at 
present favorable, was at first adverse to the use of flowers. Tertullian and Clement of 
Alexandria, in the second century, inveighed against their use with all their eloquence : 
and the rites of religion, then carried on in gloomy vaults, were not, as now, accom- 
panied by bands of music, statues, pictures, and enriched altars decorated with flowers. 
P. de Crescent in the beginning of the fourteenth century, mentions only the violet, lily, 
rose, gilly-flower, and iris. Commerce began to flourish in the century which succeeded, 
and various plants were introduced from the Eastern countries, by the wealthy of Venice 
and Genoa. 

C 3 


90. The earliest private botanic garden was formed at Padua, by Gaspar de Gabriel, 
a wealthy Tuscan noble, at considerable expense. It was accomplished in 1525; and 
though not a public institution, it was open to all the curious. To this garden suc- 
ceeded, that of Corner at Venice, and Simonetta, at Milan ; those of some convents at 
Rome, and of Pinella, at Naples, with others enumerated by botanical historians. 
(C. Spreng. Hist. lib. iii. ; Hatters Bib. Bot. 21.; Tirabosc/ii's Stor. _del Litt. Ital.; Gesner, 
Hort. German. ; Stcphanus de Re Hortense. ) 

91. The first public botanic garden established in Europe was that of Pisa, begun, accord- 
ing to Deleuze, in 1543, by Cosmo de Medici ; and of which Ghini, and Cesalpin, cele- 
brated botanists, were successively the directors. Belon, a French naturalist, who was 
at Pisa in 1555, was astonished at the beauty of the garden, the quantity of plants it con- 
tained, and the care taken to make them prosper. In 1591 the number of new plants 
was found so far accumulated as to render a larger garden necessary, and that space of 
ground was fixed on which is the present botanic garden ; two borders were destined for 
ornamental flowers, and a green-house was formed for such as were too tender for the 
open air. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, a great accession was obtained to 
the garden by the double flowers of Holland, then introduced in Italy for the first time. 
(Calvio, Hist. PiSanL) The example of Pisa was soon imitated by other cities and univer- 
sities in Italy and Germany. In 1545, (not 1533, as stated by Adamson-see Deleuze,) 
the public botanic garden of Padua was agreed on by the senate of Venice. It contained 
in 1581 four hundred plants cultivated in the open air, besides a number kept in pots to 
be taken into houses or sheds during winter. The garden of Bologna was next estab- 
lished by Pope Pius the Vth ; then that of Florence by the Grand Duke ; and afterwards 
that of Rome. From that time to the present day, the numbers'of botanic gardens have 
been continually increasing, so that there is now one belonging to almost every principal 
city in Italy ; an exertion the more remarkable, as botanic gardens in that country are 
proportionably more expensive than in England, from the necessity of conveying a stream 
of water to them, and forming a regular system of irrigation. 

92. A taste for flowers and ornamental plants has thus become general in Italy ; and at the 
same time the means of gratification afforded, by the superabundant plants and seeds of 
these gardens being given away, or sold at very moderate prices to the curious. About 
this time also the Dutch made regular exchanges of their bulbous roots for the orange- 
trees of Genoa and Leghorn ; and the double night-smelling jessamine was introduced 
at Pisa from Spain, and so highly prized as to have a centinel placed over it by the 
governor. (Evelyn.) The use of flowers, it is probable, was never entirely laid aside in 
Italy as ornaments to female dress ; but in the progress of refinement their application in 
this way became more general, and more select sorts were chosen ; they became in de- 
mand, both gathered in bouquets, and with the entire plants in pots ; they were used as 
household ornaments both internal and external ; and the church, thinking that what 
pleased man must be pleasing to the gods ; or conforming to the taste of the times, and 
desirous of rendering religion as attractive as possible to the multitude, introduced flowers 
as decorations of altars and statues, and more especially in their fetes and processions. 
Pots and boxes of orange trees, pomegranates, bays, oleanders, myrtles, and other plants, 
are now let out by the day, for decorating the steps and approaches to altars, or sold for 
ornamenting roofs, balconies, virandas, courts, yards, passages, halls, staircases, and even 
shops and warehouses in most of the large towns of Italy. Notwithstanding this there is 
a recent instance on record of a lady residing in Rome, commencing a law-suit against 
her neighbour, for filling her court-yard with orange-trees, the smell of the flowers of 
which was by the other considered as a nuisance. 

For the church the white lily (Lilium candidum) is in great demand, with which the Madona, 'or 
Madre di Dio, is decorated as an emblem of her virginity. The typha ( T. latifolia) is much used when 
in seed to put into the hands of statues of Christ, being considered as the reed with which the soldiers 
handed him a sponge of vinegar. In Poland, where the typha has not been easily procured, we have seen 
leeks in the flower-stalk used as a substitute. The rose, the stock-gilly-flower, the jessamine, &c. are 
next in demand, and are used in common with such others as are presented gratis, or offered for sale, as 
decorations indiscriminately to the crowd of statues and pictures of saints which decorate the churches, 
to private houses, and as ornaments of female dress. 

On occasions of public rejoicing flowers are also much used in Italy. Favorite princes and generals are 
received into towns and even villages through triumphal arches decorated with flowers, and the ground is 
also sometimes strewed with them. The lives of Buonaparte, Murat, and Beauharnois, afford many 
examples. The Emperor of Austria made a tour of Italy in 1819, and though every where disliked, every 
where walking on a mine ready to explode, he was in many places so received ; and at the famous cascade 
of Marmora, near Terni, a slight arcade, 300 yards in length, was formed to guide the steps of the imperial 
visitor to the best point of view. It was covered with intersecting wreaths of flowers and foliage, and the 
sides ornamented with festoons of box, myrtle, and bay. At Milan, a very gay city, flowers are greatly 
prized, and in the winter season are procured from the peculiarly warm and ever verdant gardens between 
Genoa and Nervi. A louis-d'or, we were informed, is sometimes paid for a single nosegay. During the 
carnival the demand is great throughout Italy. 

93. Florists' flowers, especially the bulbous kinds, do not succeed well in the dry warm 
climate of Italy. Fine varieties of the hyacinth, tulip, ranunculus, auricula, polyanthus, 
&c. are soon lost there, and obliged to be renewed from more temperate countries. 
They excel, however, in the culture of the tuberose, which forms an article of commerce 


at Genoa, as does the paper narcissus (N. orientalis) at Naples. In roses, jessamines, 
oleanders, oranges, they also excel ; and also in most single flowers not natives of cold 
climates. Sig. Villaresi, already mentioned, has raised from seeds of the Bengal rose 
(Rosa indica), impregnated promiscuously with other roses, upwards of fifty distinct 
varieties, many of which are of great beauty, and very fragrant. In general, flowers 
and ornamental plants are most in demand, and cultivated to the greatest degree of 
perfection in Lombardy, of which the flower-markets of Milan and Venice afford most 
gratifying proofs. Many of the Chinese, New Holland, and some of the Cape trees 
and shrubs, thrive well, and blossom luxuriantly in the open air in the warmer regions, 
as in S. di Negro's garden, at Genoa, and those of Pisa and Caserta. Evelyn says, 
he saw at Florence, in 1664, a rose grafted on an orange-tree ; the same tricks are still 
passed off with the rose, jessamine, oleander, myrtle, &c. at Genoa, and even in some 
parts of Lombardy. 

94. The taste for flowers and plants of ornament is rather on the decline than otherwise in 
Italy. Much depends on the taste of the princes in this as in every other matter, and 
unfortunately those of Italy are at present mere ciphers. The king of Naples knows 
no pleasures but those of the table, the seraglio, and the chace. For the latter enjoy- 
ment, the Pope has kindly given him a dispensation to hunt on Sundays. The Pope is 
debarred from pleasure by his' office ; the grand Duke of Tuscany has some taste for 
plants, but more for a heavy purse ; his relation, the vice-king of Lombardy, is more a 
priest than a prince ; though he has some fondness for succulent exotics, of the common 
sorts of which, he has a large collection. The king of Sardinia is an old man, and a mere 
king Dei gratia. 

SUBSECT. 3. Italian Gardening in respect to its Products for tlie Kitchen and the 


95. The Italian fruits are nearly those of the Romans, to which they have made but few 
additions, if we except the orange and the pine-apple. The orange is supposed to have 
been introduced between the time of Pliny and Palladius ; it is the fruit in which they 
excel, more from climate and soil than science. There are supposed to be nearly a hun- 
dred varieties of this fruit in Italy ; but in the orange-nurseries at Nervi, it is not easy 
to make out more than forty or fifty distinct sorts. These have mostly been obtained 
from seeds. They have not the Mandarine orange, nor some varieties of shaddock ((7. 
decumana), which we possess. The most regular and systematic orange-orchards are at 
Nervi ; and the largest trees around Naples, at Sorenta, Amalphi, &c. The more rare 
sorts are kept in conservatories at Rome, and the largest house, and best collection, 
is that of the Borghese. At Florence and Milan, all the sorts required to be housed 
during winter, but at Hieres and Nice in France, and at Genoa and Nervi, they stand 
the common winters in the open air. 

96. The stone fruits in which they excel are the peach and cherry. There are above twenty varieties of 
peaches cultivated in the neighbourhood of Rome and Naples ; and these fruits, grown on standard trees, 
as apples and pears are in this country, arrive at a very high degree of perfection. They have few sorts of 
apricots and nectarines, and not many plums ; but their Regina Claudia, or gages, are excellent. Cherries 
are every where excellent in Italy, especially in Tuscany. The Milan or Morella cherry, is noted for its 
prolific qualities, and for having a consistency and flavor somewhat resembling the Morchella esculenta, or 

97. The chief berry of Italy is the grape : their varieties are not so numerous as in France or 
Spain j and are, for the most part, the result of long growth on one soil and situation. Vineyard grapes 
are indifferent to eat in most parts of Lombardy, and in the best districts are equalled if not excelled by 
muscats, sweet-waters, muscadines, and other sorts grown in hoUhouses in this country. The grape is 
the only berry that thrives in Italy. It is not kept low as in France ; but elevated on trellises near 
houses and in gardens (fig.6.), and trained 

to long poles or trees in the fields. Collec- 
tions of gooseberries from Lancashire have 
been introduced at Leghorn, Genoa, and 
Monza; and, grown in theshade, they thrive 
moderately at the gardens of the latter 
place. The currant, the raspberry, and the 
strawberry, though natives of the Alps 
and Apennines, do not thrive in the gar- 
dens, but are brought to market from the 
woods ; and so is the black mulberry, which 
is there cultivated for the leaves, as hardier 
than the white, and which Sigismondi at 
at one time considered as a fruit elsewhere 

98. Kernel-fruits in general, especially 
pears, are excellent in the north of Italy j 
but indifferent in the wanner regions. 
Services in considerable variety abound in 
Piedmont, and part of Lombardy. 

99. The pine-apple is cultivated in a few 

places in Italy, but with little success, excepting at Florence and Milan. There are a few in the Royal 
gardens at Portici, but weak, yellow-leaved, and covered with insects. The few grown in the Pope's 
garden, and in one or two other villas near Rome, are little better. By far the best and greatest quantity 
are in the vice-royal gardens of Monza. The last king of Sardinia sent his gardener, Brochieri, to England 

C 4 


to study their culture. He returned, and ih 1777 published a tract on them, with a plan of a pit for their 
reception; and in this way they are universally grown in Italy. Such, however, is the exhalation pro- 
duced in this dry climate from leaves so full of pores, as are those of the pine, and such the want of 
attention to supplying large pots and plenty of water, that the plants are generally of a pale sickly hue, 
and the fruit of very small size. 

100. Qf the Melon tribe, the variety in Italy is endless, of every degree of flavor, from the richness of the 
cantaleupe, to the cool, icy, sub-acid taste of the citrouille or water-melon. Too little care is bestowed in 
selecting good fruits for seeds, and in preventing hybridism from the promiscuous intercourse with sur- 
rounding sorts of cucumis ; and, hence, seeds sent from Italy to this country are little to be depended on, 
and generally produce varieties inferior to those of British growth. There are a few sorts of cucumbers, 
and though there are a great number of gourds and pompions cultivated, the sorts, or conspicuous 
varieties of both, are less numerous than in this country. Italian cucumbers are never so succulent as 
those grown in our humid frames by dung-heat. 

The love-apple, egg-plant, and capsicum, are extensively cultivated near Rome and Naples for the 
kitchen ; the fruit of the first attaining a larger size, and exhibiting the most grotesque forms. It is 
singular, that in Sicily this fruit, when ripe, becomes sour, and so unfit for use, that the inhabitants are 
supplied with it fromXaples. 

101. Want of demand for the fruits of the northern climates precludes their production. Were it other- 
wise, there can be no doubt means would soon be resorted to, to produce them in as great perfection as we 
do their fruits here ; all that is necessary, is to imitate our climate by abstracting or excluding heat, and 
supplying moisture ; but luxury in Italy has not yet arrived to the degree adequate to produce this effect. 

102. Of culinary vegetables, the Italians began with those left them by the Romans, and they added the 
potatoe to their number as soon as, or before, we did. They now possess all the sorts known in this country, 
and use some plants as salads, as the chiccory, ox-eye daisy, ruccola, or rocket (Brassica eruca, L.), which 
are little used here. The turnip and carrot tribe, and the cabbage, savoy, lettuce, and radish, thrive best 
in the northern parts; but the potatoe grows well every where, and the Italian autumn is favorable to the 
growth of the cauliflowers, and broccolis, which are found of large size at Rome, Florence, and Bologna 
in the months of September and October ; and very large at Milan, all the summer and autumn. The le- 
guminous tribe thrive every where ; but in some places the entire pod of the kidney-bean is so dry and 
hard, as to prevent its use as a substitute for peas. In short, though the Italians have the advantage over 
the rest of Europe in fruits, that good is greatly counterbalanced by the inferiority of their culinary vege- 
tables. Much to remedy the defect might be done by judicious irrigation, which in the south of Italy, and 
even in Lombardy, is so far necessary as to enter into the arrangement of every kitchen-garden. Shading, 
blanching, and change of seed will effect much; but the value of good culinary vegetables is not known 
to the greater part of the. wealthy Italians. 

103. Horticulture has made little progress in Italy. It is not in Italy, Simond observes, 
that horticulture is to be studied ; though nowhere is more produced from the soil by 
culture, manure, and water ; but forcing or prolonging crops is unknown ; every thing 
is sown at a certain season, and grows up, ripens, and perishes together. The variety is 
not great ; they have only three or four sorts of cabbage, not more of kidney-beans, and 
one of pea ; the red and white beet, salsify, scbrzonera, chervile, sorrel, onion, schallot, 
Jerusalem artichoke, are in many parts unknown : but they have the cocomera, or water- 
melon, everywhere. In Tuscany and Lombardy, it is raised on dung, and then transplanted 
in the fields, and its sugary icy pulp forms the delight of the Italians during the whole 
month of August. Though they have walls round some gardens, they are ignorant of 
the mode of training trees on them. (Agr. Tosc.} 

SUBSECT. 4. Italian Gardening, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and Hedges. 

104. The self-sown forests of the Alps and Apennines are 
the chief resources of the Italians for timber ; and timber- 
trees are chiefly propagated for parks, public walks, and 
lining the great roads. The vine is still, in many places, 
trained on the poplar and elm (Jig. 7.); but in Tuscany 
and Lombardy, where the culture is deemed superior, the 
common maple (A. campestre] and flowering ash (Ornus 
europ&a) are preferred. (Sigismondi, Agr. Toscan. ; Chateau*- 
vieux, Lettres, &c. 1812.) The most common tree for 
every other purpose is the narrow-leaved elm, which lines 
the road from Rome to Naples, for upwards of twenty miles 
together. Near Milan, the Lombardy poplar is a great deal 

used; but a late author, Gautieri (Dello Influsso del Boschi, &c. 1817,) argues in favor 
of cutting down, rather than planting in the Milanese plains. The finest avenues and 
public equestrian promenades in Italy are those around Milan and at Monza ; the trees 
are of various sorts, as the tulip-tree, platanus, lime, acacia, melia zederach, various oaks, 
chestnuts, beeches, &c. ; they were planted in Beauharnois' time ; and such is the rapidity 
of vegetation in this climate, that already the tulip-trees produce blossoms, and in seven 
years more the effect will be complete. The sorts are every where mixed, in order that 
the failure or defective growth of one species may have a chance of being compensated 
by the growth of that, or of those adjoining ; or that if a malady were to attack one sort 
of tree, it might not lead to continuous defalcation. Most of those trees were planted 
by Villaresi, who, before the late political changes, had constantly under his direction not 
fewer than three thousand men for public and royal improvements. 

105. The timber-trees of the native forests of Italy are chiefly oak, chestnut, and beech ; the 
undergrowths are of numerous species, including the arbutus, ilex, and myrtle. This 
class of forests skirts the Alpine mountains, and covers, in many places, the Apennine 
hills. In higher regions the larch abounds, and in sheltered dells the silver fir. The 


stone and cluster pine are confined to the lower regions, as the hills of Tuscany, the 
vales of Arno, Tiber, &c. 

106. Hedges are in general use in Italy, but are very imperfectly formed and managed. 
In Lombardy the hawthorn is a good deal used ; but in Tuscany, the States of the 
Church, and those parts of the Neapolitan territory which are hedged, the rhamnus pali- 
urus is the prevailing plant, mixed, however, with the pyracantha, pomegranate, myrtle, 
asparagus retrofractus, and with wild roses, brambles, hazels, reeds, &c. seldom without 
gaps and tholes, open or filled up with dead bushes or reeds. The willow alone often 
forms a hedge in Lombardy, where the shoots are valuable for tying up the vine. 

SUBSECT. 5. Italian Gardening, as empirically practised. 

107. Gardens in Italy are common to the rural class of citizens. It is a general remark of 
travellers, and of acknowledged truth, that the state of cottage gardens indicates the state 
of the cottagers ; and those of Italy confirm the justness of the observation. Almost 
the only plants grown in them are gourds and Indian corn. In Tuscany and Lombardy 
some of the cabbage tribe, the kidney-bean, and occasionally the potatoe are to be seen, but 
rarely any thing else. The gardens of the farmers are somewhat better, especially in the 
northern districts, where they often contain patches of hemp, potatoes, parsnips, lettuce, 
and some flowers and fruit-trees. The gardens of small proprietors are still better 
stocked ; those of wealthy bankers and merchants are generally the best in Italy. The 
gardens of the more wealthy nobles are only superior by their extent, and are dis- 
tinguished as such, by having more or less of an accompanying park. The gardens of 
the convents are, in general, well cultivated, and rich in fruits and culinary vegetables, 
with some flowers and evergreens for church decorations. The priests assist in their 
cultivation, and some of these men are much attached to gardening.' 

108. For commercial purposes gardening is chiefly practised by market-gardeners, who also 
grow flowers, act as orchardists, and often make wine. There are hardly any nurseries 
for trees and shrubs in Italy, if we except those for orange-trees at Nervi, and two small 
ones for general purposes at Milan. Those who form new gardens are chiefly supplied 
from France, or from their friends, or from private gardens ; most of which last sell 
whatever they have got to spare. 

109. The operative part of gardening in Italy is performed more by labourers than by regu- 
lar apprentices and journeymen ; and thus good practical gardeners are more the result 
of accident than of design. The great defect of both is the want of a taste for order and 
neatness. The Italians are particularly unskilful in the management of plants in pots, 
and especially exotics, which require protection by glass. These are put into houses 
with upright or slightly declining glass fronts, and opaque roofs ; there they remain 
during a winter of from three to five months ; want of light and air renders their leaves 
yellow and cadaverous ; and when they are taken out they are placed in the most exposed 
parts of the garden, often on parapets, benches, or stages. Here the sudden excess of 
light soon causes them to lose their leaves, which they have hardly time to regain before 
the period arrives for replacing them in the conservatory or hot-house. We know of few 
exceptions to this censure, excepting at Monza, and Caserta, where they are kept in 
winter, in glass-roofed houses, as in England, and placed out in summer under the shade 
of poplars or high walls. Dr. Oct. Tazetti, professor of rural economy at Florence, 
who lectures in a garden in which specimens are displayed of the leading sorts of Italian 
field and garden -culture, acknowledged the justness of this remark. 

1 1.0. The artists or professors are of two classes. First, The architects, who adopt the rural 
branch of their art, (architetti rustici,} and who give plans for parks, chiefly or almost 
entirely in the geometric style, to be executed under their direction, and that of the head 
gardener. Secondly, The artist-gardeners, (artisti giardinieri,} who are generally the 
gardeners, or directors of gardens, of some great establishment, public or private, and 
who give plans for gardens, chiefly in what is there considered the English manner, and 
for kitchen-gardens ; and as in England, either direct, by occasional visits, or undertake 
by contract, their execution and future occasional inspection. 

SUBSECT. 6. Italian Gardening, as a Science, and as to the Authors it has produced. 
111. By the establishment of professorships of botany and botanic gardens, in the sixteenth 
century, the Italians have materially contributed to the study of the vegetable kingdom, 
without some knowledge of the physiology of which, the practice of gardening must 
be entirely empirical. Malpighi is considered the father of vegetable physiology in Italy. 
It must be confessed, however, that the scientific knowledge of the Italians is chiefly 
confined to their professors and learned men : the practical gardener is yet top ignorant 
either to study or understand the subject ; too much prejudiced to old opinions to re- 
ceive new ideas ; and, partly from climate, but chiefly from political and religious slavery, 
too indifferent to wish to be informed. Some exceptions must be made in favor of such 
gardeners as have been apprenticed in botanic and eminent gardens, or under intelligent 
Germans, who are here and there to be found superintending the gardeas of the nobles. 


The bastardising of the cucumis tribe, by proximity, and the striking phenomena of the 
male and female hemp, have introduced some vague ideas of the sexuality of vegetables ; 
but the use of leaves, by far the most important knowledge which a gardener can possess, 
seems no where understood by ordinary master-gardeners. Grafting and layering are 
practised without any knowledge of the effects of the returning sap, or of the exclusion 
of air and light. Nothing can be worse than the practice of budding orange-trees at 
Nervi ; to be convinced of which, it is only necessary to compare the plants imported 
from thence, with those brought from Malta or Paris. The culture of the vine, the olive, 
and the fig, belongs to the rural economy of the country ; that of the vine is abundantly 
careless, and the practice of the caprification of the fig, though laughed at by the pro- 
fessors, is still followed in various places near Rome and Naples. 

112. Religious and lunar observances are still followed by the gardeners in most parts of 
Italy. With the Romans it was customary before any grand operation of agriculture 
was undertaken, to consult or invoke the god of that department, as of Flora, Pomona, 
&c. and to pay attention to the age of the moon and other signs. A good deal of this 
description of ceremony is still carried on in general economy, by the priests and 
farmers, and gardening has not yet entirely thrown off the same badge of ignorance 
and religious slavery. Many gardeners regulate their sowings of kitchen-crops by the 
moon, others call the priests to invoke a blessing on large breadths of any main crop ; 
some, on minor occasions, officiate for themselves, and we have seen a poor market- 
gardener at Savonna muttering a sort of grace to the virgin over a bed of new-sown 
onions. Father Clarici, a priest who published Istoria e Culture delle Piante, &c. so 
late as 1726, countenances most of these practices, and describes many absurd and foolish 
ceremonies used for procuring good crops, and destroying insects. 

113. Of the Italian authors on gardening, few or none are original. Filippo Re has 
written a great many books, and may be compared to our Bradley. Silvo Sigismondi, 
of Milan, has written a work on English gardening, resembling that of Hirschfield, of 
which it is, in great part, a translation. Clarici is a very copious writer on culinary 
gardening, and the culture of flowers ; and the most approved writer on the orange 
tribe is Gallesio of Savonna. 

SECT. II. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Holland and 


114. Gardening was first brought to a high degree of perfection in Holland and the 
Netherlands. The crusades, in the twelfth century, are generally supposed to have 
excited a taste for building and gardening in the north of Europe. But from Ste- 
phanus and Gesner, it appears that a taste for plants existed among the Dutch, even 
previously to this period. It is to be regretted that scarcely any materials are to be 
found from which to compose such a history as this interesting circumstance requires. 
Harte (Essays on Agriculture] conjectures that the necessities arising from the original 
barrenness of the soil (that of Flanders having been formerly like what Arthur Young de- 
scribes Norfolk to have been nearly a century ago), together with a certain degree of 
liberty, the result of the remoteness of the situation from kings and priests, may have 
contributed to improve their agriculture ; and that the wealth acquired by the commercial 
men of Holland, then the most eminent in the world, enabled them to indulge in 
country-houses and gardens, and to import foreign plants. To this we may add, 
that the climate and soil are singularly favorable for horticulture and floriculture, the 
two departments in which the Dutch are most eminent. 

SUBSECT. 1. Dutch Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

115. The Dutch are generally considered as having a particular taste in gardening, yet 
their gardens, Hirschfield observes, appear to differ little in design from those of the 
French. The characteristics of both are symmetry and abundance of ornaments. The 
only difference to be remarked is, that the gardens of Holland are more confined, more 
covered with frivolous ornaments, and intersected with still, and often muddy pieces of 
water. The gardens of Ryswick, Houslaerdyk, and Sorgvliet were, in the beginning 
of the last century, the most remarkable for geometrical beauty of form, richness in trees 
and plants, and careful preservation. It is singular, our author observes, that the Dutch 
are so fond of intersecting their gardens with canals and ditches of stagnant water, 
which, so far from being agreeable, are muddy and ugly, and fill the air with unwhole- 
some vapours. Yet they carry this taste, which has no doubt originated in the nature 
of their country, to the East Indies ; and the numerous country-houses belonging to 
the Dutch settlement in Batavia are all furnished with gardens and canals like those 
in the neighbourhood of Amsterdam ; as if to render the unwholesome air of that 
country still more dangerous. Every field is there crossed by a canal ; and houses on 
eminences are surrounded at great expense by moats and draw-bridges like those of the 
Hague, Such is the influence of habit, and the love of country ; and, therefore, how- 

Boo* 1. 



over at variance with local circumstances, and sometimes even with utility, it cannot be 
altogether condemned. 

1 16. Grassy slojies and green terraces and walks are more common in Holland than in any 
other country of the continent, because the climate and soil are favorable for turf; and 
these verdant slopes and mounds may be said to form, with their oblong canals, the 
characteristics of the Dutch style of laying out grounds. 

117. Hague, the Versailles and Kensington of Holland, and in fact the most magnificent village in Europe, 

on the Continent, vol. i.) described them in 1783, the one garden as full of serpentine and the other as full 
of straight lines. In 1814, these gardens had lost much of their former beauty, partly from age and decay, 
but principally from neglect. Jacob (Travels in Germany), in the same year, found them formal and 
crowded with high trees. Neill, in 1817, found in them nothing becoming royalty. 

118. At Broeck and Alkmaar the ancient style is still maintained 
in its purity in the villa gardens. M. Seterveldt's garden near Utrecht 
is also a carefully preserved specimen. Here the grand divisions of the 
garden are made by tall thick hedges of beech, hornbeam, and oak, 
and the lesser by yew and box. There are avenue walks, and berceau 
walks, with openings in the shape of windows in the sides, verdant 
houses, rustic seats (fig. 8.), canals, ponds, grottoes, fountains, statues, 
and other devices j" and," adds the horticultural tourist, "we were 
struck with this circumstance, that every thing in this garden has its 
most exact counterpart : if there be a pond, or walk, or statues, or a 
group of evergreens, on one side; the same may, with confidence, 
be predicted on the other side of the garden ; so that the often quoted 
couplet of Pope, * Grove nods at grove, &c.' can no where be better 
exemplified." (Hart . Tour, 249.) i 

119. At Brussels, among other curiosities, Evelyn mentions a hedge 
of jets d'eau, lozenge-fashion, surrounding a parterre ; and " the park 
within the walls of the city furnished with whatever may render it 
agreeable, melancholy, and country-like." It contained " a stately 
heronry, divers springs of water, artificial cascades, walks, grottoes, 
statues, and root-houses." This park was considerably enlarged some 

years ago ; the then decayed root-houses, grottoes, and more curious water-works removed, and the 
whole divided by broad sanded paths, and decorated with good statues, seats, fountains, and cafes for 

120. The modern, or English style of gardening, Sir 
J. E. Smith informs us, was " quite the fashion" in 
Holland, in 1783; but neither the surface of the 
ground, the confined limits of territorial property, nor 
the general attention to frugality and economy, are 
favorable to this style. Some attempts, on a small 
scale, may be seen from the canals, but we know 
of no extensive parks and pleasure-grounds in this 

121. An example of a Flemish garden in the English 
style (jig. 9.) is given by Kraft; it is of small size, 
but varied by the disposition of the trees, rustic 
seats, and raised surfaces ; and surrounded, as Dutch 
and Flemish gardens usually are, by a canal. It was 
laid out by Charpentier, gardener to the senate of 
France, in the time of Napoleon. 

122. The villa of M. Bertrand of Bruges is thus noticed in the Caledonian Horticultural 
Tour : 

It has extensive grounds, and is flat, but well varied by art. Where the straight walks cross each 
other at right angles, the centre of the point of intersection is shaped into an oblong parterre, resem- 
bling a basket of flowers, and containing showy geraniums in pots, and gaudy flowers of a more hardy 
kind planted in the earth. 

Some things are in very bad tast'e. At every resting-place, some kind of conceit is provided for sur- 
prising the visitant : if he sit down, it is ten to one but the seat is so contrived as to sink under him ; 
if he enter the grotto, or approach the summer-house, water is squirted from concealed or disguised 
fountains, and he does not find it easy to escape' a wetting. The dial is provided with several gnomons, 
calculated to show the corresponding hour at the chief capital cities of Europe ; and also with a lens so 
placed, that during sunshine, the priming of a small cannon falls under its focus just as the sun reaches 
the meridian, when of course the cannon is discharged. 

The principal ornament of the place consists in a piece of water, over which a bridge is thrown ; at one 
end of the bridge is an artificial cave fitted up like a lion's den, the head of a lion cut in stone peeping 
from the entrance. Above the cave is a pagoda, which forms a summer-house three stones high. At 
the top is a cistern which is filled by means of a forcing-pump, and which supplies the mischievous fountains 
already mentioned. 

The little lawns near the mansion-house are decorated with many small plants of the double pome- 
granate, sweet bay, laurustinus, and double myrtle, planted in large ornamented flower-pots and in tubs. 
These plants are all trained with a stem three or four feet high, and with round bushy heads after the 
manner of pollard willows in English meadows. The appearance produced by a collection of such plants 
is inconceivably atiff, to an eye accustomed to a more natural mode of training. Eight American aloes 
(Agave Americana), also in huge -Dutch flower-pots, finish the decoration of the lawn, and it must be 
confessed, harmonize very well with the formal evergreens just described. A very good collection of 
orange-trees in tubs was disposed along the sides of the walks in the flower-garden : two of the myrtle- 
leaved variety were excellent specimens. All of these were pollarded in the style of the evergreen plants. 

The soil of che place, being a mixture of fine vegetable mould, resembling surface peat-earth, with a 
considerable proportion of white sand, seems naturally congenial to the growth of American shrubs ; and, 




indeed, rhododendrons, magnolias, and azaleas thrive exceedingly. In the open border of the flower- 
garden we saw dahlias in great vigour and beauty. 

Several kinds of tender plants were plunged in the open border for summer, particularly the Peruvian 
heliotrope (Heliotropium Pcruvianum), the spedmens of which were uncommonly luxuriant, and, being 
now in full flower, spread their rich fragrance all around. The European heliotrope (H. Europteum) u 
likewise not uncommon in the flower-borders. 

In the fruit-garden we first saw pear and apple trees trained en pyramide or en quenouille' i. e- pre- 
serving only an upright leader, and cutting in the lateral branches every year. 

The hot-houses cover the north side of the fruit. garden. In the centre is a stove or hot-house for the 
most tender plants; on each side of this is a green-house for sheltering more hardy exotics during 
winter ; and at each extremity is a house partly occupied with peach-trees, and partly with grape vines. 
In the space of ground before the houses are ranges of pine pits and melon frames. One frame is dedi- 
cated to a collection of cockscombs (Celosia critata), and these certainly form the boast of M. Bertrand's 
garden ; they are of the dwarfish variety, but large or strong of their kind, and in brilliancy and variety 
of colour, they can scarcely be excelled. 

123. The villa of M. Meulemeester and the place of Marieleerne, in the neighbourhood'of Ghent, are 
described, but they were both in very bad order, though tolerably laid out, and having a good many hot- 

124. The villa ofM. Hopsomere is remarkable for three acres covered with groups of American plants of 
great size and in the highest degree of luxuriance. An irregular piece of water expands itself among the 
groups, and forms numerous bays, islets, sinuosities, &c. The surface is generally of turf, but in some 
places in earth, with edgings of heath to the walks ; the walks are without gravel ; and the gardener, as in the 
other places visited, was wretchedly habited, without shoes or stockings, and could not read. (Hart 
Tour, 74.) 

125. The seat of Madame Filain Quatorze (jig. 10.), like most of the others mentioned, 
and villas in general in this country, is interspersed with water, and the boundary of the 
demesne, instead of being a wall, hedge, or belt of plantation, is a broad canal, over 
which of course is seen the adjacent country. The grounds are of considerable extent, 
and include a farm, pleasure-ground, kitchen and flower garden. A plan of a part of 
the grounds round the house has been given in the horticultural tour, in which the fol- 
lowing objects are indicated : 

A hot-house for exotic plants, (a) 

An aviary with shrubs for the birds to perch upon. (6) 

Gardener's room, (c) 

Green-house. Entrance by flight of wooden steps, (d) 

Stove for exotic plants, (e) 

Dry stove. (/) 

Picture-gallery of a considerable height. It has an arched 
roof, and is lighted from the top. (g) 

Dwelling-house. (A) 

A large mirror is placed at the end of the passage. Lamps 
are suspended from the ceilings of the house, gallery, green- 
house, and stoves, at different places '( + ) When lighted, 
the whole line, from the one extremity to the other, must be 
reflected by the mirror, (i) 

Grape and peach' houses. Peach trees are planted at the 
back wall of each, and vines at the front, (k, k) 

Pits for green-house and stove plants. (I, I, I, I) 

Pits for melons, cucumbers, and other tender plants. (i m) 

Large barn, (n) 

Stable and cow-houses, (o) 

Part of the kitchen -garden, (p) 

Part of the pine-apple stoves, (q) 

Com fields, and a crop of Indian com, wheat, hemp, &c. (r) 

The principal floor of the house and the picture gallery are 
upon the same level, but there is a rise ot a few scc-ps to the 
floors of the stove and green-house, which are elevated above 
the ground more than nine feet. 

126. The place of M. Smetz is the finest near Antwerp. It was laid out in 1752 partly in the Dutch and 
partly in the English taste, and contains at present, scenes of tonsile evergreens, vistas, canals, lakes, 
secret water-works, caves, tombs, a lawn with a flock of stone sheep, . a shepherd and dogs, dwarfs, a 
drunkard, and other paltry contrivances. There are, however, good span-roofed hot-houses, rustic 
seats, fine exotic trees, especially the purple beech (which here seeds freely, and comes purple from the 
seed), catalpa and liquidamber, fine collections of dahlias, asclepias tuberosa, and lilium superbum, 
in extensive groups ; and on the whole " as many natural beauties as can be expected in a flat 
country, and instances of good taste and judicious management more than counterbalanced by those 
of an opposite description." (Hort. Tour, 110.) 

127. The villa of M. Caters de Wolfe near Antwerp is remarkable for two elegant curvilinear hot-houses, 
erected by Messrs. Bailey of London, aad glazed with plate glass. Their effect surpasses any thing 
of the kind on the continent A rich collection of the choicest exotics has lately been procured from 
the Hackney nursery. 


128. The gardens round Rotterdam are generally many feet below the level of the canal On the 
Cingle, a public road which surrounds the city are, a continued series of garden-houses nearly a mile in 
extent; these miniature villas (lust hofs) being separated from each other only by wooden partitions, which 
are generally neatly painted. To these the citizens with their wives retire on Sunday to smoke and take 
coffee. (Hort. Tour, &c. 127.) 

129. The palace-garden at Haerlem formerly occupied by King Louis, and originally the property of the 
celebrated banker, Hope, is in no respect remarkable as to design ; but pines are grown there better 
than in most gardens in Holland, and strawberries are successfully forced. 

130. The Due d'Aremberg'sseat nearEnghien, like many others in Flanders and Holland, was ruined during 
the excesses of the French revolution ; but the Duke is now restoring it, and has begun with the gardens 
rather than with the house. Extensive hot-houses are erected and many new fruit-trees planted. The finest 
part of thepark was not injured, and the horticultural tourists visited the celebrated temple of the grande 
etoile. " This temple is of a heptangular shape, and at the angles on every side are two parallel columns 
placed about a foot apart. From the seven large sides proceed as many broad, straight, and long avenues 
of noble trees, affording rich prospects of the distant country in all these directions ; and from the seven 
angles, and seen between the columns, proceed an equal number of small and narrow alleys, each ter- 
minated by some statue, vase, bust, or other ornament. The temple is surrounded by a moat lined with 
polished marble. The old orange-grove is situated at the end ot the avenue. It is one hundred and 
seventy feet long, and twenty-seven feet wide, and contains one hundred and eight orange-trees in tubs, 
many of them, as is the case in different old family-seats of the Netherlands, presents from the kings of 
Spain 200, 300, and 400 years ago. The trees show straight stems of six or eight feet, and globular 
heads, from which, according to continental practice, protruding shoots and blossoms are pinched off as 
soon as they appear, for culinary and perfumery purposes. (Hort. Tour, 324. 372.) 

SUBSECT. 2. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of 


131. The taste for Jlowers so prevalent in Holland, is thought to have originated with 
their industry early in the twelfth century, the study of flowers being in some degree 
necessary, as affording patterns for the ornamental linen and lace manufacturers. Lobel, 
in the preface to his Histoiredes Plantes, 1756, states, that the taste for plants existed among 
the Flemings during the crusades, and under the dukes of Burgundy ; that they brought 
home plants from the Levant, and the two Indies ; that exotics were more cultivated 
there than any where else ; and that their gardens contained more rare plants than 
all the rest of Europe besides, till, during the civil wars which desolated this country 
in the sixteenth century, many of their finest gardens were abandoned or destroyed. 
Holland, Deleuze observes, had at the end of the seventeenth century, a crowd of dis- 
tinguished botanists : and was then, as during the century preceding, the country the 
most devoted to gardening. (Discours sur Vetat ancien et moderns de I' Agriculture et 
de la Botanique dans les Pays Bas. Par Van Hulthem, 1817; Extrait du Discours pro- 
nonce, $c., a Gand, par M. Cornelissen, 1817.) 

132. The botanic garden of Leyden was begun in 1577, thirty-one years after that of Pa- 
dua. It was confided to Cluyt, a celebrated botanist, afterwards to Bontius, and in 1592, 
L'Ecluse, from Frankfort, was appointed professor of botany. In 1599 they constructed 
a green-house, and, in 1633, the catalogue of the garden contained 1104 species. At 
this time the magistrates, the learned men, and the wealthy citizens were occupied in fa- 
cilitating the progress of botany, and the introduction of new plants. A ship never left 
the port of Holland, Deleuze observes, the captain of which was not desired to procure, 
wherever he put into harbour, seeds and plants. The most distinguished citizens, Be- 
verning, Favel, Simon de Beaumont, and Rheede, filled their gardens with foreign plants, 
at great expense, and had a pleasure in communicating those plants to the garden of 
Leyden. This garden, in Boerhaave's time, who, when professor of botany there, neg- 
lected nothing to augment its riches and reputation, contained (Index alter Plant. 1720.) 
upwards of 6000 plants, species and varieties. Boerhaave here exemplified a principle, 
which he laid down (Elementa Chemia) for adjusting the slope of the glass of hot-houses, 
so as to admit the greatest number of the sun's rays, according to the latitude of the 
place, &c. These principles were afterwards adopted by Linnaeus at Upsal, and by most 
of the directors of botanic gardens in Europe. It was in this garden, about the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century, that the geraniae and ficoidias, and other ornamental 
exotics were first introduced from the Cape. The garden of Leyden was visited by Sir 
J. E. Smith in 1786 (Tour, &c. vol. i. p. 11.), who observes, that it had been much en- 
larged within the last forty years, and was now about as large as the Chelsea garden. 
In 1814 it appeared rather neglected; many blanks existed in the general collection of 
hardy plants, and the hot-houses were much out of repair. It contains, however, some 
curious old specimens of exotics, as Clusius's palm (Chamerops humilis), twenty feet 
high, and upwards of 225 years old ; a curious ash, and various other trees and shrubs, 
planted by Clusius. A new garden, in addition to the old one, and a menagerie, are 
in progress. In this new garden the walks are laid with a mixture of peat-moss and 
tanners' bark reduced to powder. Leyden, Deleuze informs us, was, for more than fifty 
years, the only city in Holland where there was a botanic garden ; but before the middle 
of the seventeenth century, they were established in all the provinces. 

133. The botanic gardens of Amsterdam and Groningen merit particular notice The former was under 
the direction of the two Commelins, John and Gaspar, and was the first garden in Europe that procured 
a specimen of the coffee-tree. A seedling of this tree was sent to Paris in 1714. Two seedlings from this 
plant were sent to Martinique in 1726, and these the Abbe Raynal observes (Hist, de Commerce, tome xvi. 
ch. 20.) produced all the coffee-trees now cultivated in the French colonies. Thie garden still contains 
many remarkable specimens of Cape and Japan plants. (Hort. Tour, 218.) 


134. The garden of Orontngen was begun by Henry Munting, a zealous botanist and learned man, who 
had spent eight years travelling in the different countries of Europe, establishing correspondences between 
botanists and cultivators. He spent the greatest part of his fortune upon his garden; but, in 1641, the 
states of Groningen, thinking so useful an establishment ought to be under the protection of the republic, 
purchased it, and appointed him professor. The catalogue of this garden, published in 1646, contains 
about 1500 plants, without comprehending more than 600 varieties ; 100 of pinks, and lf>0 of tulips. 
Henry Munting was succeeded by his son, Abraham, esteemed for his posthumous work, Phytographia 
Curiosa. Both these gardens are still kept up, but without that enthusiastic ardor which distinguished 
the citizens of Holland, when under more auspicious political circumstances than they are at the present 

135. The Antwerp garden was formerly one of considerable repute in the Low Countries. In 1579 a cata- 
logue of this garden was given by Dodoens (Florum et Coronarium arb. Hist.) which contained a consider- 
able number of plants, including a great variety of tulips and hyacinths. 

136. The garden of Clifford, near Haerlem, of which Linnajus published the history, was the most cele- 
brated in 1 /o7. Clifford got all the new plants from England, and corresponded with the botanists of every 
country. Boerhaave gave him the plants of the Leyden garden ; Siegesbeck sent him those of Russia ; Haller, 
those of the Alps ; and Burman, Roell, Gronovius, and Miller, sent him portions of the seeds which they 
received from different parts of the world. This garden had four magnificent hot-houses ; one for the 
plants of the Levant and the south of Europe, one for Africa, one for India, and one for America. 

137. The botanic garden of Utrecht was founded in 1630, and contains several palms and other exotics, 
brought there at that time. It is still kept intolerable order, but displays no kind of scientific arrange- 
ment (Hort. Tour, 244.) 

138. The botanic garden of Ghent, established by Buonaparte in 1797, is, in the present day, the richest 
and best garden of the Netherlands. The area is about three acres : it has a considerable collection of 
hardy herbaceous plants, arranged after the Linnasan method ; a pleasure-ground, in which the trees and 
shrubs are distributed in natural families, and so as to combine picturesque effect ; an excellent rosary, 
chiefly trained in the tree manner ; and a range of hot-houses, in part with glass roofs. In the pleasure- 
ground the busts of eminent botanists are distributed with good effect ; and on the large boxes of palms, 
and other exotics, are marked the name of the donor, or the year in which the plant or tree was originated, 
or introduced to the garden. On the whole, it is more complete than any garden we have seen south of 
the Rhine, excepting that of Paris. 

139. The royal botanic garden of Brussels has a good collection of orange-trees ; but in all other respects 
is of a very inferior description. 

140. The private botanic gardens of Van Schenen and Dr. Daaler, at Antwerp, are mentioned with ap- 
probation in the Horticultural Tour. (p. 121.) 

141. Ttie botanic garden of M.Parmentier, mayor of Enghien, is not only the richest in the low countries, 
but, perhaps, in Europe. In 1817, Neill and his companions considered it as only exceeded in exotics by 
the collection at Kew, or at Messrs. Loddiges. 

142. Festivals of Flora are held twice a year, at midsummer and midwinter, by the 
Agricultural Society of Ghent, and others. The plants are exhibited for three days. " By 
a pleasing fiction, the plants alone are said to be competitors, and the successful plant is 
said to be crowned." The reward is an honorary medal. (Hort. Tour, &c. p. 521.) 

143. Florists' flowers began to be objects of commerce in Holland, about the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. Double flowers were then first noticed, or brought into repute, 
which may be said to have created a new aera in gardening, and certainly laid the found- 
ation in Holland of a considerable commerce : the more valuable, as it is totally inde- 
pendent of political or civil changes, and founded on the peculiar qualities of the soil and 
climate for growing bulbous roots. The florimania, as it is termed by the French, ex- 
isted in the highest degree among the Dutch, from the beginning to the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Many noted instances are on record, of the extravagant sums given 
for flowers possessing certain qualities agreed on by florists as desiderata, and established 
about this time as canons of beauty. Hirschfield states, that in the register of the city of 
Alkmaar, in the year 1637, they sold publicly, for the benefit of the Orphan Hospital, 
120 tulips, with their offsets, for 9000 florins ; and that one of those flowers, named the 
Viceroy, was sold for 4203 florins. When we consider the value of money at this remote 
period, .these sums appear enormous, a florin at that time in Holland (Anderson's His- 
tory of Commerce) being the representative of nearly an English bushel of wheat. 

144. The commercial flower-gardens or bloemesteries of Haerlem have long been the most 
celebrated for bulbous-rooted flowers. The name of Van Eden has been noted for upwards 
of a century; and there are now four gardens occupied by different members of this 
family, celebrated florists. That of Voorhelm is of equal antiquity and celebrity. Of 
the gardens of both families, and of several others, accounts will be found in the Horti- 
cultural Tour. The most extensive and best managed is said to be that of Schneevoght, 
lately a partner with Voorhelm. 

145. The florimanists, Bosc observes, were much more numerous towards the middle 
of the last century than at this moment (1809). " One does not now hear of twenty 
thousand francs being given for a tulip ; of a florist depriving himself of his food, in order 
to increase the number and variety of his anemonies, or passing entire days in admiring 
the colours of a ranunculus, the grandeur of a hyacinth, or trembling, lest the breath of 
an over-curious admirer should hurt the bloom of an auricula." The general price of 
choice bulbs now, it is observed in the Horticultural Tour, varies from three to ten 
guilders (a guild. = Is. Sd.) ; a few kinds are valued at from ten to twenty guilders ; 
and the most select, new, and consequently rare, varieties, seldom fetch more than from 
twenty to 50 guilders. Among the most precious at this time are, the Universal Con- 
queror, Pompe Funebre, and Charbonier Noir, with yellow grounds ; Louis XVI. and 
Toilette Sup^rieure, with white grounds, and the price of them is one hundred guilders 
(8 2s. 6d.) a bulb. (Hort. Tour. p. 195.) 


SUBSECT. 3. Dutch Gardening in respect to the Culture of Fruits and Culinary Vegetables. 

146. The Dutch and Flemings are eminent as fruit-gardeners, but, as Harte observes, 
they are better operators than writers, and having at the same time a good deal of the 
spirit of gens de metier, we have almost nothing to offer in the way of historical inform- 
ation. Those gardens, which Gesner and Stephanus inform us were so richly stocked 
with flowers early in the sixteenth century, would, no doubt, be equally so with fruits 
and legumes. One of the earliest books on the horticulture of the Low Countries, is 
that of Van Osten, published about the end of the seventeenth century. They appear at 
that time to have had all the fruits, now in common cultivation, in considerable variety, 
excepting the pine-apple, which Miller informs us was introduced about that time by Le 
Cour, of Leyden, from the West Indies, although not mentioned by Van Osten or Com- 
melin. It is generally said, that about the same period all the courts in Europe were supplied 
with early fruits from Holland. Benard admits (quoted in Repertory of Arts, 1802,) that 

-this was the case with the court of France, so late as the reign of Louis the Fourteenth. 
Miller informs us that Le Cour paid great attention to gardening, and especially to the 
culture of wall-fruits, and that he tried the effects of different kinds of walls and modes 
of training. Speechly, early in the eighteenth century, made a tour in that country, 
chiefly to observe the Dutch mode of cultivating the pine and the grape ; they forced, he 
informs us (2V. on the Vine), chiefly in pits and low houses, and produced ripe grapes 
of the sweet-water kind in March and April. The Low Countries are celebrated for 
good varieties of the apple and pear. The supplies of these articles sent to the markets 
of Brussels, Antwerp, and Amsterdam, are equal, if not beyond any thing of the kind to 
be met with elsewhere in Europe. The climate of Flanders suits these fruits ; that of 
Holland is rather adverse to flavor, from its moisture ; but peaches, pines, and melons 
attain a larger size than in France. Tournay is so much celebrated for its pears, that the 
Ghent Society, in 1816, offered a prize for " the best explanation of the causes of the 
superiority in size, beauty, and flavor, of the pears grown at Tournay." (Hort. Tour, 333.) 
Forcing in pits and frames, is carried to great perfection in Holland, and melons and 
pines are, at the present time, sent to the London and Paris markets, and sold for very 
moderate prices. 

147. The culinary vegetables of Holland are brought to great perfection. All the plants 
of culture, and especially the cabbage tribe, turnip, onion, carrot, &c. are grown to 
a large size, and very succulent. Of plants edible in their natural state, as the parsley 
and other herbs, and the fungi, they have excellent varieties. For leguminous crops the 
climate is sometimes too moist. Brussels is noted for the greens or sprouts, which bear 
the name of that town ; and Van Mons informs us (Hort. Trans, iii. 197.) that they are 
mentioned in the market regulations of that city so early as 1213. The Caledonian 
Tourists, in 1817, found the markets of Ghent and Amsterdam better supplied with 
culinary vegetables than any in Holland. The cauliflower was excellent. The Dutch 
also excel in asparagus, carrots, and purslane. 

148. Forcing- houses have been long in use in Holland, but the date of their introduc- 
tion we have not been able to learn. It is singular that they are not once mentioned in 
the early editions of Van Osten, published from 1689 to 1750 ; but Adanson (Families 
des Plantes, Preface,} writing about the latter period, speaks of the hot-houses of the 
Dutch in terms which evidently refer to forcing-houses. Orangeries, and botanic houses, 
we have seen, (133.) were in use so early as 1599. Within the last twenty years the demand 
for forced productions has greatly diminished in Holland. Summer, or what are called 
main crops, are now chiefly attempted, both in public and private gardens ; but after the 
annexation of Holland to France, and since its subsequent union with Flanders, the 
spirit for enjoyments of even this sort, has declined with the means of procuring them. 

SUBSECT. 4. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and Hedges. 

149. Planting is not very general in Holland. In a country so thickly peopled, and 
so conveniently situated in respect to marine commerce, it is not likely that much 
ground would be devoted to merely useful plantations. In the more inland parts of 
Flanders, there are natural forests and extensive copses ; these have been, and continue 
to be kept up, and in some cases increased in extent by planting land too poor for culti- 
vation. In Radcliff's Agricultural Survey of that country, some account will be found 
of their management. We observed, in 1819, some belts and clumps forming, in the 
English manner, on some waste lands near Cambray, and that the Duke of Wellington was 
planting on his estate at Waterloo. Between Aranagoen and Rhenen, a tract of land, 
several miles in extent, and no better in quality than Bagshot-heath, is planted with 
Scotch firs, Weymouth pines, beech, and birch; and many hundred acres adjoining 
have been sown with acorns for copse, and enclosed with thorn hedges. 

150. Avenues, hedge-rows, and ozier-holts, are the principal plantations of the Dutch. 
In these they excel, and the country in consequence resembles a series of gardens. 


Avenue trees, chiefly elms and oaks, are trained for eight or ten years hi the nursery ; 
repeatedly removed so as to become furnished with numerous fibrous roots, and pruned 
so as to have clean smooth stems from ten to fifteen feet high. Avenues, being public 
property, are under the care of proper officers. Judging from the vigorous growth 
of the trees, and the manner in which they are pruned, these officers seem to under- 
stand their business, and to do their duty. In Rotterdam, on the quays, are perhaps the 
finest trees in Holland: they are narrow-leaved elms, upwards of fifty feet high, with 
clear stems of twenty-five feet, and upwards, of a century old. At the Hague are re- 
markably fine limes in the Mall, on the road to Scheveling ; and oaks, elms, and beeches, 
round the palace called the House in the Wood. The hornbeam is a very common 
plant for the garden-hedges. Every plant in the row or hedge is trained with an 
upright stem, and the side shoots are shorn so closely, that we often find hedges of six 
or eight feet high, not more than eighteen inches wide at base, contracted to six 
inches wide at top. These hedges receive their summer shearing in July, by which time 
scarlet runners are ready to shoot up from the garden side of their base, which in the 
course of two months, cover the hedge with their fresh verdure and brilliant blossoms, 
and present a good crop in October and the beginning of November. The Dutch have 
also very excellent field-hedges of birch and willow, as well as of all the usual hedge- 
plants, and the gardeners are particularly dexterous at cutting, training, and shearing them. 
The deep moist grounds on the banks of their estuaries are particularly favorable for 
the growth of the willow, and the hoops of two years' growth from the Dutch willow fa 
variety of Salix alba, with a brownish bark,) are in great esteem in commerce. Their 
common basket willows (S. viminialis) are also excellent. 

SU.BSECT. 5. Dutch Gardening, as empirically practised. 

151. Hapjiily the use of gardens is universal in the Netherlands; and of the Dutch and 
Flemings it may be truly said in the words of Lord Temple, " that gardening has been 

the common favorite of public and private men ; a pleasure of the greatest, and a care of 
the meanest, and indeed an employment and a possession, for which no man there is 
too high nor too low." The gardens of the cottagers in these countries are undoubtedly 
better managed and more productive than those of any other country; no man who has 
a cottage is without a garden attached ; often small, but rendered useful to a poor family 
by the high degree of culture given to it. Every available particle of matter capable of act- 
ing as manure is assiduously collected, and thrown into a neat ridge, cone, or bed, which 
is turned over frequently ; and when sufficiently fermented and ameliorated, applied to 
the soil. The plants in general cultivation in the cottage-gardens are the cabbage tribe, 
including Brussels sprouts, the white beet for the leaves and stalks, the parsnip, carrot, 
yellow and white turnip, potatoe, the pea, bean, and kidney-bean ; the apple, pear, and 
currant, and in some places, the vine trained over the cottage, are the fruits ; and double 
stocks, rockets, wall-flowers, pinks, violets, roses, and honey-suckles, the leading flowers 
and plants of ornament. It is almost unnecessary to add, that the gardens of the trades- 
men, farmers, citizens, private gentlemen, and princes, rise in gradation, in extent, riches, 
and high keeping. 

152. The principal nurseries, florists* gardens, and market-gardens are in the neigh- 
bourhood of Amsterdam, Haerlem, and Antwerp. These gardens formerly supplied 
trained trees, vines, and all the most valuable plants to Britain, and other parts of 
Europe ; and the florists still continue to monopolise the commerce of bulbous roots. 
Great part of the fruit-trees sent by London and Wise from their nursery at Brompton 
Park, in the beginning of the 18th century, were previously imported from Holland ; 
many of them reared in large wicker-baskets, were sent over in that state, and produced 
fruit the first year after final planting. Justice (Brit. Card. Dir.) gives credit to the 
Dutch nurserymen for accuracy and punctuality ; he mentions Voerhelms and Van 
Zompel as tradesmen which he could recommend ; and it is remarkable, that the same 
establishment (Voorhelm and Schneevooght) is the most eminent at this day. Garden- 
seeds, for which Holland has long been celebrated, are chiefly grown by the market- 
gardeners and small farmers round Haerlem. Roses are extensively grown at Noord- 
wyck, between Leyden and Haerlem, for the apothecaries, and the dried leaves are sent 
to Amsterdam and Constantinople. The sorts are, the Dutch 100-leaved and the com- 
mon cabbage rose. A striking characteristic of Dutch fruit and forest tree nurseries is 
the length of time the trees are trained in the nursery. They are so often removed there, 
as to have a large fasciculus of fibrous roots, and the fruit-trees commonly bear for a year 
or two before they are sold, at least for local planting. Ready-grown hedges and shrubs, 
of various sizes and shapes, may be purchased ; and as they have been transplanted every 
third year, like the trees, there is little risk of their not succeeding. At Brussels, pro- 
fessor Van Mons has established a fruit-tree nursery, which he calls Pepiniere de la Fide- 
lite, in which are grown upwards of 800 new varieties of pear, raised by himself and M . 
Duquesne of Mons, since 1 803, besides new varieties of the other hardy fruit-trees. 


1 53. The operative gardeners in Holland are for the most part apprenticed, and serve 
as journeymen before they are employed to undertake the care of gardens where several 
hands are employed ; but so general is horticultural knowledge, that every labourer is 
considered as capable of cropping and dressing an ordinary tradesman or farmer's garden. 

154. There are few or no artist-gardeners in Holland. Eminent practical gardeners are 
employed to lay out walled kitchen-gardens ; and artists from Paris, generally called in 
to lay out parks or pleasure-grounds of more than ordinary extent. 

SUBSECT. 6. Dutdi Gardening, as a Science, and in reject to the Authors it has 


155. Horticulture as a science, has been less cultivated in the Netherlands than in 
Italy or France. The botanists of the country were not among the first to advance the 
study of physiology, nor has any of their practical men appeared with the science of a 
Quintiney or a Miller. " The patience and riches," Bosc observes, " which produced 
so high a degree of florimania in Holland, might have been usefully employed in ad- 
vancing vegetable physiology; but science owes nothing to the Dutch in this branch." 
At the present time, when science is so rapidly and so universally spread, the learned 
in the Netherlands are unquestionably on a footing with those of other countries; a proof 
of which may be derived from the remarks of Van Mons, Van Marum, and other Dutch 
and Flemish correspondents of our Horticultural and Linna?an Societies. The ma- 
jority of working gardeners may be considered as nearly on a par with those of this 
country in point of science, and before them in various points of practice. 

156. The Dutch and Flemings have few authors on gardening, and the reason may be, 
the universality of practical knowledge in that country. Commelin and Van Osten are 
their principal authors. The former published the Hortua Amstelodamus, in 2 vols. 
folio, in 1697, and subsequently a small work on orange-trees; and Van Osten, who 
was gardener at Ley den, published his Dutch Gardener about 1710. Various French 
works on gardening have been printed at the Hague, and other parts of Holland. 

SECT. III. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in France* 

157. Three <eras mark the gardening of France ; that of Charlemagne, in the eighth ; 
of Louis XIV., in the middle of the seventeenth ; and that of the Revolution, at the 
end of the eighteenth centuries. The first introduced the best fruits, and spread the use 
of vineyards and orchards ; the second was marked by splendor in design ; and the third 
by increased botanical and scientific knowledge. 

SUBSECT. 1. French Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

158. Though the gardening of Charlemagne in the eighth century was chiefly of the useful 
kind, yet he is said (see Nigellius} to have had a noble palace at Ingleheim, on the Rhine, 
supported by a hundred columns of Italian marble. This could hardly be erected, 
without an accompanying and decorative garden, though the frugal habits of that prince 
might prevent an extravagant display of design. From the Hortulus of Walafrid, pub- 
lished in the beginning of the ninth century, it appears that gardens were in these times 
made only within the walls of castles and monasteries. 

159. Previously to the sixteenth century, any notices of gardening in France chiefly 
relate to other branches than that under consideration. At the end of this century, 
Francis the First built the palace of Fontainbleau, and introduced there some traits of 
the gardening of Italy. Stephens and Liebault published their Maison llustique 
about this time ; the early editions contain little on the subject of design, farther than 
directions for forming avenues, arbors, and flower-gardens. 

160. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, Hirschfield observes, the gardens of 
France consisted only of a few trees and flowers, some plots of turf, and pieces of 
water ; the whole, he adds, according to their own accounts, " totally deprived of taste, 
and completely wild and neglected." 

161. About the middle of the seventeenth century, and in the second year of Louis the 
Fourteenth's reign, France was visited by Evelyn, who makes the following remarks on 
the gardens in and near Paris: 

The garden of the Tuillerics " is rarely contrived for privacy, shade, or company, by groves, plantations 
of tall trees, especially that in the middle, being of elms, and another of mulberries. There is a labyrinth 
of cypress, noble hedges of pomegranates, fountains, fish-ponds, and an aviary. There is an artificial echo, 
redoubling the words distinctly, and it is never without some fair nymph singing to it. Standing at one 
of the focuses, which is under a tree, or little cabinet of hedges, the voice seems to descend from the 
clouds ; at another, as if it were under ground. This being at the bottom of the garden, we were let into 
another, which, being kept with all imaginable accurateness as to the orangery, precious shrubs, and rare 
fruits, seemed a Paradise/' 

St. Germains en Lay. " By the way I alighted at St. Cloes, where, on an eminence near the river, the 
archbishop of Paris has a garden, for the house is not very considerable, newly watered, and furnished 
with statues, fountains, and groves ; the walks are very fine ; the fountain of Laocoon is in a large square 
pool throwing the water near forty feet high, and having about it a multitude of statues and basins, and 
is a surprising object ; but nothing is more esteemed than the cascade, falling from the great steps into 



the lowest and longest walk from the Mount Parnassus, which consists of a grotto, or shell house, on the 
summit of the hill, wherein are divers water-works, and contrivances to wet the spectators." 

Cardinal lUcliclieu's villa at liuell. " The house is small, but fairly built in form of a castle, moated 
round. The offices are towards the road, and over-against them are large vineyards walled in. Though 
the house is not of the greatest size, the gardens about it are so magnificent, that I doubt whether Italy 
has any exceeding it for varieties of pleasure. The garden nearest the pavilion is a parterre, having in 
the midst divers brass statues, perpetually spouting water into an ample basin, with other figures of the 
same metal ; but what is most admirable is the vast enclosure, and a variety of ground in the large garden 
containing vineyards, corn-fields, meadows, groves, (whereof one is of perennial greens), and walks of vast 
lengths, so accurately kept and cultivated, that nothing can be more agreeable. On one of these walks, 
within a square of tall trees, is a basilisk of copper, which, managed by the fountaineer, casts water near 
sixty feet high, and will, of itself, move round so swiftly, that one can hardly escape wetting. This leads 
to the Citronifire where is a noble conserve of all those rarities ; and at the end of it is the arch of Con- 
stantine, painted on a wall in oil, as large as the real one at Rome, so well done, that even a man skilled in 
painting may mistake it for stone and sculpture. The sky and hills, which seem to be between the arches, 
are so natural, that swallows and other birds, thinking to fly through, have dashed themselves against the 
wall. At the farther part of this walk is that plentiful, though artificial, cascade, which rolls down a very steep 
declivity, and over the marble steps and basins, with an astonishing noise and fury ; each basin hath a 
jette in "it, flowing like sheets of transparent glass, especially that which rises over the great shell of lead, 
from whence it glides silently down a channel, through the middle of a spacious gravel-walk, terminating in 
a grotto. Here are also fountains that cast water to a great height, and large ponds, two of which have islands 
for harbour of fowls, of which there is store. One of these islands has a receptacle for them, built of vast 
pieces of rock, near fifty feet high, grown over with moss, ivy, &c. shaded, at a competent distance, with 
tall trees ; in this the fowls lay eggs and breed. We then saw a large and very rare grotto of shell-work, 
in the shape of satyrs, and other wild fancies j in the middle stands a marble table, on which a fountain 
plays in forms of glasses, cups, crosses, fans, crowns, &c. Then the fountaineers represent a shower of 
rain, from the top, met by small jets from below. At going out, two extravagant musketeers shot us with 
a stream of water from their musket-barrels. Before this grotto is a long pool, into which ran divers 
spouts of water from leaden escallop basins. The viewing this Paradise made us late at St. Germains." 

St. Germains. " The first building of this palace is of Charles V. called the Sage ; but Francis I. (that 
true virtuoso} made it complete. Speaking as to the style of magnificence then in fashion, which was with 
too great a mixture of the Gothic, as may be seen of what there is remaining of his in the old castle, an 
irregular piece as built on the old foundation, and having a moat about it. It has yet some spacious and 
handsome rooms of state, and a chapel neatly painted. The new castle is at some distance, divided from 
this by a court, of a lower but more modern design, built by Henry IV. To this belong six terraces, built 
of brick and stone, descending in cascades, towards the river, cut out of the natural hill, having under 
them grandly vaulted galleries ; of these, four have subterraneous grots and rocks, where are represented 
several objects, in the manner of scenes, and other motions by force of water, shown by the light of torches 
only ; amongst these is Orpheus, with his music, and the animals which dance after his harp ; in the 
second, is the king and dolphin (dauphin) ; in the third is Neptune sounding his Trumpet, his chariot 
drawn by sea-horses ; in the fourth, Perseus, and Andromeda ; mills, hermitages, men fishing, birds 
chirping, and many other devices. There is also a dry grot to refresh in, all having a fine prospect towards 
the river, and the goodly country about it, especially the forest At the bottom is a parterre ; the upper 
terrace near half a mile in length, with double declivities, arched and balustered with stone of vast and 
royal cost. In the pavilion of the new castle are many fair rooms well painted, and leading into a very 
noble garden and park, where there is a pall-mall, in the midst of which, on one of the sides, is a chapel 
with a stone cupola, though small, yet of a handsome order of architecture. Out of the park you go 
into the forest, which, being very large, is stored with deer, wild boars, wolves, and other wild game. 
The Tennis-court, and Cavaleriz/o for the maneged horses, are also very observable." 

The Count de Liancourt's palace, in the rue de Seine, " is well-built. Towards his study and bed- 
chamber joins a little garden, which, though very narrow, by the addition of a well-painted perspective, 
is to appearance greatly enlarged ; to this there is another part, supported by arches, in which runs a. 
stream of water, rising in the aviary, out of a statue, and seeming to flow for some miles, by being arti- 
ficially continued in the painting, where it sinks down at the wall. It is a very agreeable deception. At 
the end of this garden is a little theatre, made to change with divers pretty scenes, and the stage so ordered 
that figures of men and women, painted on light boards, and cut out, are by a person who stands under- 
neath, made to act as if they were speaking, by guiding them, and reciting words, in different tones, as the 
parts require, &c." 

A pretty garden at Caen, " planted with hedges of alaternus, having at the entrance a screen of an ex- 
ceeding height, accurately cut in topiary work." 

The gardens of the Luxembourg are near an English mile in circumference. The parterre is, indeed, 
of box, but so rarely designed and accurately kept cut, that the embroidery makes a wonderful effect to 
the lodgings which front it. The walks are exactly fair, long, and variously descending, and so justly 

ironed by 

a dry moat ; the offices underground ; the gardens are very excellent, with extraordinary long walks, set 
with elms, and a noble prospect towards the forest, and on the Seine towards Paris. Take it altogether, the 
meadows, walks, river, forest, corn-ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw any thing in Italy to exceed it. 
The iron gates are very magnificent." (Memoirs, p. 239.) 

162. Tfie French taste in laying out gardens may be considered as having been settled 
and confirmed by Le Notre during the reign of Louis XIV. Le Notre's taste and style, 

Daines Barrington observes, continued in full repute for upwards of a century ; and 
appears to have been in general vogue so late as 1771, fifty years after the introduction 
of the modern style in England. However remarkable this may appear, it is a fact which 
does not admit of a doubt ; for Millin, the editor of the Journal Encydopedique, in a 
critique on the translation of Wheatley's Observations on Modern Gardening, published 
that year, after the most liberal encomiums on the work, expresses his doubts as to how 
the modern style would be received in France, where he adds, " Le Notre's school is 
still followed, and every rich proprietor is anxious that his garden, if it does not resemble, 
shall at least recall to his mind those of the court, at Versailles, Trianon, Meudon, 
Sceaux, or Clugny." 

163. Le Notre was the most celebrated gardener that probably ever existed. If Le JNotre, 
observes Hirschfield, had been born under any other monarch than Louis the XIV., his 
taste would, in all probability, never have spread, or his name been known to posterity. 
But that age, in which a feeling for the fine arts had begun to awake in men's minds, 


together with the personal character of this monarch, was favorable to pomp and 
brilliancy. The nation and the court wished to be dazzled and enchanted by novelty and 
singularity ; and though there certainly was nothing in Le Notre's manner that had not 
before been displayed in France and Italy, and with the exception of parterres, even by 
the Romans, yet the grand scale and sumptuous expense of the plans surpassed every 
thing before seen in France, and produced precisely the desired end. His long clipt 
alleys, triumphal arches, richly decorated and highly wrought parterres ; his fountains 
and cascades, with their grotesque and strange ornaments ; his groves, full of architecture 
and gilt trellises ; his profusion of statues and therms ; all these wonders springing up 
in a desert-looking open country, dazzled and enchanted every class of observers. Le 
Notre was educated an architect, and had attained his fortieth year before he finished his 
first work in the rural department of his profession, the garden of Faux le Ficomple, 
afterwards V. le Villars, and now (1823) Vaux Praslin. The king, enchanted with 
this decoration, made Le Notre his controller-general of buildings and director of gardens, 
loaded him with presents, gave him a patent of nobility, and made him Knight of the order 
of Saint Michael. His principal works are Versailles, which cost nearly 200 millions 
of francs ; Trianon, Meudon, Saint Cloud, Sceaux, Chantilly, and the celebrated terrace 
of Saint Germains. The gardens of the Tuilleries, the Champs Elysees, and many others 
were either formed by him or improved from his designs. In 1678 he went to Italy, 
where he furnished the plans of several gardens, particularly those of the villas Pamphili 
and Ludovisi. England, Sweden, and all Europe adopted his manner. He died in 
1700. (Hirschjield, torn. v. 298.) 

164. The gardens of Versailles, the grand effort of Le Notre, have been so frequently 
described, and are so generally known, that we shall only quote one or two opinions 
concerning them. Hirschfteld considers them not as models of taste, but as models of 
a particular class or character of gardens. Gray the poet was struck with their splendor 
when filled with company, and when the water-works were in full action. Lord 
Kaimes says they would tempt one to believe that nature was below the notice of a 
great monarch, and therefore monsters must be created for him as being more astonish- 
ing productions. Bradley says, " Versailles is the sum of every thing that has been done 
in gardening." Agricola, a German author, declares (Phil. Treat, on Agr. Trans, by 
Bradley,} that the sight of Versailles gave him a foretaste of Paradise. Our opinion 
coincides with Gray's : " Such symmetry," as Lord Byron observes, " is not for soli- 
tude." During the Revolution, it was proposed that the palace and gardens should be 
sold as national property ; but M. Le Roy, the architect, greatly to his honor, stepped 
forward. and represented that the palace might be usefully employed for public purposes, 
and the garden rendered productive of food for the people. " This satisfied the citizens : 
a military school was established in the palace ; and by planting some of the parterres 
with apple-trees, and others with potatoes, the garden was saved." Niell was in- 
formed, that by calculation the water-works of Versailles, which are not played off 
oftener than eight or ten times a-year, cost 2001. per hour. There is an orange-tree 
here " seme in 1421," and thirty feet high. (Hort. Tour, 409. et seq.) 

165. Le Notre s successor was Dufresnoy, controller of buildings; his taste differed 
considerably from that of his predecessor, and he is said to have determined on inventing a 
style different and more picturesque. He preferred unequal surfaces, and sometimes at- 
tempted these by art. His style had something of the modern English manner, but 
his projects were rarely carried into execution. He was accused of being two ex- 
pensive ; but it is more probable that the chief objection to his taste was the continued 
prevalence of that of his predecessor. However, he constructed, in a style superior to 
that of Le Notre, the gardens of the Abbe" Pajot, near Vincennes, and in the Faubourg 
Saint Antoine, two other gardens of his own, now known under the names of Moulin, and 
of Chemincreux. Marly has been erroneously attributed to Dufresnoy, but it was 
constructed from the plans of the architect Druse", controller of the works at St. Ger- 
mains. The garden of Bagnolet is the principal work of Desgodetz, a relation of Le 
Notre. Chapelle d'Isle and the brothers Mansard, and other architects, at that time 
constructed several gardens in France, but on the general plan of that of Le Notre. 
Millin considers Dufresnoy as an artist of much greater genius than Le Notre, and 
more attached to natural beauties, though less known by his talent for designing gardens 
than by his comedies. 

166. The English style of gardening began to pass into France, after the peace of 
1762, and was soon afterwards pursued with the utmost enthusiasm. Hirschfield af- 
firms that they set about destroying the ancient gardens, and replanting them in the 
English manner, with a warmth more common to the mania of imitation than the genius 
of invention. Even a part of the gardens of Versailles were removed, as De Lille la- 
ments (Les Jardins, 4th edit. p. 40.), to make way for a young plantation a VAngloise. 
Dufresnoy, as we have already stated, had been bold enough to depart from the former 
style, and Gabriel Thouin, in the preface to his Plans Raisonnes des Jardins, &c. (1818) 

D 2 




says, this artist gave the model of natural gardens on a piece of ground which belonged 
to him in the Faubourg Saint Antoine, already alluded to, and thus fixed the principles 
of natural (that is, English; gardening in France about the commencement of the last 
century. Laugier is the first French author who espoused the English style of garden- 
ing in his Essai sur V Architecture, published in 1753 ; and next in order Prev6t, in his 
Homme du Gout, published in 1770. About the same time, the first notable example 
was preparing at Ermenonville, the seat of Viscount Girardin, about ten leagues 
from Paris. An account of this place was written by Girardin himself in 1775, and 
published in 1777. It was soon after translated into English by D. Malthus, Esq. 
and is well known for its eloquent descriptions of romantic and picturesque scenes. 
Morel observes, in his Tkeorie des Jardins, published in 1766, that very little had been 
done previously to 1766 : he mentions Ermenonville, as to which he had been con- 
sulted, and the Due d'Aumont's park at Guiscard, and a seat near Chateau 
Thiery, chiefly laid out by him. Soon after Morel's work, Delille's celebrated poem, 
(Les Jardins,} made its appearance, and is perhaps a more unexceptionable performance 
than TJie English Garden of Mason. The French, indeed, have written much better 
on gardening and agriculture than they have practised, a circumstance which may be 
accounted for, from the general concentration of wealth and talent in the capital, where 
books are more frequent than examples ; and of professional reputation in that country, 
depending more on what a man has written, than on what he has done. It does not ap- 
pear that English gardening was ever at all noticed by the court of France. 

167. ErmenonviUe (fig.ll.), still in the Girardin family, but now rather neglected, appears to have been 
laid out in a chaste and picturesque style, and in this respect to have been somewhat different and superior 


to contemporary English places. The chateau (a) was placed on an island in the lake, near the village 
Among other objects in the grounds were Rousseau's cottage (c) ; his tomb in the Island of Poplars (d) ; 
that of the landscape-painter Mahier, who had assisted Girardin in designing the improvements in an 
adjoining island (e) ; a garden in ruins (/), and the grand cascade (g). Useless buildings were in a great 
degree avoided, and the picturesque effect of every object carefully considered, not in exclusion of, but in 
connection with their utility. There is hardly an exceptionable principle, or even direction referring to 
landscape-gardening laid down in the course of Girardin's Essay; and in all that relates to the pictu- 
resque, it is remarkable how exactly it corresponds with the ideas of Price. Girardin, high in military 
rank, had previously visited every part of Europe, and paid particular attention to England, and before 
publishing his work,' he had the advantage of consulting those of Wheatley, Shenstone, G. Mason, and 
Chambers, from the first of which he has occasionally borrowed. He professes, however, that his object 
is neither to create English gardens, nor Chinese gardens, and less to divide his grounds into pleasure- 
grounds, parks, or ridings, than to produce interesting landscapes, " paysages interessans," &c. Here- 

days of Rousseau, who died at Ermenonville, and was buried in the Island of Poplars (d) there, informs us, 
that Girardin kept a band of musicians, who constantly perambulated the grounds making concerts some- 
times in the woods and at other times on the waters, and in scenes calculated for particular seasons, so 
as to draw the attention of visitors to them at the proper time. At night they retumed to the house, 
and performed in a room adjoining the hall of company. Madame Girardin and her daughters were 
clothed in common brown stuff, en amazones, with black hats, while the young men wore " habillements 
le plus simple et le pluspropres d les faire confondre avec les enfans du campagnards," &c. 


168. WaicleVs garden, the Moulin joli, thp next example of the English style in France, is of a very 
tlitfort'iU description from Ermenonville. Watelet is the author of an Essai sur les Jardins, which aiw 
pea red in 1774. His garden was situated in the suburbs of Paris, on the Seine, and contained about four 
acres, varied by buildings, grottoes, temples, and inscriptions, and was, on the whole, more in the Chinese 
style, than in that of Kent or Shenstone. The author, who professes to take utility for the basis of his 
art, seems to have felt something wanting, in this particular,, to his temples and altars, and is ridiculed 
by Hirsch field (Thvorie dcs Jardins, torn. i. p. 168.) for proposing occasionally " de faire paroitrc aupres 
les temples, et les autels, les arcs de triomphc, $c. une troupe de pantomimes, values suivant Ic costume neces- 
saire, imitant des ceremonies, faisant dt-s sacrifices, allant porter des offrandcs," &c. The Prince de Ligne 
admired Watelet's garden almost as much as that of Girardin, though in so different a style. After de- 
scribing it, he says, " Allex-y, incredules Meditezsur les inscriptions que legduty a dictees. Meditcz 

avec le sage, soupirex avec Vamant, et benissex Watelet." (Mem. et Lettres, &c. 230.) The object of such 
as attempt English gardening in France on a small scale is still more to imitate the garden of Watelet, 
than the " passages interessans" of Girardin. 

169. Of other English or mixed gardens which existed before the Revolution, the garden 
of Mouceau, the property of the Duke of Orleans, was laid out by Blaikey, a British 
landscape-gardener resident in France, in a romantic and irregular style. Blaikey also 
formed some scenes in the Petit Trianon, especially in the lower part of the grounds, now 
occupied by ruins, water, and a cottage, and in their kind very picturesque. It was here 
that the queen of Louis XVI. used to entertain her guests habited as a shepherdess ; 
that the citizens used to hold fetes champetres during the Revolution ; and that Napoleon 
made a residence for Maria Louisa. Having reverted to the Bourbons, it is now com- 
paratively neglected and dilapidated. (Hort. Tour, 406.) Bagatelle, in the Bois de 
Bologne, formerly the retreat of Count d'Artois, and the Duke of Orleans's park at 
Raincy, were laid out, in 1779, in the same taste, and by the same artist. The Jardin 
de Marbceuf was planted by the Chevalier Jansin, an Englishman. (Ed. Encyc. xii. 543.) 
De Lille cites the gardens of Beloeil, the chateau of the Prince de Ligne. Montreuil, a 
garden of the Princess Gremene* ; Maupertuis, a garden of the Marquis de Montes- 
quieu, with a beautifully varied surface, abundance of wood and water, and a desert 
after the manner of Mereville. He mentions several others, all of which are figured in 
Recueil des Jardins, 16 cahiers, folio, and most of them described by Hirschfield (torn. i. 
& v.), who considers Mereville and Ermenonville, as the two best specimens of English 
gardening in France. 

Mereville, the seat of M. La Borde, was one of the most considerable in France, and was laid out im. 
mediately before the Revolution under the guidance of Robert, a famous landscape-painter. The chateau 
stood on a terrace, and commanded a distant prospect over a marsh originally ot little interest. But the 
wall of this terrace was covered with artificial rock-work, a river formed in the marsh witji a bridge and 
cascade. The general surface was raised by earth, and on the right and left of the view from the house 
were raised considerable hills of earth, the one surmounted by a column 120 feet high, serving as a prospect- 
tower, and the other by a Doric temple of 17 columns. At the base of one hill was a magnificent grotto 
and rocks, and near the other stables in the character of Gothic ruins. Various buildings were erected in 
other parts of the grounds ; one to the memory of Captain Cook, and another to that of M. Laborde's two 
sons, who perished in the voyage of La Peyrouse. Every hardy exotic tree was planted, and many of them, 
as the tulip-tree, ailanthus, sophora, &c. grew with great vigor and flowered luxuriantly. Many millions 
of francs were expended on this place, which for some years past has been falling into decay and has been 
lately sold in lots. 

One of the finest modern parks in France is that of D'Argenson near Vienne. Mathews (Diary 
of an Invalid) considered it superior to any thing of the kind he had seen in France or Italy, and says it re-^ 
minded him of his native; Wye, and its picturesque banks. 

170. English gardening during the consulate was little attended to. Malmaison, the 
residence of Josephine, was laid out avowedly in the English style by Morel, and greatly 
altered and improved by Blaikie and the English resident gardener, Hudson ; and richly 
stocked with trees and shrubs from London. Since that time little has been done on an 
extended plan ; and one may travel from one extremity of the kingdom to the other, 
without seeing any scene having the general external appearance of an English park. 
The works of this kind which are executed, are on a very limited scale, and crowded 
with walks and ornaments. Most of them may be called fanciful, ingenious, and pretty, 
but few are simple and grand. (Dulaure Desc. des Env. de Paris, and Hort. Tour, 357. 
et seq.) All that a Frenchman considers necessary to form a Jardin Anglois, Blaikie 
states to us, is crooked walks. Blaikie went to France in 1776, remained there during 
the Revolution, and has been employed by all parties. The directory employed him to 
plant the Tuilleries with potatoes, and never paid him for the sets ; and the national 
assembly in 1792, appointed him commissioner for the establishment of a botanic garden 
at Versailles, but he declined the employment. This venerable artist is still employed in 
all the eminent cases in France, Holland, and the south of Germany. 

171. The French revolution, however favorable to the progress of society, by the 
emancipation of energies and intellects, and by the general subdivision and distribution 
of property, has, as was to be expected, been injurious to gardening as an art of design ; 
but if once the nation were politically content, a few years of quiet and prosperity, by en- 
riching some and impoverishing others, would end in grouping property in more unequal 
masses ; and the superfluous wealth of the opulent would be employed as before, under 
the advantages of much more skill to display, and taste to approve what is beautiful or 

D 3 




172. With regard to the present state of landscape-gardening in France, the royal gar- 
dens, the Tuilleries, Versailles, St. Cloud, and the Trianons, are still kept up in a 
respectable style. Ermenonville is in possession of the son of its creator, who, being 
friendly to the Buonaparte family, was made a president during the reign of a hundred 
days, and is consequently at present not in favor at court. The grounds are still shown 
to strangers, but their effect, and the order in which they are kept, are far inferior to what 
one is led to expect from the description in the Essai sur la Composition des Paysages, 
&c. and from what, as we were informed (in 1815, and again in 1819), actually was the 
case half a century ago. We saw no reason to admire the turf, which Sir J. E. Smith 
informs us (Tour, &c.) had been, in 1786, about two years under the care of an intelli- 
gent Scotch gardener, and who, he says, " assured us, and indeed what we saw con- 
firmed it, that the superior beauty of our British grass-plots to those of other countries is 
principally owing to management, and not to soil and climate." The lawns of Girardin, 
and of the king in the grounds we have enumerated, are, we fear, sad proofs of the fallacy 
of this gardener's opinion, and of the unsuitableness of dry arenaceous soils and warm 
climates for those " velvet lawns" which are at once the greatest beauty and the charac- 
teristic of English gardening in England. The finest lawns in and around Paris are 
watered every summer evening, when it has not rained 
during the day, e. g. that of the Palais Royal. 

173. In the neighbourhood of Paris are various Chinese and Eng- 
lish gardens which might be mentioned ; what they call Chinese 
gardens differ from their English or (as Gv Thouin calls them,) 
natural gardens, in being still more frittered down by walks, and 
ornamented by Chinese-looking ornaments. One of the prettiest 
town-gardens in France, and which it is but justice to say, is un- 
equalled by any of the kind in Britain, is that of Bourseau, in 
Paris, (Rue Mont Blanc,) about an acre in extent. It is described at 
length in the Horticultural Tour. 

174. Near Lyons is Hermitage, a villa of Guilliard St. Etienne, 
much spoken of in the guides, and by French tourists. It is of small 
extent, on the rocky umbrageous banks of the Saone, and thickly set 
with statues, busts, rustic seats (fig. 12.), and every sort of garden or- 
nament, with a museum. It is much too theatrical for a garden, and 
gives more the idea of whim in the proprietor than of any thing else. 
A situation of so much natural beauty, required at the utmost, only 
as much art as was sufficient to mark its appropriation by man. 

175. Around Montpelier and Marseilles, there is nothing in the 
way of landscape gardening worth mentioning. 

176. The plan of the residence of General Lomet at Agen (fig. 13.) is given by Kraft. (Plans de plus beaux 
jardins, &c. pi. 17.) It is situated on a hilly spot bordering the river, and contains in a very small space a dwell- 
ing-house (a), poultry-yard (b), in the pavilions of which (c, d) are the coach-houses, stables, rooms above for 
the coachman and stable-boys, and the gardener. There is a green-house (e), cart-shed, and warehouse, let 
off to townsmen (f), a flower-garden (g), principal entrance and avenue (h, ), temple of Flora (A'.), Roman 
temple and bath (/), terrace covered with an arbour (m), a vine plantation trained on an arcade trollisin the 
Italian manner (n), a terrace for orange-trees with a green-house underneath (o), parterre (p), miniature 
fields of barley, wheat, beans, &c. (g), kitchen-garden (r), numerous monuments and statues (s, s), an 
orchard (t), and a lake (M). Kraft says, it contains the greatest variety of picturesque views, but has 





rather too many winding walks. It was laid out by 
the architect, Richer, who afterwards became the 
celebrated general of that name, and was murdered 
by a mameluke in Egypt. Kleber seems to have been 
fond of rustic buildings, with which this garden 
abounds in the greatest variety of form and dimen- 
sions, from the gardener's house, to that of the 
bees, and the shelter for peacocks. 

177. There is a very pleasing English garden at 
Vitry, the property of Citizen Wenner, in which as 
much is made of a small spot as can well be done. It 
was laid out by Charpentier already mentioned. 

178. The garden of the postmaster at Altkirch (fig. 
14.), in Alsatia, is described by Kraft as a singularly 
beautiful spot. Beyond the basin of water is an am- 
phitheatre of shrubs and trees which is intersected 
by shady walks leading to a mount containing the 
grandest prospects of the Rhine and the Alps. 

179. Public gardens or promenades are numerous 
and well arranged in France as in most countries on 
the continent : the demand for these arises from the 
social habits of the people and the mildness of the 
climate ; and their growth, even in the middle of 
the cities, as in the Tuilleries and Boulevards of 
Paris, and the street avenues of Bourdeaux, Lyons, 
Marseilles, Montpelier, &c. is not impeded by the 
smoke of coal. What can be a greater luxury in a 
city than such a garden as that of the Tuilleries 
situated in its centre, its open scenes of gaiety 
and bustle, the distant hum of men heard in the 
stillness of its thick and shady groves, its length- 
ened perspectives of trees, vistas, statues, fountains, 
its coffee and refreshments, its music and dancing 
on certain occasions, and finally, that sprinkling 
of mind thrown over the whole by the scattered 
stations of those who hire out chairs and periodical 
literature ? 

SUBSECT. 2. French Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of 


180. A taste for flowers was introduced to France from Holland, after that country had 
established commercial relations with the Levant and the south of Europe. (Deleuze, 
Recherches, &c.) Charlemagne loved gardens, and was most particular in giving directions 
to his gardeners. In his Capitulaire de VUlis et Curtis, he enumerates the sorts of plants 
which he desires may be grown in all his gardens. This list, however, excepting the 
rose and the lily, is entirely medicinal ; and these too, were probably used as drugs ; for 
the greatest beauty, in barbarous times, is utilrty. 

181. It was in the thirteenth century that ornamental plants began to be introduced to 
France as such. The crusades had brought to notice the gardens of the infidels in Egypt 
and Syria ; the Christians invaders could not avoid being struck with their beauty, imitated 
their plans, and imported their productions into Europe. 

182. The sixteenth century, however, had arrived before the culture of flowers was attempted. 
Botany now began to become a science, independent of medicine. Gardens were con- 
^tructed, destined for curious and beautiful plants ; and the discovery of America, and 
the passage to the Indies, augmented their number. Travellers collected seeds, which 
they sent home to their respective countries ; great care was bestowed on such as appeared 
the most ornamental ; of some flowers, double varieties were produced, and the colors 
and size of others, varied by culture, till advancing, by degrees, they at length became 
an object of luxury, and trade and caprice, fashion and variety, gave incredible prices for 
some of these productions ; for in what, observes Deleuze, will extravagance not inter- 
mingle. Henry IV. had a taste for flowers : his gardener, Jean Robin, published a ca- 
talogue of plants in 1610, in which the passion flower and crown imperial are mentioned, 
the former as newly imported, and the latter as rare. In 1635, the varieties of tulips, 
ranunculuses, and anemones, in the Jardin des Plantes, exceeded that of the species in 
1800. Evelyn mentions, in 1 1644, (Memoirs, i. 52.) a M. Morine, who from an ordinary 
gardener had become one of the most skilful persons in France, who had a rare collection 
of shells and flowers, and above 10,000 sorts of tulips alone. This florimania seems to 
have declined and given way to a taste for exotics, during the reigns of Louis the Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth, which has ever since continued to prevail. 

183. The study of botany began to be cultivated in France at an early period, and has 
since attained great consideration in that country from the labors of Adanson, the two 
Jussieus, Mirbel, Humboldt, and De Candolle. The first botanic garden was formed in 
1597, at Montpelier in Henry the Fifth's reign, through the representations of Belon. 
In the following year it contained 1300 distinct species, the greater part gathered in the 

The garden of Paris (Jardin des Plantes} was founded by Louis the Thirteenth, in 1626, and finished i 
16o4, after, as' La Brosse the first director remarks, " eighteen years of prosecution, and six of culture." 

D 4 


The subsequent history and description of this garden, at different epochs, are given by Adanson, Jussieu, 
and Thouin. It was visited by Sir J. E. Smith, in 1786, who observes that, " it used, in summer, to be the 
evening walk of literary people, and even of persons of fashion ; and was, besides, frequented all day long 
by students of both sexes. Here ladies might be seen at close study dissecting flowers, and reading their 
descriptions ; nor is it at all unusual, at Paris, for the fair sex to attend scientific lectures in considerable 
numbers. The collection of plants is generally reckoned inferior to that of Kew ; it contains, however, 
many plants not in England, mostly from Peru and the Levant." The garden has been greatly enlarged 
and much improved since 1786, and now includes departments which may be considered, as far as vegetables 
are concerned, schools of horticulture, planting, agriculture, medicine, and general economy. It contains 
some fine old exotics, sugar-canes from which a loaf of sugar was made and presented to the Empress 
Josephine, a munificent patroness of gardens, and a few palms which belonged to Francis I. In different 
volumes of the Annales du Musee, may be seen plans and descriptions of the garden, with the modes of 
instruction pursued by Professor Thouin. There can be no question of its being the most scientific and 
best kept garden in Europe, and an admirable horticultural and botanical school ; and in our opinion, 
the Chevalier Thouin, its director, and the professor of rural economy, has an equal claim to superiority 
as a scientific gardener. 

The botanic garden of the Trianon, according to Deleuze, was established by Louis XV. at the suggestion 
of the Duke de Noailles, for the display of exotic trees, and a general collection of plants, for the amusement 
of the royal family. Here B. de Jussieu disposed, for the first time, the plants in the order of natural 
families. The botanic department of this garden is at present in a state of neglect. 

The flower-garden of Malmaison in the time of Josephine was among the richest in Europe. Various 
botanical collectors were patronised, some jointly with Lee of Hammersmith. The seeds brought home 
by the navigator, Baudin, were here first raised and described by Ventenat in the Jardin de la Mal- 
maison, in 1803. In 1813 Bonpland published the first volume of Plantes rares cultivees a Malmaison, 
which ruined him, and compelled him to seek an asylum in America. This garden, though comparatively 
neglected, contains some fine exotic trees as standards in the open ground, and protected in winter by 
moveable houses. Among these are Magnolia grandijiora and an orange-tree as large as they grow in 
Spain. In the hot-houses are many fine exotics, and the original bulb of that splendid plant, Brunsvigia 
Josephince, which in 1817 measured two feet and a half in circumference, and produced a head of flowers 
three feet and a half diameter. The hot-house here contains a rack-work covered with exotics and 
watered by a concealed pipe. (Hort. Tour, 403.) 

There are various botanic gardens established in the provinces of France, which maintain a regular corre- 
spondence with that of Earis as the common centre. Each of these gardens, has, as it were, the care of the 
botany and horticulture (for these are not separated) of a certain district, and when any new or valuable 
plant is increased in the Paris garden, it is immediately distributed among the provincial gardens, to be by 
them cultivated and increased, and distributed among the nurserymen and practical gardeners. Since 
1813, those provincial gardens have suffered for want of funds ; and most of them are but indifferently 
kept up. We could not help being struck with this in viewing the very well contrived new garden a"t 
Marseilles, almost without plants. The richest provincial garden for its size, and the best in order, after- 
that of Paris, appeared to us (in 1819) to be that of Toulon. That of Rouen contains the original plant of 
the hybrid lilac (Syringa Rothomagensis'), named Varin, after the gardener who, about 1787, raised it 
from seed. 

Herb or physic gardens are more common in France than in Britain. Plants form a much more important 
part of the Materia Medica of the hospitals and French physicians, than in this country, and their use is 
very popular among the lower orders. The herbarists of Paris occupy a particular lane, where they offer 
great variety of dried plants for sale. 

SUBSECT. 3. French Gardening, in reject to its horticultural Productions. 

184. T/ie hardy fruits of France only exceed those of Britain by the olive, the fig, the 
jujube, pomegranate, and a few others little cultivated. Nature, Professor Thouin ob- 
serves, (Essai sur f Exposition, $c. de Ve'conomie rurale, p. 55.) has only given to France, 
the acorn, the chestnut, the pear, the wild apple, and some other inferior fruits. Every 
thing else which M r e have, agreeable or useful, is the product of foreign climates, and we 
owe them in great part to the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans and Saracens. 
The less ancient acquisitions are those of the crusades, or of accidental travellers. The 
vine, the peach, the fig, the mulberry, the cherry, and the olive, were doubtless intro- 
duced to France by the Romans ; the orange by the Italians ; and the pine-apple by the* 
Dutch. Apples, pears, and plums, are the fruits recommended for cultivation by 
Charlemagne, in his Capit. de VUlis et Curtis, &c. prepared about the end of the eighth 
century, and referred to by Montesquieu, as a chef-d'oeuvre of prudence, good adminis- 
tration, and economy. The Abbe" Schmidt informs us, (Mag. Encyc.) that this 
monarch, who had domains in every part of France, gave the greatest encouragement to 
the eradication of forests, and the substitution of orchards and vineyards. He was on 
terms of intimate friendship with the Saracenic prince, Haroun al Raschild, and by that 
means procured for France the best sorts of pulse, melons, peaches, tigs, and other fruits, 
He desires that fennel, rosemary, sage, rue, wormwood, and above sixty other pot-herbs 
and medicinal plants, should be cultivated : one of these which he calls anthyllis (thought 
to be the house-leek) was to be planted before the gardener's house, probably as being 

185. Early in the sixteenth century, it would appear they had at that time all the 
fruits now in use, excepting the pine-apple. (Oliv. de Serres, and Steph. and Lieb.) Some 
remarks on the state of horticulture at the end of this century are given by Benard 
(Mem. de la Soc. A gr. du Seine et Oise, 1801,) and L. Deslongchamps. (Bon Jar d. 
1817-18.) Blaikie (169, 170.) informs us, that about 1779 only three sorts of melons 
were grown in France, the netted or Maraiche, and two large sorts of poor flavor. 
Blaikie introduced the cantaleupes, which are now the prevailing sorts. The pine-apple 
has never been successfully cultivated in France, it becomes sickly from exhalation, 
and produces small fruit as in Italy. (99.) But France excels all other countries in 
pears and plums, and produces excellent peaches. 

186. The culinary vegetables of France have not been increased from the earliest 


period of horticultural history, with the exception of the sea-cale and the potatoe. In 
salading and legumes they far excel most countries ; but in the cabbage tribe, turnips, 
and potatoes, they are inferior to the moister climates of Holland and Britain. 

187. A sort of forcing seems to have commenced in France towards the end of the 
sixteenth century. B^nard informs us, that arcades open to the south were first erected 
in Henry I Vth's time, for accelerating the growth of pease At St. Germains en Laye ; 
and that, in the end of ' the reign of Louis XIV., Fagon, at the Jardin des Plantes, 
constructed some hot-houses with glass roofs, which he warmed with stoves and furnaces 
for the preservation of tender plants ; and which gave rise to all the hand-glasses, frames, 
and hot-houses subsequently erected in France. Melons and early cucumbers had been 
hitherto grown on beds of dung, and covered at night with loose straw ; early salading 
was raised in pots and boxes exposed to the sun during day, and pJaced in sheds or 
arbors during night. But Richard Senior, observing what Fagon had done, built for 
himself at St. Germains, and afterwards for Louis XV. at Trianon, hot-houses, in which 
were seen, for the first time in France, peaches, cherries, plums, strawberries, bearing 
fruit in the depth of winter. In the Ecole Potagere, written by Combles about the year 
1750, are the details relative to these buildings. There is still, however, very little 
forcing in France, and almost none in the market-gardens. Pease, potatoes, asparagus, 
kidney-beans, salads, &c., are seldom or never forwarded by other means than by plant- 
ing in warm situations under south walls, and grapes or peaches are never covered with 
glass. Melons and seedling plants of different sorts are forwarded by beds of dung, 
generally without the addition of sashes and frames. 

188. French horticulture received a grand accession of theoretical and practical know- 
ledge from the writings of Quintinye. Jean de Quintinye was born at Poictiers in 1626, 
put to school among the Jesuits, took lessons in law, and afterwards travelled to Italy 
with Tambonneau. Here his taste for agriculture began, or greatly increased. He 
applied to its study as a science, and, on his return, Tambonneau committed his gardens 
to his care. He attracted the attention of the court soon afterwards, and was made 
director of several of the royal gardens during the reign of Louis XIV. He laid out a 

jardin potager of thirty acres at Versailles ; the inhabitants of which, Neill observes, 
seem to have imbibed from him a taste for horticulture and botany, the " Confreres 
de St. Fiacre," (the tutelar saint of horticulturists,) or gardener's lodge, held here, 
being the oldest in France. (Hurt. Tour, 414.) Among other works, Quintinye wrote 
The complete Gardener, translated by Evelyn, and abridged by London and Wise. He 
died in 1701. After his death the king always spoke of him with regret, and Switzer 
says, assured his widow, that the king and she were equally sufferers. Quintinye, in 
his work on fruit-trees, has developed a system of pruning, which has not yet been 
surpassed by that of any other author. Before his time the culture of wall, or espalier 
trees, was little attended to ; gardens had been generally surrounded by high hedges, but 
for these were now substituted walls of masonry, or of earth en pise. The pruning of 
peach and pear trees is now well understood in France, and horticulture on the whole is 
making rapid advances. 

SUBSECT. 4. French Gardening, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and Hedges. 

189. Planting for profit has never been extensively practised , in France, owing to the 
abundance of natural forests in every part of the kingdom. These forests were much 
neglected till within the last thirty years ; but they are now (being mostly national pro- 
perty ) under a more regular course of management ; their limits defined by fences, and 
the blanks filled up from the national nurseries. The roads of France being also kept 
up by government, much attention is paid to lining them with rows of trees. In 
some places, as in Alsatia, the walnut, cherry, apple, pear, and other fruit-trees are used ; 
in other districts the elm, oak, or poplar, are employed ; and in the south, we frequently 
find the mulberry, and sometimes the olive. The resinous tribe are rarely planted but 
for ornament ; the oak, elm, beech, and Spanish chestnut, are the chief sorts used to fill 
up blanks in the natural forests. 

1 90. The idea of cultivating and naturalising foreign trees in France was first pro- 
jected by Du Hamel in the time of Louis XV. He procured many seeds from 
America, raised them in the royal nurseries, and distributed them among his friends. 
A vast plantation of exotic trees was then made at St. Germains en Laye by the 
Mareschal de Noailles. Lamoignon naturalised on his estate at Malsherbes a great 
number of these trees, and at the age of eighty-four, Deleuze observes, saw every where 
in France plants of his own introduction. 

191. Hedges are not in general uee in France; the plants employed in field-hedges, 
in the northern parts, are the hawthorn, birch, or a mixture of native shrubs, as 
hazel, briar, laburnum, &c. In Lai guedoc the most common plant is the wild pome- 
granate. In ornamental hedges tl ey have attained great perfection ; for these the 


favorite plants are the yew, the hornbeam, and the box ; and for tall hedges, the lime 
and elm. 

SUBSECT. 5. French Gardening, as empirically practised. 

1 92. The use of gardens is very general in France. Few cottagers are without them, 
and in the northern districts, they commonly display a considerable degree of neatness, 
and some fruit-trees and flowers. The southern parts of the country are the least civi- 
lised ; there the gardens of the laboring class are less attended to, and gourds or melons, 
and Indian corn, as in Italy, are the chief articles grown. The gardens of the or- 
dinary citizens and private gentlemen in France, are greatly inferior to those of the 
same class in Holland or Britain ; they are seldom walled round, and rarely contain 
any arrangements for foreign or tender exotics. A green-house, indeed, is a rare 
sight, and there does not seem to exist the slightest desire for enjoying any vegetable 
production either earlier or later than their natural seasons. There are few wealthy 
men in France at present, and consequently few first-rate gardens ; the best are in the 
northern districts, and belong to princes of the blood, bankers, and other opulent citi- 
zens. Those of the Dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, of Perigord, Laffite, and De- 
laborde, may be included in this class ; though they are far inferior to many citizens' 
seats and gardens in England. 

193. There are excellent market-gardens in the neighbourhood of Paris, where, by 
force of manure and daily waterings, the oleraceous tribe are brought to a large size 
and very succulent quality. Figs, for the market, are grown by a particular class of 
fruit-growers at Argenteuil ; grapes at Fontainbleau, peaches at Montreuil, and cherries 
at various villages to the east of Paris. There are numerous florists who devote 
themselves exclusively to the culture of flowers, and supply the market with roses, 
lilies, stocks, and the more common greenhouse plants and orange-trees. The latter are 
very neatly grafted, and otherwise well managed. In the winter time forced flowers 
are exposed for sale, and also summer flowers which have been dried in stoves, and 
preserve their color perfectly. The same thing is done with aromatic herbs, and some 
pot-herbs, as parsley, chervil, &c. 

194. There are few nurseries'in France ; the best are at Paris, and are chiefly occupied 
with the culture of fruit-trees and ornamental shrubs. They excel in the culture of the 
rose, of which they have upwards of 300 sorts, which form, to a small extent, articles of 
foreign commerce. The two best provincial nurseries are those of Audibert at Tonelle, 
in Languedoc, and Sedi at Lyons. Vallet's at Rouen is celebrated for orange-trees, 
and Calvert and Co.'s (Englishmen) at Bonne Nouvelle, near the same place, equally so 
for roses ; Vilmorin is the agricultural seedsman, Noisette the Lee, and Cels of Mont 
Rouge the Loddidge of Paris. France long supplied a great part of Europe with 
fruit-trees, from the celebrated nursery of the fathers of the Chartreux, near the 
Luxembourg, established in the time of Louis XIV. and including eighty acres. That 
establishment does not now exist ; but Ville Henre", the son of its former manager, has 
the care of the collection of fruit-trees and vines in the national garden of the Luxem- 
bourg. The extensive collection of grapes in this garden was formed by Chaptal, the 
celebrated chemist, when minister of the interior, with a view to ascertain the best sorts, 
and distribute them in the provinces, and the fruit-trees were brought by the elder Herv 
from the Chartreux. (Preface to the Catalogue of the Luxembourg Garden, 1814 ; Cours 
d* Agriculture, &c. art. Vigne.} When Blaikie went to France in 1776, there was not a 
nursery for trees and shrubs in the kingdom. About Vitry only a few of such forest-trees 
were cultivated as were used in avenues, and so few fruit-trees that the sorts were not 
tallied ; the cultivators like the orange nurserymen at Nervi (95.) recognising the few 
sorts by the leaves and bark. 

195. The operative gardeners in France are, in general, very ignorant. Few of them 
have learned their art by regular application, or the customary engagement of apprentice- 
ship. At Paris they are poorly paid, and work much harder than the same class in 
England. Evelyn, in 1644, informs us, that the work of the royal gardens was all done 
in the night-time, and finished by six or seven in the morning, in order, no doubt, that 
nothing offensive might meet the eyes of the great of these times. Happily such a chasm 
does not now exist between the rich and the poor ; but still, partly for the same reason, 
but principally to avoid the mid-day sun, the great part of the work, in most private 
gardens, is performed from three to nine o'clock in the morning, and again from six to 
nine in the evening. The great recommendation of a French gardener is, to be able to 
conduct a garden a bon marche; and the greatest to prune trees a la Montreuil. 

196. Of artists in gardening (artistes jardiniers, architects des jardins,') there are a num- 
ber in France, chiefly resident in Paris. Blaikie, already mentioned, and Gab. Thouin, 
brother to the professor, and author of Plans Raisonnes des Jardins, &c. (1818) may be 
reckoned the most eminent. Girardin, Morel, and De Lille may be considered as hav- 


ing established the principles of gardening in France, as an art of design and taste ; but 
it does not appear clear that the artists in general have caught their principles. 

SUBSECT. G. French Gardening, as a Science, and as to the Authors it has produced. 

1 97. The science of gardening is well understood in France among the eminent gar- 
deners and professors ; perhaps better than in any other country. Quintinyeand Du Hamel 
applied all the physiological knowledge of their day to the treatment of fruit and forest 
trees ; and the theory of grafting, of healing wounds, and of artificial excitements to 
fruitfulness, was explained in their works. BufFon, Magnal, Parent, and Rosier, Aubert 
de Petit Thouars, Bosc, and above all Professor Thouin, have brought the whole science 
of chemistry and of botany to bear on the various parts of gardening and rural economv, 
which they have treated in various works, but especially in the Nouveau Cours d' Agriculture, 
(14 vols. 8vo.) published in 1810. 

198. The court and national gardeners have, for the last thirty years, been men eminent 
for scientific and practical knowledge ; who have received a regular education, and rank 
with other crown officers. It is not there as in England, where the royal situations have 
always been occupied by mere empirical practitioners, recommended by some court 
favorite, or succeeding by the common chances of life. 

1 99. The great mass of operative gardeners in France, both as masters and labourers, are 
incomparably more ignorant both of gardening, as a science, and of knowledge in general, 
than the gardeners of this country ; few of them can read : and the reason of this ignorance 
is, that there is no demand for good master-gardeners. The pupils and apprentices of the 
Jardin des Plantes are mostly sent to manage the provincial botanic gardens, or to the few 
proprietors who have first-rate gardens. The chief of them are foreigners, who return to 
Germany or Italy. Indeed, where there is no forcing, and few plants in pots, scientific 
gardeners are less necessary ; the management of fruit-trees in France being reduced to 
mere routine. 

200. The French authors on gardening are very numerous, but Quintinye is their most 
original and meritorious writer on horticulture, Du Hamel on planting, and Girardin and 
D'Argenville on landscape-gardening. Their works on flowers are chiefly translations 
from the Dutch. 

SECT. IV. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Germany. 

201. The Germanic confederation, as arranged in 1815, includes the empire of Austria, 
the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurtemburg, and Denmark, be- 
sides various dukedoms and free towns. The materials which we have been able to collect 
for so extensive a field, are exceedingly scanty ; and, indeed, it appears from Hirschfield, 
that gardening made little progress in Germany till the seventeenth century. At present, 
the taste for our art there is very considerable, and seems to have received 7t new stimulus 
from the recent peace. " Gardens," Madame de Stael observes, " are almost as beauti- 
ful in some parts of Germany as in England ; the luxury of gardens always implies a 
love of the country. In England, simple mansions are often built in the middle of the 
most magnificent parks ; the proprietor neglects his dwelling to attend to the ornaments 
of nature. This magnificence and simplicity united do not, it is true, exist in the same 
degree in Germany ; yet in spite of the want of wealth, and the pride of feudal dignity, 
there is every where to be remarked a certain love of the beautiful, which sooner or later 
must be followed by taste and elegance, of which it is the only real source. Often, in the 
midst of the superb gardens of the German princes, are placed JEolian harps, close by 
grottoes, encircled with flowers, that the wind may waft the sound and the perfume to- 
gether. The imagination of the northern people thus endeavours to create for itself a 
sort of Italy ; and during the brilliant days of a short-lived summer, it sometimes attains 
the deception it seeks." (Germany, chap, i.) 

SUBSECT. 1. German Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

202. The French style of gardening has prevailed in Germany from the earliest period 
of history or tradition. The German architects, observes Hirschfield in 1777, in making 
themselves masters of the gardens, as well as of the houses, tended to spread and per- 
petuate the prejudice. " A singular and deplorable Gallomania pervaded Germany from 
the prince to the peasant, which neither irony, patriotism, nor productions which show 
the force of our natural genius could destroy ; ' ainsi font les Francois ; voila ce que fai 
mi en France;' these words were sufficient to reduce the German to a mere copyist, and 
in consequence we had French gardens, as we had Parisian fashions. Our nobles gave 
the first example of imitation, and executed on their estates little miniatures of Versailles, 
Marly, and Trianon. But now (1777)," he adds, "the Aurora of judgmentand good taste 
begins to arise in our country, and the recitals of the happy changes made in England in 
the gardens, has prepared the way for the same revolution in Germany. However, we 


cannot complain of the suddenness of that revolution, and that the imitation of the English 
taste spreads too rapidly ; it appears, on the contrary, that we begin to think for ourselves, 
and reflection proceeds much slower than mere imitation. We may meet perhaps here 
and there several copies of the British manner, perhaps even of the Chinese style ; but 
we expect to see the Germans inventing and combining for themselves, and producing 
gardens stamped with the impression of national genius." ( Theorie des Jardins, torn. i. 83.) 

203. The climate and circumstances of Germany are less favorable to landscape-garden- 
ing than Britain. Meyer, a scientific practical gardener and author, who studied his art 
in the royal gardens at Paris, and afterwards spent some time in England, viewing the 
principal country-seats, is of this opinion. (Pom. Franc. 1776.) He considers grounds 
laid out in the ancient style, as " insipid and monotonous, from their regularity, and only 
calculated to produce sadness and ennui. If their aspect strikes at the first glance, it fa- 
tigues and tires at the second, and certainly is revolting and disgusting at the third." 
He admires English gardens in England, but states three objections to their introduction 
in Germany. The inferiority of the pasturage, the expense and want of space, and the 
necessity and advantage of attending to the culture of legumes and fruits. A mixed 
style is what he prefers, and what he adopted in the episcopal gardens which he laid out 
and managed at Wurzburg. 

204. The first example of an English garden in Germany, according to Reichard (Reise 
durch Deutschland, &c.), was the Garten der Schwobber, in Westphalia, in the neighbour- 
hood of Pyrmont. It was laid out about the year 1750, with winding walks and clumps, 
and a rich collection of rare trees and plants. Hinuber's English garden at Hanover, 
and that of Marienwerder in its neighbourhood, were begun about the same time ; and 
soon after was commenced the splendid example exhibited by field-marshal Lacy, at 
Dornbach, near Vienna, and which, it is said, originated in the family connections of that 
warrior with England. It was finished in part by an English gardener, in 1770, at an 
expence of half a million of florins. Its picturesque views and distant prospects are much 
and deservedly admired ; but on the whole, as an English garden, it owes much more to 
nature than to art. After this, the new taste, as Hirschfield remarks, became general in 
the empire. The most noble example of a garden in the ancient style in Germany, is 
that of Scboenbrunn, at Vienna ; and of an English garden, according to our idea of 
what that ought to be, at Dronningard, near Copenhagen. Having given a general idea 
of the history of this branch of gardening in Germany, we shall now submit some slight 
notices of the art under the different governments of the empire. 

205. Austria. Francis the First, about the middle of the seventeenth century, laid out or 
greatly enlarged the gardens of Schoenbrunn, after the plans of Steckhoven, a Dutch artist. 
These gardens occupy a plain and a long ridge or hill near the capital, and are much ad- 
mired for their extent and simple, though formal grandeur. They are inferior to those 
of Peterhoff and Versailles in respect to fountains, and to those of Sans Souci and Lodo- 
visi for statues and antiques ; but for simple massive grandeur, for shade and verdure, 
and all the more simple beauties of the ancient style, they are, we believe, superior to 
any gardens now existing in Europe. 

The Augarten (eye-garden, or garden of pleasure) is a public promenade in the suburbs of Vienna. It 
is a square spot of ten acres, surrounded by an elevated broad terrace-walk, commanding extensive views ; 
and the area is planted and subdivided by walks. At the entrance is a magnificent coffee-house. It was 
formed during the reign of the benevolent emperor Joseph, whose particular wish it was, that it should be 
open to every class of citizens. 

The Prater, or meadow, is an extensive public promenade of a different description, and suited both for 
promenades en cheval and au pied. It forms part of an island in the Danube, and consists of an artificial 
grove used as a tea-garden ; an avenue as a course for carriages, but chiefly the scattered remains of an 
ancient forest of oaks and thorns used for walking, and for exhibiting all manner of fetes. We consider it 
the most agreeable scene of the kind on the continent. Here, in the summer evenings, all Vienna is as- 
sembled ; the imperial family mix familiarly with the people, and Francis the Third, unattended, and in 
the plainest garb, selects his table and rush-bottomed chair, and calls for his coffee and segar, like any 
other citizen. Economical in his administration, frugal in his personal expenses, and exemplary in his 
morals, he has nothing to fear from a personal familiarity with his subjects. Both the Prater and the gar- 
den were planted with full-grown trees ; for Joseph II. as Pezzel, his biographer, informs us, wished to see 
the effect of all his improvements. 

The imperial gardens of Luxembourg are extensive, avowedly English, and display a good deal of our 
manner ; but more, as we have elsewhere observed (Ed. Encyc. art. Landscape G.), in the taste of Brown 
than of Kent. 

206. In Hungary, Hirschfield, in 1783, says there are only the gardens of Esterhaz, a 
seat of Prince Esterhazy, worthy of notice, and that they were chiefly indebted to the 
beauty of the palace for their attractions. Dr. Townson, in 1793, mentions Count Vetzy 
as laying out his grounds in the English style, aided by a gardener who had been some 
time in England. The gardens of Count Esterhazy of Galantha, at Dotis, he considers 
very fine ; and those of the Bishop of Eslau, at Felcho-Tarkan, as romantic. Dr. 
Bright (Travels, 1815) mentions Kormond, the property of Prince Balhyani, as " con- 
taining a very handsome garden in the French taste, with considerable hot-houses and 
conservatories." Graaf Brunswick of Marton Vassar, had passed some time in Eng- 
land, and his garden was laid out in the English style. The favorite mansion of Prince 


Esterhazy is Eisenstadt ; the palace has lately been improved, and the gardens, which 
were laid out in 1754 in the French taste, were, in 1814, transforming in the English 
manner. (Travels in Hungary, 346.) 

207. At Dresden, the royal and principal private gardens exhibit nothing remarkable 
in the way of art. They were formed chiefly during the electorate of Frederick Augus- 
tus, King of Poland, and are remarkably confined, and by no means interesting in 
detail. The situation and environs of Dresden every one feels to be delightful ; but 
there is perhaps no city of the same rank on the continent equally deficient both in 
ancient and modern gardens. (Ed. Encyc. art. Landscape Gard.) 

208. Prussia. Almost all the geometric gardens of Prussia were formed during the 
propitious reign of Frederick II. 

The Thiergarten at Berlin is the most extensive. It is a sort of public park or promenade, on a flat 
surface, and loose arenaceous soil, intersected by avenues and alleys, pierced by stars and pates d'oye, 
varied by obelisks and statues, and accommodated with public coffee-houses, sheds for music and rural 
fetes, and open areas for exercising troops. 

The ancient gardens of Sans Souci at Potsdam are in the mixed style of Switzer, with every appendage 
and ornament of the French, Italian, and Dutch taste. Various artists, but chiefly Manger, a German 
architect, and Salzmann, the royal gardener, (each of whom has published a voluminous description of his 
works there,) were employed in their design and execution ; and a detailed topographical history of the 
whole, accompanied by plans, elevations, and views, has been published by the late celebrated Nicholai 
of Berlin, at once an author, printer, bookbinder, and bookseller. The gardens consist of, 1. The hill, on 
the summit of which Sans Souci is placed. The slope in front of this palace is laid out in six terraces, 
each ten feet high, and its supporting wall covered with glass, for peaches and vines. 2. A hill to the 
east, devoted to hot-houses, culinary vegetables, and slopes or terraces for fruit-trees. 3. A plain at the 
bottom of the slope, laid out in Switzer's manner, leading to the new palace ; and 4. A reserve of hot- 
houses, and chiefly large orangeries, and pits for pines to the west, and near the celebrated windmill, of 
which Frederick could not get possession. 

The Sans Souci scenery is more curious and varied, than simple and grand. The hill of glazed terraces 
crowned by Sans Souci has indeed a singular appearance ; but the woods, cabinets, and innumerable 
statues in the grounds below, are on too small a scale for the effect intended to be produced ; and on the 
whole distract and divide the attention on the first view. Potsdam, with its environs, forms a crowded 
scene of architectural and gardening efforts ; a sort of royal magazine, in which an immense number of 
expensive articles, pillared scenery, screens of columns, empty palaces, churches, and public buildings, as 
Eustace and Wilson observe, crowd on our eyes, and distract our attention. Hirsch field, who does not 
appear to have been a great admirer of Frederick, and who, as the Prince de Ligne has remarked, was 
touched with the Anglomania in gardening, says, in 1785, " according to the last news from Prussia, 
the taste for gardens is not yet perfect in that country. A recent author vaunts a palace champetre, 
which presents as many windows as there are days in the year : he praises the high hedges, mountains 
of periwinkle, regular parterres of flowers, ponds, artificial grottoes, jets d'eau, and designs traced on a 
plain." (Thtorie, &c. torn. v. 366.) 

209. The principal examples of the English style in Prussia are the royal gardens at 
the summer residence of Charlottenburg, near Berlin, begun by Frederick the Great, 
but chiefly laid out during the reign of Frederick William II. They are not extensive, 
and are situated on a dull sandy flat, washed by the Spree ; under which unfavorable 
circumstances, it would be wonderful if they were very attractive. In one part of these 
gardens, a Doric mausoleum of great beauty contains the ashes of the much-lamented 
queen. A dark avenue of Scotch firs leads to a circle of the same tree, 150 feet in 
diameter. Interior circles are formed of cypresses and weeping- willows j and within 
these, is a border of white roses and white lilies (Lilium candidum). The form of the 
mausoleum is oblong, and its end projects from this interior circle, directly opposite the 
covered avenue. A few steps descend from the entrance to a platform, in which, on a 
sarcophagus, is a reclining figure of the queen : a stair at one side leads to the door of a 
vault containing her remains. 

210. The garden of the palace of the HeUigense (Jig. 15.) is avowedly English, and is 
in much better taste than that at Charlottenburg. The palace is cased externally with 




marble ; it is in a chaste style of Grecian architecture, and praised by Wilson (Tours onilu- 
Continent^ 1820), as one of the best pieces of architecture in Prussia. It is built close to 
the lake, and the kitchen is placed in an island, disguised as a temple, and connected by 
a subaquarian passage. Those sumptuous works were the joint productions of the coun- 
sellor Langhans, professor Hirschfield, and the architect Gontard, during Frederick 
William II. 's reign. 

211. Count Schulenburg's garden, near Freyenwalde, was laid out when Harris, author of Hermes, was 
envoy at Berlin, and that philosopher is said,"by Hirschfield, to have rendered the count some assistance; 
but so transient are these things, that we were unable (in 1813) to find out its site. 

212. Denmark. The gardens of Mariciuust, near Elsineur, which occupy the same 
space as those in which Hamlet's father was murdered, and those of the Prince Frede- 
rick, near the city, may be considered the Greenwich and Hyde Parks of Copenhagen. 
Hirschfield mentions Ashberg, on the lake Pleon, as one of the finest residences in 
Denmark in his time, and enumerates nearly a dozen others as seats of great beauty. 

Dronningard may be considered as one of the best examples of the English style. It is an extensive 
park, the late residence of an eminent Danish banker, De Conninck, about sixteen "miles from Copenhagen. 
The grounds are situated on a declivity, which descends to a natural lake of great extent,\vhose circuitous 
Shores are verged with rich woody scenery, and country-houses. The soil here approaches more to a 
clayey loam than is general on the continent ; and the climate being cold, the turf is happily of a deep tone of 
green, and close texture. The oak and beech abound in these grounds, as well as firs, and a number of 
exotics. Buildings are not too frequent ; but there are several, and among them a hermitage, to which 
one of the family actually retired, on occasion of a matrimonial disappointment, and lived there for several 
years, till roused and restored to active life by the dangers of his country. There are numbers of small 
spots round Copenhagen, of considerable beauty, in which something of the English style has been imi- 
tated ; but in none of the gardens of the court has it been avowedly introduced. 

213. There are many celebrated gardens in so extensive a country as Germany, that we can- 
not find room to particularise. The royal gardens of Munich, Stuttgard, and Hanover, 
the gardens of Baden, Hesse Cassel, Hesse Darmstadt, Saxe Gotha, Weimar, Worlitz, 
Schweitzingen, and other places, are well deserving notice. Most of them will be 
found described in Hirschfield's work, or noticed in the Lettres et Pensees of the Prince 
de Ligne ; and the most modern are described in the Almanack du Jardinage, a periodical 
work, published at Leipsic ; or, in the Gardener's Magazine, a quarterly periodical work 
in the German language. Indeed, there are specimens of English gardening, more or 
less extensive, in or near the capital towns of every state in Germany ; but, by far the 
greater number are of a very inferior description. From the arid soil and limited ex- 
tent result bad turf and an air of constraint ; and from too many buildings and walks. 
a distracting bustle and confusion. They are crowded with winding sanded paths con- 
tinually intersecting each other, little clumps, and useless seats or temples, and very fre- 
quently resemble more the attempts of mimics or caricaturists, than imitators of our taste. 
On the continent, indeed, the defects of the English style are more frequently copied 
than the beauties ; which, we presume, arises from the circumstances of few of those who 
lay out such gardens, having had a proper idea of the end in view in forming them, viz. 
a painter-like effect in every case, where it does not interfere with utility, or some other 
preferable beauty ; and, in many cases, an entire allusion to natural scenery. It is dif- 
ficult for a person of limited education and travel to form a distinct idea of what English 
gardens really are. The foreigner can seldom divest himself of the idea of a very limited 
and compact space as requisite for this purpose ; the reverse of which is the case with all 
our best scenes of picturesque beauty. The English gardens in the vicinity of Dresden, 
Brunswick, Hamburgh, Prague, Toplitz, Leipsic, and other places, have given rise to 
those remarks, in which even those professedly English in Prussia might be included. 
There are some exceptions which might be pointed out at Cassel, Stutgard, (for views of 
these gardens, see V Almanack du Jardinage,} Weimar, not unlike Kensington gardens, 
(see Description du Pare de Weimar, et du Jardinde Tiejfurth, Erfurt, 1797,) the park of 
Fiirstenstein near Breslaw, Mergentheim, W'orlitz, praised by the Prince de Ligne, and 
the walk at Munich, laid out by Count Rumford. (Ed, Encyc. art. Landscape Card.) 

214. The Duke of Baden's gardens at Schweilzingen (fig. 16.), between the Rhine and the Mayne, are 
considered by Kraft as the most delightful in Germany. They cover a surface of about 300 acres, and con- 
tain the ancient castle of the Marquises of Baden (1). " The marquisate of Baden," says Kraft, " having 
progressively and considerably increased by means of a numerous family, wings were obliged to be built on 
each side, divided into apartments. The 'hot-houses, which form the wings (2, 2), have been much in- 
creased. In front and more advanced, is the garden, in the French style, executed on a circular plan. 
In the middle of the avenue are four grass plots, bordered and enamelled with flowers. In the middle are 
little basins with fountains, one of which (3) throws the water sixty-seven feet high. On the right and 
left are plantations of odoriferous shrubs, orange-trees, embellished with statues and vases of the finest 
marble. Farther on are discovered the gardens, called the groves, situated on the right and left, laid out 
in different forms, and embellished with a number of figures, vases, statues, the temple of Minerva 
(4), the great rock surmounted by a figure of Pan (5), and Venus bathing (6). Higher up is the garden of 
the large grove, ornamented with numerous figures (7, 7, 7, 7), altars, tombs, urns, &c. Shady walks 
lead to the great basin (8), the gates leading to which have groups of figures on the pedestals (9, 9). The 
Grand Duke reserves the grand basin for the amusement of his family, par dcs petites navigations. A 
very magnificent Turkish mosque (10) is erected on the left Here begins the picturesque garden, with 
artificial hills, vales, and slopes ; many different sorts of trees ; a temple of Mercury in ruins (11); and va. 




rious walks, leading through shrubberies to the right, till you arrive at the nursery-garden (12). From 
thence, crossing the canal, you arrive at the temple of Apollo (13), built of costly marble. In the garden 
behind, are rocks with allegorical figures, subterraneous caves and caverns ; at one side a family bath of 
marble (14), aviaries (15), cabinets, pleasure-garden, and basin for aquatic fowls (16& 17) ; small buildings, in 
the form of monuments (18), serving as cabinets of natural history, museums, a laboratory, &c. ; a pictu- 
resque garden and temple (19) ; a Roman aqueduct (20), supplied by a water-engine (21), a ruined aque- 
duct (22) ; the offices for the administration of the garden, with its appurtenances (23) ; a large theatre 
(i>4) ; residence of the director -general (25) ; of the inspectors of the garden (26) ; of the inspectors of the 
forest (27) ; of the huntsmen (28) ; of the foresters (29). Besides all these things and many more., there is 
a fruit-garden (30) ; kitchen-garden (31) ; private orangery (32) ; area for greenhouse plants in summer (3?); 
and lofty water-engine for conveying water to the castle (34). 

The Ducal gardens of Saxegotha are remarkable for their fine lawns, and for a ruined castle, which was 
first built complete, and then ruined expr^s, by firing cannon against it. 

SUBSECT. 2. German Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of 


215. Floriculture was but little attended to in Germany, previously to the intro- 
duction of botanic gardens ; but on the establishment of these, plants of ornament were 
eagerly sought after in most of them : that of Altorf was famous for orange-trees, and 
that of Copenhagen for bulbous roots. 

216. The earliest private botanic garden in Europe, next to those of Italy, is said [Keith's 
Botany, p. 18.) to have been one formed by William, Landgrave of Hesse, early in the 
sixteenth century. Since that period more private botanic gardens have been formed in 
Germany than in any other continental country. At Carlsrouhe, the Prince of Baden 
Dourlach formed a botanic garden in 1715, in which, in 1737, there were 154 varieties 
of oranges and lemons. Many might be named from that period to the present : the 
latest is that of the Prince of Salm-Dyck. It was laid out in 1820, by Blaikie, of 
St. Germains ; and is calculated to contain all the hardy plants which can be procured, 
arranged in groups, according to the Jussieuean system. The prince is advantageously 
known, by his works on succulent plants. 

217. The first public botanic garden in Germany, according to Deleuze (Annales du 
Musee, torn. 8.), was established by the Elector of Saxony, at Leipzic, in 1580 ; this 
magistrate having undertaken the reform of public instruction throughout his dominions. 

Those of G lessen, Altorf, Rlntel, Ratisbon, Ulm, andJenna, soon followed. In 1605, Jungerma'n, a cele- 
brated botanist, obtained one for the university, which the landgrave had just founded at Giessen. After 
having disposed of it, he went to Altorf, and solicited the same favor for this city. The senate of Nuremberg 
agreed to his wishes in 1620, although the country was then a prey to the disasters of war. Jungerman, 


named Professor, gloried in the prosperity of a university which he looked upon as his work, and in 1635 
he publisheu the catalogue of the plants he had collected. Ten years afterwards they constructed a green- 
house, and the garden of Altorf (Pref. to the Nuremberg Hesperidcs] was then the most beautiful or Ger- 
many. That which Ernest, Count of Shawenbourg, established in 1621, at Rintel, in Westphalia, also ac- 
quired much celebrity. Those of Ratisbon and Ulm are of the same epoch. From 1555, when the univer- 
sity of Jenna was founded, the professors of botany, during the summer season, took the students to the 
country to herbalise. They soon found it would be much more advantageous to collect in one place the 
plants they wished them to be acquainted with, and the government constructed a garden in 1629. The 
direction of it was given to Rolfine, who has left a curious work on plants, containing a history of the 
principal gardens of Europe of his time. 

At Leipsic, towards the end of the seventeenth century, the garden of Gaspard Bose was celebrated. 
He introduced many American plants, and among others the dwarf almond. 

218. At Vienna and Frankfort, L'Ecluse prosecuted the study of botany, and enriched the gardens at 
these places with an immense number of plants. Maximilian II., who occupied the imperial throne from 
1564 to 1576, seconded his views, and caused a magnificent garden to be constructed at Vienna for the 
plants which he collected, charging his ambassadors at Constantinople and other countries, to procure new 
plants ; and giving the care of the garden to L'Ecluse. Rodolph II., who succeeded Maximilian, also en- 
riched this garden, of which Sweert published a catalogue (Florilcgimri) in 1612. 

The Schoenbrunn botanic garden was begun with the palace, in l/5o, by the Emperor Francis I. He de- 
sired that that establishment should be worthy of the imperial magnificence, and that it should extend the 
domain of botany, in bringing together vegetables then unknown in Europe. By the advice of Van 
Swieten, he procured two celebrated florists, the one from Leyden and the other from Delft. The first, 
Adrian Steckhoven, directed the construction of the hot-houses ; and the second Van der Schott, brought 
all the plants which he could collect in the gardens and nurseries of Holland. Thus the first year they 
were in possession of many curious species ; but this was only a step towards the end they had in view. 
The Emperor proposed to the celebrated Jacquin to go to the Antilles. This botanist departed in 1754, ac- 
companied by Van der Schott, and two Italian zoologists, employed to procure animals for the menagerie 
and the museum. These travellers visited Martinique, Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Eustace, St. Christopher, 
Jamaica, Cuba, Curaccao, and other places. In 1755 they sent home their first packages, and in 1756, Van 
der Schott arrived with a collection of trees and shrubs almost all in good condition. The trees were five 
or six feet high, and many had already borne fruit ; they were taken up with balls, and the earth enveloped 
with leaves of bananas, tied by cords of Hibiscus tiliaceus. Thus packed, one with another, they weighed 
100 Ibs. These vegetables, and the water necessary to water them, formed the greater part.of the cargo of 
a vessel which had been forwarded from Martinique for Leghorn. From Leghorn the plants were trans- 
ported on the backs of mules, and placed in the plain ground in the hot-houses built to receive them. The 
third and the fourth quantities came in the same manner. The fifth and sixth arrived from Caraccas, by 
Amsterdam. At last Jacquin left Havannah, and conducted to Schoenbrunn the last collection in 1759. 
During this time presents and purchases were received from other countries, and in proportion as the 
plants increased, they built hot-houses and orangeries, of a grandeur suitable to the plants destined to grow 
in them. One range is 270 feet long, and 30 feet high within ; another above SOU feet long, and about the 
same height ; and there are three more ranges, each about 240 feet long. 

An accident in 1780 caused the loss of most of the plants of the great hot-house. Van der Schott being 
sick, the gardener who supplied his place, forgot, during a very cold night, to light the stoves. Perceiving 
it in the morning, he thought to remedy the evil in making a very brisk fire. This sudden change of tem- 
perature caused many of the trees to perish, whose trunks were of the thickness of the arm. To repair 
this loss, Joseph II. engaged the naturalists to undertake a new voyage. Professor Maester was named 
chief of the expedition, with Dr. Stupiez, for a companion ; the gardeners Bose and Bredemyer, and the 
draftsman Mol. They went direct to Philadelphia, visited the United States, Florida, and New Provi- 
dence, sent home a large collection, and Bose afterwards got charge of the garden of Schoenbrunn. 

The hot-houses of Schoenbrunn, To wnson observes (Voyage in Hungary], are the most spacious that 
have yet been constructed in Europe; the trees of the tropics there develope their branches in full 
liberty, and bear flowers and fruits. The most rare palms, the Cocos nucifera, the Caryota urens, the 
Elais guinensis, grow there with vigor. The Corypha umbraculifera extends its large leaves for twelve 
feet round, and birds of Africa and America there fly from branch to branch among the trees of their 
country. Jacquin published successively three great works, illustrating the plants of these gardens, viz. 
Hortus Schoen., Icones plant, rariorum, and Fragmenta Botanica. We found these gardens in 1814 in 
suitable order; but the edifices requiring renovation. It is difficult for a mere European traveller to 
form any idea of the grandeur of the palms sending out their immense leaves from the capitals of their 
column-like trunks. 

There are at Vienna two other public botanic gardens ; the one formed in what was a large gravel-pit 
exclusively devoted to the plants of Austria; and the other of smaller extent, attached to the university, 
and devoted to a small general collection. Considerable compartments in the gardens of Princes 
Lichtenstein, and Schwartzenberg, in Leopoldstadt, are devoted to the culture of ornamental plants 
systematically arranged. 

The botanic garden of Pesth was established in 1812, and enlarged in 1815 ; it was placed under the 
direction of the professor Kitaibel, known in the scientific world as the author of Plantte rariores 

219. The botanic garden of Dresden is small ; but is rich in exotics lately procured from England, and 
carefully managed by Traugott Seidel. 

The botanic garden of Berlin was established in the time of Frederick IT. and is one of the few gardens 
in which the arrangement of the plants is according to their native habitations. It has lately been greatly 
enriched by Link and Otto ; as have those of Munich, Stuttgard, Baden, Hesse, and most others in 
Germany, by their respective directors and gardeners. 

The botanic garden of Konigsberg, was enlarged and re-arranged in 1812, and deserves notice for its 
singularly varied surface, and agreeable recluse walks. 

The botanic garden of Copenhagen was established before 1640. It was rich in hardy plants and trees, 
about the enrt of the last century, but is at present rather neglected. Sperlin in 1642, and Pauli in 1653, 
published catalogues of this garden. 

220. The taste for plants in Germany is very considerable among the higher classes ; and 
not only public bodies but private gentlemen, and princes of every degree, spend a much 
greater proportion of their income, in the encouragement of this branch of gardening, 
than is done by the wealthy of England. Since the restoration of tranquillity, this taste 
has received a new stimulus by the opportunity afforded of procuring plants from 
England. Among the lower classes, however, a taste for flowers is less popular in 
Germany than in Italy, Holland, and France ; probably owing to their frugal habits, 
and comparatively sober enjoyments. 


SUBSECT. 3. German Gardening) in respect to horticultural Productions. 

221. In all probability horticulture was first introduced to Germany by the Eimians y 
and afterwards revived by the religious houses. The native fruits and culinary plants 
of Germany are the same as those of France, already enumerated. In the museum of the 
arsenal in Dresden, are still preserved, and shown to strangers, the gardening tools with 
which Augustus the Second, Elector of Saxony, worked with his own hands. This 
magistrate died in 1566. He is said to have planted the first vineyard in Saxony, and 
to have greatly increased the varieties of the hardy fruits. 

222. The more common fruits of Germany, the cherry, the pear, the plum, and the 
apple, are natives, or naturalised in the woods. Good varieties would no doubt be 
brought from Italy by the monks, who established themselves in Germany in the dark 
ages, and from the convents be introduced to the gardens of the nobles, as the latter 
became somewhat civilised. This would more especially be the case with those pro- 
vinces situated on the Rhine, where the genial soil and climate would bring them to 
greater perfection, and, in time, render them more common than in the northern districts. 
Dr. Diel, however, a native of the best part of this tract of country (Nassau Dietz), 
complains (Obst. Orangerie in Scherben, 1st band.}, so late as 1804, that apples, pears, and 
cherries, were most commonly raised from seeds, and planted in orchards, without being 

223. Thejiner f)-uits only thrive in the south of Germany, the apricot appears to have 
been some time introduced in Austria and Hungary, and produces well as a standard in 
the neighbourhood of Vienna. The peach is most commonly grown against walls. The 
mulberry produces leaves for the silk-worm as far north as Frankfort on the Oder, but 
ripens its fruit with difficulty, unless planted against walls. The vine is cultivated as far 
north as the fifty-second degree of latitude, in vineyards, and somewhat farther in gardens. 
The fig, -to nearly the same extent, against walls, its branches being every where protected 
in winter ; it is, however, a rare fruit in Germany. At Vienna it is kept in large tubs 
and boxes, and housed during winter in the wine-cellars. 

224. The pine-apple, Beckman informs us, was first brought to maturity by Baron 
Munchausen, at Schwobber, near Hamelln. The large buildings erected by the baron for 
this fruit, are described in the Nuremberg Hebrides for 1714. It was ripened 
also by Dr. Kaltschmidt at Breslaw, in 1702, who sent some fruit to the imperial 
court. At present there are very few pineries to be found throughout the whole empire. 

In Austria the best varieties of hardy fruit-trees are said (Bright 1 s Travels] to have been introduced 
from Holland, by Van der Schott, about the middle of the seventeenth century ; but many of them must have 
been in the imperial gardens long before this period, from the connection o'f Austria with the Netherlands ; 
yet Meyer, in 1776, speaking of fruits, says, that " the age of Schoenbrunn will be for Franconia what that 
of Louis the Fourteenth was for France." The Rev. J. V. Sickler, in Saxegotha, Counsellor Diel, at Nassau 
Dietz, and Counsellor Ransleben, at Berlin, have established, within the last fifty years, fruit-tree nurse- 
ries, where all the best Dutch, French, and English varieties may be purchased. Diel and Ransleben 
prove the sorts, by fruiting the original specimens in pots in a green-house. Sickler has fruited an 
immense number of sorts in the open air, and published descriptions of them in Der Teutsche Obst. 
Gartner ; a work of which 48 volumes have already appeared. 

In Hanover George II., after establishing an agricultural society, is said to have introduced the best 
English fruits about 1751. 

In Saxony the Earl of Findlater resided many years, and planted a vineyard at his country-seat in the 
neighbourhood of Dresden, said to be the most northerly in Germany. He introduced fl'ued walls, and 
trained the best sorts of English peaches and apricots on them. The whole of his horticultural efforts 
and his chateau were destroyed by the French army in 1813, for no other reason than his being an Eng- 
lishman. A public walk and seat at Carlsbad remain to commemorate his taste and public spirit. 

At Potsdam the best fruits were introduced by Frederick II., who was passionately fond of them, 
and cultivated all the best Dutch varieties on walls, espaliers, under glass, and in the open garden. He 
was particularly fond of pine-apples, of which he grew a great number in pits ; and is censured by an 
English traveller (Burnett), because, on his death-bed, he made enquiries after the ripening of one of them, 
of which he expected to make a last bonne bouche. Potsdam and Schwobber are the only parts of Germany 
where forcing has ever been practised to any extent. There are now in the royal gardens of Prussia, 
excellent pine-apples reared under the care of the director Linne, who has visited England. 

At Weimar, the chief proprietor of the Landes Industrie comtoir, and author of a work on potatoes, has 
an excellent garden and extensive hot-houses where he raises the finest fruits. The whole, Jacobs ob- 
serves (Travels, 1819, 332.), is kept in excellent order. 

In Hungary horticulture has been much neglected, but fruit-tree nurseries were established there by 
government in 1808, and subsequently by private gentlemen. Plums, Dr. Bright informs us, are culti- 
vated in order to make damson brandy. The Tokay wine is made from the variety of grape figured and 
described by Sickler, in his Garden Magazine of 1804, as the Hungarian blue. The soil of the Tokay vine- 
yards is a red brown clay, mixed with sand, incumbent on a clayey slate rock ; and it is observed by a 
Hungarian writer quoted by Dr. Bright, that " in proportion as the soil is poor and stony, and the vine 
feeble, the fruit and wine, though small in quantity, become more excellent in their quality." Tokay 
wine is made in the submontane district which extends over a space about twenty miles round the town 
of that name. The grapes are left on the plants till they become dry and sweet, they are then gathered 
one by one, put in a cask with a perforated bottom, and allowed to remain till that portion of the juice 
escape, which will run from them without any pressure. This, which is called Tokay essence, is generally 
in very small quantity. The grapes are then put into a vat and trampled with the bare feet ; to the 
squeezed mass is next added an equal quantity of good wine, which is allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, 
and is then strained. This juice, without farther preparation, becomes the far-famed wine of Tokay, 
which is difficult to be obtained, and sells in Vienna at the rate of 121. per dozen. The Tokay vineyards 
are chiefly the property of the emperor. 



In Denmark, notwithstanding the severity of the climate, they succeed in bringing to a tolerable degree 
of perfection most of the best sorts of fruits. Glass frames, portable canvass covers, and mats, are used to 
protect the blossom of the more tender trees against walls ; and the hardier sorts, as the apple and cherry 
yre, in spring, before the blossom expands, watered every night, in order at once to protect and retard it 
by an envelope of ice. This ice is again thawed oft' before sunrise by copious waterings. 

225. The culinary vegetables of Germany are the same as those of Britain ; but they 
are without the greater part of our best varieties. The Brassica tribe and edible roots 
arrive at greater perfection there than in France. The popular sorts are the field-cabbage and 
the borecoles ; they are used newly gathered, and boiled and eaten with meat, in broths 
or soups, and pickled in the form of sour kraut for winter use. The potatoe, kidney- 
bean, onion, and lettuce, are also in general use ; and the first gardens possess all the 
oleraceous and acetaceous vegetables grown in France and Holland. 

SUBSECT. 4. German Gardening, as to planting Timber-trees and Hedges. 

226. Planting as a matter of profit has been little attended to in Germany from the num- 
ber and extent of the native forests. In some districts, however, Pomerania for example, 
barren sandy tracts are sown with acorns and Scotch pine-seeds, chiefly for the sake of 
fuel and common husbandry timber. Much attention, as Emmerich informs us (Culture 
of Forests), and as appears by the number of German works on Forstwissenschaft, is in 
general paid to the management of forests already existing ; as far as we have been able 
to observe, this extends to filling up vacancies by sowing, and occasionally draining and 
enclosing ; thinning and pruning are little attended to in most districts. The oak, the 
beech, and the Scotch pine, are the prevailing native trees of Germany. 

227. Mows of trees along the public roads are formed and preserved with great care, 
especially in Prussia. The mulberry is the tree used in some of the warmer districts, 
and in other places the lime and the elm ; the Lombardy poplar is also common near 
most towns of Germany, especially Berlin, Dresden, and Leipzic. Some attention is 
every where paid to public avenues ; and the highways being, as in France, generally 
kept up by the government, improvements can be executed promptly and with effect. 
There being, in general, no accompanying hedges, and the trees being trained with naked 
stems to ten or fifteen feet high, according to the lowness or exposure of the situation, 
little injury is done to the materials of the road in wet weather. The breeze passes 
freely between the stems of the trees. The traveller and his horses or cattle are shaded 
during sunshine, and sheltered during storms ; and the man of taste is furnished with a 
continued frame and foreground to the lateral landscapes. 

228. Hedges, though not general in Germany, are used on the Rhine and in Holstein, 
the plants generally hawthorn, but sometimes hornbeam or a mixture of native shrubs. 
Hungary is the most backward province in respect to planting and hedges, as well as to 
every thing else. A hedge there is rare ; and there are scarcely any public avenues be- 
yond Presburg. Existing woods are subjected to a sort of management for the sake of 
the fuel they afford, and for their produce in timber and charcoal for the mines. 

SUBSECT. 5. . German Gardening, as empirically practised. 

229. The use of gardens is as general in the best districts of Germany as in England ; 
but in Hungary and some parts of Bohemia, Gallicia, and Prussia, many of the lower 
orders are without them, or if permitted to enclose a few yards of ground near their 
wooden hovels, they seem too indolent and indifferent, or too much oppressed by the 
exactions of their landlords, to do so. The cabbage tribe, and chiefly red greens, and 
the potatoe, are the universal plants of the cottage-gardens of Germany ; lettuce, pease, 
onions, and turnips, with some other sorts, and the common fruit-trees, are introduced in 
some districts. Flowers are not very general, but the rose, thyme, and mint, are to be 
seen in many places, and a variety of ornamental plants in the better sort of cottage- 

230. Farmer's gardens, as in most countries, are a little larger than those of the 
lowest class of cottagers ; but inferior in point of order and neatness to that of the man 
who lives in his own cottage. 

231. The gardens of the hereditary families are not, in general, much attended to ; their 
appearance is too frequently that of neglect and disorder. Cabbage, potatoes, apples, 
and pears, and perhaps a few onions, are the produce expected from them ; these are cul- 
tivated by a servant, not always a gardener, and who has generally domestic occupations 
to perform for the family. It will readily be imagined that, in such an extensive country, 
there are innumerable exceptions ; in these, the gardens are better arranged, and the pro- 
duce of a more varied description. Next to the gardens of the princes or rulers, the best 
are those of the wealthy bankers and citizens. These are richly stocked with fruit-trees, 
generally contain hot-houses, and are liberally kept up. Some of them contain collections 
of exotics. The best private gardens in Denmark belong to this class, and the remark 
will apply in the vicinity of all towns and cities in proportion to their rank as com- 
mercial places. 


232. There are very few good gardens in Hungary , that of Prince Esterliazy, the greatest 
proprietor of that country, is extensive, abounds in hot-houses, and contains a very full 
collection of plants. The prince has an English gardener, whom he sends frequently to 
this country to collect whatever is new. 

233. The German princes and rulers are in general attached to gardens, and have very 
considerable ones at their principal residences ; some of these have been mentioned, and 
various others might be added. These gardens are under the direction of intelligent men, 
who, in general, have spent part of their time in botanic gardens ; and, in many cases, 
have studied or practised in Holland, or in the Paris gardens. 

234. There are market-gardens near most large towns, but nurseries are much less com- 
mon. There are extensive gardens of both sorts at Hamburg ; but the best fruit-tree 
nurseries are supposed to be those of Sickler and Diel already mentioned. There is a 
good nursery at Wurtzburg, in Franconia, established by Meyer ; one at Frankfort on the 
Oder, and three at Vienna. In most places, the principal market-gardeners propagate a 
few fruit-trees for sale. 

235. The operative part of gardening, in the better classes of gardens, is performed by 
men, who have, agreeably to the general custom in Germany, not only served an appren- 
ticeship, but travelled and worked for a certain time in different parts of the country, or 
of other countries. 

TJie term of apprenticeship is three years and a half, and for travel three years, unless the apprentice is 
the son of a master-gardener ; in which case, the term for travel is reduced to one year. All apprentices 
must be able at least to read and write, and are taught to draw, and furnished with written secrets in 
gardening by their master, during the term of apprenticeship. When that is completed, the youth is initi- 
ated into what may be called the free-masonry of gardening, and, being furnished with a pass-word, he pro- 

the next inn of a similar description. In this way he may walk over the whole of the German empire, 
Denmark, and a part of Holland, at the general expense ; the numerous ramifications of the society ex- 
tending over the whole of this immense tract. Such institutions exist for every trade in Germany, but being 
disliked by the governments, and being politically considered of an arbitrary and injurious nature, are now 
on the decline. On his return from probation, the travelled journeyman is entitled to take a master's 
place ; and very commonly he continues travelling tiH he hears of one. The regular German gardener is 
a careful, neat-handed, and skilful workman ; and, if allowed sufficient time, or assistance, will keep a 
garden in good order, and produce all the crops required of him in their proper seasons. 

236. The artists or architects of gardens, in Germany, are generally the Land baumeister, 
or those architects who have directed their attention chiefly to country-buildings. Where 
only a kitchen or flower-garden is to be formed, an approved practical gardener is com- 
monly reckoned sufficient. It occasionally happens, that a nobleman, who wishes to lay 
out an extensive garden, after fixing on what he considers a good gardener of some edu- 
cation, and capable of taking plans, sends him for a year or two to visit the best gardens 
of England, Holland, or France. On his return, he is deemed qualified to lay out the 
garden required ; which he does, and afterwards attends to its culture, and acts as a 
garden-architect ( Garten baumeister) to the minor gentry of his neighbourhood. 

SUBSECT. 6. German Gardening, as a Science, and as to the Authors it has produced. 

237. The Germans are a scientific people : they are a reading people, and in conse- 
quence the science of every art, in so far as developed in books, is more generally known 
there than in any other country. Some may wish to except Scotland ; but, though the 
Scotch artisan reads a great deal, his local situation and limited intercourse with other 
nations, subject him to the influence of the particular opinions in which he has been edu- 
cated : he takes up prejudices at an early period, and with difficulty admits new ideas 
from books. On the other hand, the Germans of every rank are remarkable for liberality 
of opinion : all of them travel ; and, in the course of seeing other states, they find a 
variety of practices and opinions, different from those to which they have been accustomed ; 
prejudice gives way ; the man is neutralised ; becomes moderate in estimating what 
belongs to himself, and willing to hear and to learn from others. 

238. There are horticultural societies and professorships of rural economy in many of the 
universities ; one or two gardeners' magazines, and almanacks of gardening ; and some 
eminent vegetable physiologists are Germans. Even in Hungary, it appears (JBright's 
Travels), a Georgicon, or college of rural economy, has been established by Graff Festetits 
at Keszthely, in which gardening, including the culture and management of woods and 
copses, forms a distinct professorship. The science of France may be, and we believe is, 
greater than that of Germany in this art, but it is accumulated in the capital ; whereas, 
here it emanates from a great number of points distributed over the country, and is conse- 
quently rendered more available by practical men. The minds of the gardeners of France 
are, from general ignorance, less fitted to receive instruction than those of Germany ; 
their personal habits admit of less time for reading ; their climate and soil require less 
artificial agency. The German gardener is generally a thinking, steady person; the 
climate, in most places, requires his vigilant attention to culture, and his travels have en- 

E 2 




larged his views. Hence he becomes a more scientific artisan than the Frenchman, and is 
in more general demand in ether countries. Some of the best gardens in Poland, Russia, 
and Italy, are under the care of Germans. 

239. The Germans have produced few original authors on gardening, and none that can 
be compared to Quintinye or Miller. They have translations of all the best European 
books; and so vigilant are they in this respect, that even a recent and most useful work on 
exotic gardening, by Gushing, hardly known in England, has not escaped the Leipsic 
book-makers. Hirschfield has compiled a number of works, chiefly on landscape-gar- 
dening ; J. V. Sickler and Counsellor Diel have written extensively on most departments 
of horticulture, especially on the hardy fruits. (Sulzer's Theory of the Fine Arts ; 
Ersches Handbuch, &c. 2 Band. 1 Abth.) 

SECT. V. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Switzerland. 

240. Extensive gardens are not to be expected in a country of comparative equalisation 
of property, like Switzerland ; but no where are gardens more profitably managed or more 
neatly kept, than in that country. " Nature," Hirschfield observes, " has been liberal to 
the inhabitants of Switzerland, and they have wisely profited from it. Almost all the 
gardens are theatres of true beauty, without vain ornaments or artificial decorations. 
Convenience, not magnificence, reigns in the country-houses ; and the villas are distin- 
guished more by their romantic and picturesque situations, than by their architecture." 
He mentions several gardens near Geneva and Lausanne ; Delices is chiefly remarkable 
because it was inhabited by Voltaire before he purchased Ferney, and La Grange and 
La Boissier are to this day well known places. Ferney is still eagerly visited by every 
stranger, but with the chateau of the Neckar family, that of the Empress Josephine, of 
Beauharnois, and others, eulogised in the local guides, pre- 
sent nothing in the way of our art particularly deserving of 

notice ; though their situations, looking down on so mag- 
nificent a lake, the simplicity of their architecture, and the 

romantic scenery by which they are surrounded, render 

them delightful retirements, and such as but few countries 

can boast. The villa-gardens excel in rustic buildings 

(Jig. 17.) and arbors ; and are, for the most part, a mixture 

of orchards on hilly surfaces, cultivated spots, and rocks. 

However insignificant such grounds may look on paper 

(Jig. 18.), in the reality they are pleasing and romantic. The public promenades at 

Berne are most beautiful, and kept with all the care of an English flower-garden. Swit- 
1 8 zerland has the pecu- 

liar advantage of pro- 
ducing a close turf, 
which in most places, 
and particularly at 
Lausanne and Berne, 
is as verdant as in 
England. Harte 
says great part of the 
Pays de Vaud is like 
the best part of Berk- 
shire ; and indeed 
every one feels that 
this is the country 
most congenial to an 
Englishman's taste 
^r^^^^WMmmm and feelings. 

241. Thejirst botanic garden which appeared in Switzerland was that of the celebrated 
Conrad Gesner, at Zurich, founded before the middle of the sixteenth century. He had 
not, Deleuze observes, sufficient fortune to obtain much ground, or to maintain many 
gardeners ; but his activity supplied every thing, and he assembled in a small spot what 
he had been able to procure by his numerous travels and extensive correspondence. Public 
gardens were, in the end of this century, established at Geneva, Basil, and Berne, and 
subsequently in most of the cantons. The first of these gardens at present is that of 
Geneva, lately enlarged and newly arranged under the direction of that active and highly 
valued botanist, Decandolle. The garden of Basil is rich in the plants of all the moun- 
tainous regions which lie around it, including the Tyrol and Piedmont. A taste for 
flowers is perhaps more popular in Switzerland than in Germany ; for though frugality is 
not less an object in every branch of rural economy, yet real independence is more gene- 


ral ; a poor man here, as Burns used to say, has generally some other estate than that of 
sin and misery ; some little spot that he can call his own, and which he delights to cultivate 
and ornament. Speaking of Zurich, Simond observes (Tour, &c. 1819, p. 404.), " Haer- 
lem excepted, there is not a town where more attention was ever paid to fine flowers : 
many new plants, as the Hortensia, Volkameria, &c., are here grown in perfection. The 
taste for flowers is particularly displayed on the occasion of the birth of a child. When the 
news is carried about to all the relations and friends of the family ; the maid is dressed 
in her best attire, and carries a huge nosegay of the finest flowers the season affords. 

242. Horticulture is carefully practised in Switzerland ; vineyards are formed as far 
north as Lausanne ; and the apple, pear, plum, cherry, and wal- 
nut are common on every farm ; the three first are in every cottage- 
garden. The filbert, gooseberry, currant,, raspberry, and strawberry 

are natives ; but only the filbert, raspberry, and strawberry are com- 
mon in the woods and copses. In the sheltered valleys of this country, 
the apple and the pear are most prolific. Stewed pears is a common ' 
dish among the cottagers in autumn ; the fruit is also dried, and in 
winter forms an excellent soup ingredient. The cabbage, the potatoe, 
the white beet grown for the leaves as spinach, and their foot-stalks 
as chard, and the kidney-bean for haricots and soups, are the popular 
vegetables. Particular attention is paid to bees, which are kept in 
neat rustic sheds (Jig. 19.), or the hives carefully thatched with bark 
or moss. 

243. There is little or no forest planting in Switzerland, but hedges of hawthorn are not 
uncommon. The walnut is there a very common high-road tree in the autumnal months, 
and furnishes the pauper traveller with the principal part of his food. Poor Italians have 
been known to travel from Naples and Venice to Geneva on this sort of fare. They 
begin with Indian corn and grapes, which they steal from the fields, till they arrive at 
Milan, and the rest of the road they depend on walnuts, filberts, and apples. 

SECT. VI. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Sweden and Norway. 

244. Gardening is patronised by the higher classes, and practised round the principal 
towns of Sweden and Norway. " All the Swedes with whom I have ever met," observes 
Hirschfield, " whether elevated by birth, or enlightened by education, were estimable 
friends of beautiful nature and of gardens." Sir J. E. Smith (Lin. Trans., vol. i.) ex- 
presses an equally high opinion of this people. Mediocrity of circumstances, a poor court, 
political liberty, and a varied and comparatively unproductive country, seem to have 
contributed to give a more thinking turn to the Swedish nobles, than in countries natu- 
rally prolific. Their immense public works, canals, harbors, and excellent roads, careful 
agriculture, extensively worked mines, botanic gardens, literary institutions, and scientific 
authors are proofs of what we assert. 

245. The ancient style of gardening appears to have been introduced to Sweden, at least 
previously to 1671 ; for Hermand, who published his Regnum Suecia in that year, men- 
tions the gardens of the palace as well as the Vivarium, or park. The gardens, he says, 
were used for delight and recreation. They lay between the Palatium and Vivarium, 
and the latter contained some wooden buildings, in which were kept lions, leopards, and 
bears. This garden and park appear to have been formed by Gustavus Adolphus, about 
1620. Charles the Twelfth procured plans from Le Notre, and had the trees and plants 
sent from Paris. It is remarked by Dr. Walker, as a curious fact, that though the yew- 
tree is a native of Sweden, those plants of this species sent from Paris, to plant Le Notre's 
designs, died at Stockholm the first winter. 

246. The mixed style is exemplified in Haga, formed ori a rocky situation, about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, by Gustavus III., with the assistance of Masretier. It 
is the Trianon of Sweden. The approach is a winding walk through rocks and luxuriant 
verdure. Drottningholm is a royal palace, formed by the same prince on the island of 
that name. The gardens are in a sort of Anglo-Chinois manner, but as far as art is con- 
cerned, in no respect remarkable. Both these gardens are surrounded or intermingled 
with water, rocks, Scotch pine, spruce fir, and buildings, forming a picturesque assem- 
blage of saxatile and verdant beauty. There are some confined spots laid out in the 
English taste, chiefly by British merchants in the neighbourhood of Gottenburg, as there 
are also near Christiana and Tronijem, in Norway ; but it may be remarked, that this 
style is not likely to be generally adopted in either country, because they already possess 
much greater beauties of the same kind, which it is our aim to create, and with which 
those created would not bear a comparison. 

247. A taste f or fowers is not popular in Sweden; if a farmer or cottager has any spare 
room in his garden, he prefers rearing a few plants of tobacco. But the study of every 
branch of natural history is in repute among the higher classes and literati ; and the ce- 

E 3 


Icbrity of the Swedish botanists, and of the Upsal garden, is universal. It was difficult, 
Deleuze observes, to form vegetable collections in the northern countries ; but industry 
can conquer obstacles, and the more precautions necessary to secure the plants from the 
vigor of the climate, the more will culture be perfected. 

248. The botanic garden of Upsai was founded in 1657, under the auspices of King 
Charles Gustavus, and by the attention of Olaus Rudbeck. This learned man, seconded 
by the credit of the Count of Gardie, chancellor of the academy of Upsal, and who had 
himself a fine botanic garden at Jacobsdahl, obtained funds necessary for the construction 
of a garden and green-house, and to collect foreign plants ; and he augmented its riches 
by the gift he made of his own garden in 1662. The progress of this establishment 
may be seen by comparing the three catalogues given by Rudbeck in 1658, 1666, 1685. 
The latter enumerates 1870 plants, among which are 630 distinct species of exotics. 
(Bib. jBanksiana.) In 1702, the fire which consumed the half of the city of Upsal, re- 
duced the green-house to ashes, and the garden was in a deplorable condition till 1740, 
when its walls were rebuilt. Two years afterwards the botanical chair and the direction 
of the garden were given to Linnaeus ; and the university, undoubtedly excited by that 
reformer of natural history, took charge of all the necessary expenses for the acquisition 
and preservation of plants. Linnaeus, feeling how essential it was to be assisted in all the 
details of culture, obtained Diderich Nutzel, a clever gardener, who had visited attentively 
the gardens of Germany, Holland, and England, and who had then the charge of that of 
Cliffort, in Holland. He there constructed new green- houses, intended for plants of 
different climates; and he solicited successfully the principal botanic gardens of 
Europe for specimens. Soon after, several of his pupils, whom he had excited with enthu- 
siasm for botany, went across the seas to collect seeds and specimens ; and many tropical 
plants, first grown at Upsal, were sent from thence to the southern countries of Europe. 

The description and plan of the garden of Upsal may be seen in the Amocnitates Academics. (Dissert. 7. 
t. i. p. 172.) Linnseus, in 1748 and 1753, published the catalogue of the plants cultivated there, and since his 
time, others have appeared, containing the additions which have been made by his successors. In 1804, 
the large orangery, built by Linnaeus, was found to be considerably out of repair, and was taken down and 
rebuilt. A magnificent lecture-room and museum was at the same time added. The ceilings of these 
rooms are supported by columns, which being hollow, are used as flues, and thus afford an elegant and 
effectual means of heating the air. On the whole, the garden is respectably kept up ; and many hardy 
plants, natives of North America in particular, are found here in greater luxuriance than in France or 

249. In horticulture the Swedes are considered as successful operators ; but their short 
summers are adverse to the culture of many sorts of fruits and culinary vegetables in the 
open air ; and there is not yet sufficient wealth to admit of forcing, or forming artificial 
climates to any extent. The apple, pear, and plum ripen their fruits in the best districts, 
especially in warm situations ; but where the better varieties are grown, they are always 
planted against walls, and protected, as in Denmark. The Rubus chanuemorus, or cloud- 
berry (fig. 20.), is very common in 

Lapland ; its fruit is delicious, and 
sent in immense quantities, in autumn, 
from all the north of the Gulf of 
Bothnia, to Stockholm, where it is 
used for sauces, in soups, and in mak- 
ing vinegar. Dr. Clarke was cured of 
a bilious fever, chiefly from eating 
this fruit. There are a few forcing- 
houses near Gottenburg and Stockholm 
for peaches and vines ; and one or two 
instances of pines being attempted in 
pits near the capital and in East Goth- 
land. The borecoles, red and green, the 
rutabaga and potatoe are the popular 
vegetables ; but the best gardens have most of the Dutch and English varieties of the 
culinary tribe. 

250. The towns and cities of Norway, Dr. Clarke informs us (Scandinavia, ch. 17. 1806), 
were formerly supplied with culinary herbs from England and Holland ; but gardening 
became more general after the publication by Christian Gartner of a manual adapted to 
Sweden. Now all sorts of vegetables are common round Tronijem. The gardens of the 
citizens are laid out in the Dutch taste, and full of fruits and flowers. Of these are enu- 
merated, apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, cabbages, cauliflowers, turnips, cu- 
cumbers, potatoes, artichokes, lupines, stocks, carnations, pinks, lilies, roses, and many 
other garden-flowers. In the garden of the minister of Enontekis (Jig. 21.), a village 
situated 287 miles north of Tornea, and perhaps the best garden in Lapland, Dr. Clarke 
found pease, carrots, spinach, potatoes, turnips, parsley, and a few lettuces. The tops of 
the potatoes were used boiled, and considered a delicate vegetable. 


251. Planting is little wanted in Stveden, for seedling Scotch pines, spruce firs, and 
birch, rise up in abundance wherever old ones have been cut down. Enclosures in Swe- 
den, as in Switzerland, are most frequently made of stone or of wood. Trees are planted 
along the roads in several places, and especially near Stockholm. The lime, the birch, 
and the ash, or trembling poplar, are the species used. 

SECT. VII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Russia. 

252. The history of gardening in Russia is very different from that of any of those 
countries which have yet come under review. Peter the Great sought, by one giant stride, 
to raise the character of his nation to a level with that of other countries ; and, by extra- 
ordinary efforts, introduced excessive refinement amidst excessive barbarism ; asembled 
magnificent piles of architecture in a marsh, and created the most sumptuous palaces and 
extensive parks and gardens, in the bleak pine and birch forests which surrounded it. As 
a man of Cronstadt rhymes, 

" Built a city in a bog, 

And made a Christian of a hog." 

Nothing can be more extraordinary in the way of gardening, than these well-known 
facts, that a century ago there was scarcely such a thing, in any part of Russia, as a 
garden ; and, for the last fifty years, there have been more pine-apples grown in the neigh- 
bourhood of Petersburg than in all the other countries of the continent put together. 

SUBSECT. 1. Russian Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

253. Russian gardening, as an art of design, began, like every other art, with Peter 
the Great. This emperor's first effort was made in 1714, when the garden of the sum- 
mer-palace, on the banks of the Neva, in Petersburg, was laid out in the Dutch taste. 
But the grandest and most superb garden, in the geometric manner, is that which he con- 
structed soon afterwards, about thirty wersts from the city, on the shores of the gulf. 
This imperial residence, as far as respects the gardens, has been justly called the Versailles 
of Russia ; and the Prince de Ligne, an excellent judge, gives the preference to its water- 
works. The whole was originally designed and laid out by Le Blond, a pupil of Le Notre, 
and for some time court architect of St. Petersburg. This, with the other suburban 
palaces and gardens, have been minutely described by Georgi, and more generally by 
Storch, from whom we select the following outline : 

254. Peterhoff, in respect to situation, is perhaps unrivalled. About five hundred fathoms from the sea- 
shore this region has a second cliff, almost perpendicular, near twelve fathoms high. Bordering on this 
precipice stands the palace, thereby acquiring a certain peculiar prospect over the gardens and the gulf, to 
the snores of Carelia and St. Petersburg, and to Cronstadt. It was built in the reign of Peter the Great, 
by the architect Le Blond, but has received, under the succeeding monarchs, such a variety of improve- 
ments, that it has become a sort of specimen of the several tastes that prevailed in each of these asras, the 
influence whereof is visible in the numerous architectural ornaments, which are all highly gilt. The inside is 
correspondent with the destination of this palace; throughout are perceptible the remains of antiquated 
splendor, to which is contrasted the better taste of modern times. The gardens are more interesting by 
their peculiar beauties. The upper parts of them, before the land-side of the palace, are disposed into 
walks, plantations, and parterres, which acquire additional elegance by a large basin and canal, plentifully 
furnished with fountains of various designs and forms. The declivity before the back-front of the palace 
towards the sea has two magnificent cascades, rolling their streams over the terraces into large basins, and 
beneath which vast sheets of water, we walk as under a vault, without receiving wet, into a beautiful grotto. 
The whole space in front of this declivity, down to the sea-shore, is one large stately garden in the old- 
fashioned style, and famous for its jets-tfeau, and artificial water- works. Some of them throw up columns of 
water, a foot and a half in diameter, to a height of two and a half or three fathoms. A pellucid canal, lined 
with stone, ten fathoms wide, running from the centre of the palace-facade into the gulph of Finland, divides 
these gardens in two. In a solitary wood stands the summer-he use, called Monplaisir, which among other 
things is remarkable for its elegant kitchen, wherein the Empress Elizabeth occasionally amused herself 
in dressing her own dinner. In another portion of the gardens, close to the shore of the gulf, stands a 
neat wooden building, formerly a favorite retreat of Peter the Great, as he could here have a view of 

E 4 


Cronstadt and the fleet. The bath is likewise worthy of observation, situated hi the midst of a thicket 
We enter a large oval space, enclosed by a wooden wall, without a covering at top, but open to the sky, 
and shaded by the surrounding trees. In this wall are chambers and recesses furnished with all that con- 
venience or luxury can require to that end. In the centre of this area is a large basin, surrounded by a 
gallery, and provided with steps, rafts, and gondolas : the water is conducted hither by pipes, which fill the 
basin only to a certain height." These gardens still exist, and the water-works are kept in tolerable re- 
pair. There is adjoining a small specimen of English gardening, laid out by Meader, once gardener at 
Alnwick castle in Northumberland, and who is author of The Planter's Guide. 

255. At Petrowka, near Moscow, is the principal private ancient garden in Russia. 
The hedges and alleys are chiefly formed of spruce fir, which are shorn, and seem to 
flourish under the shears. It contains also a labyrinth, and a turf amphitheatre, on which 
the proprietor, Comte Razumowski, had operas performed by his domestic slaves. 

Sophiowski, in Podolia, is a magnificent residence of the Countess Potocki, laid out by a Polish archi- 
tect, Metzel, in the manner of Switzer. It has a magnificent terrace or promenade, and extensive ave- 
nues, conservatories, and gardens. 

256. Thejirst attempt at the modern style of gardening in Russia was made by Catherine, 
about 1778, at Zarskoje-selo, at that time enlarged and re-laid out. The gardener 
employed was Busch, a German, and father of their present superintendant. The gor- 
geous magnificence of this residence is well known. " A natural birch forest, on ground 
somewhat varied, forms the ground-work of the park and gardens. The gate by 
which they are approached, is an immense arch of artificial rock-work, over which is 
a lofty Chinese watch-tower. The first group of objects is a Chinese town, through 
which the approach leads to the palace ; a building, which, with its enclosed entrance, 
court, offices, baths, conservatories, church, theatre, and other appendages, it would seem 
like exaggeration to describe. The rest of the garden-scenery consists of walks, numer- 
ous garden-buildings, columns, statues, &c. with bridges of marble and wood, a large 
lake, and extensive kitchen-gardens and hot-houses." The following more detailed 
description is from the pen of Storch already mentioned. 

257. Zarskoje-selo, the famous summer- residence of Catherine the Second, is situated in an open plea- 
sant region, diversified by little hills, meads, and woodlands. The space of the whole domain contains 
four hundred and twenty thousand square fathoms. This princely seat owes its origin to Catherine the 
First, and its enlargement and embellishment to Elizabeth ; but it is indebted for its completion in ele- 
gance and taste, and the greater part of its present magnificence, to the creative reign of Catherine the 
Second. We are now in a. small wood within sight of the palace. On the left we have the park wall, and 
before us the entrance on the Petersburg side. It consists of two portals, composed of blocks of sand- 
stone, in the form of rocky fragments, over one of which is a Chinese watch-house. By this passage we 
enter the foregrounds of the palace, having the gardens to the right, and a Chinese village to the left, 
through which the way leads over a Chinese bridge to the park. Before us lies the road to the little 
neighbouring town Sophia, which goes through a colossal gate of cast-iron. The court of the palace forms 
an amphitheatre of buildings opposite the grand parade, closed on each side by an iron palisade. 

The gardens are laid out in the English manner : among their curiosities that admit of a description, the 
following objects may principally be recorded. A small temple containing a collection of antique and modern 
statues ; a solitude for dinner-parties like that in the hermitcgs j a magnificent bath ; a coach-hill, similar to 
that at Oranienbaum ; picturesque ruins ; a small town to commemorate the taking of Taurida, &c. Two 
artificial lakes are connected by a running stream, crossed by an arched bridge, covered at the top by a 
roof resting on two rows of marble columns, on the model of the bridge at Stowe. On one of the islands on 
these lakes stands a Turkish mosque, on another a spacious hall for musical entertainments. In a thick 
shrubbery we come upon a pyramid in the Egyptian form, in the vicinity whereof are two obelisks. 

This majestic sanctuary of art and nature, continues Storch, is at the same time a magnificent temple of 
merit. Formed of the rocky foundations of the earth, here the monuments of great achievements tower 
towards the skies, fearless of the destructive vicissitudes of time. A marble obelisk reminds us of the 
victory near Kagul, and of the victor Romanzoff Zudunaisky. To the Dey of Tschesmi, and the hero 
Orlof Tschesmenskoy, a marble column on a pedestal of granite is devoted. A grand triumphal arch 
proclaims the patriotic ardor of Prince Orlof, with which he faced rebellion and the plague in the 
capital, and quelled them both. The victory in the Morea and the name of Feador Orlof are handed 
down to posterity by a rostral column. Plain and gigantic as the sentiments of the heroes whose memories 
are perpetuated in these masses of rocks, they stand surrounded by the charms of Nature, who softens 
her majesty through the veil of artless graces. 

258. Paulowsky presents the best specimen of the English style, in the neighbourhood 
of the Russian capital, or indeed in the empire. It was begun during the reign of 
Catherine, in 1780, from a design said to have been furnished by the celebrated Brown, 
from a description sent him by Gould, an Englishman, the gardener of Potemkin, and 
finished afterwards during the reign of Paul. This place possesses considerable variety 
of surface, and a varied clothing of wood, the Scotch pine and aspen being natural to these 
grounds, as well as the birch. Near the palace, there is a profusion of exotics of every 
description, including a numerous collection of standard roses, which, with some of the 
American shrubs, require to be protected with straw and mats during winter. The 
Chevalier Storch has given a very interesting description of these gardens, in his Briafe 
iiber Patdowsky, &c. 1802. 

259. The gardens of Potemkin, a man whose mind, as the Prince de Ligne has ob- 
served, contained mines of gold and steppes, and one of the most extravagant encouragers 
of our art that modern times can boast, were of various kinds, and situated in different 
parts of the empire. The most extensive gardens of this prince were in the Ukraine ; 
but the most celebrated were those belonging to the palace of Taurida, now an imperial 
residence in St. Petersburg. The grounds are level, with several winding and straight 




canals, and walks, adorned with numerous buildings, a rich collection of exotics, and most 
extensive hot-houses of every description. Their grand feature, in Potemkin's time, was 
the conservatory, or winter-garden (Jig, 22.), attached to the palace. The plan of this 

part of the building is that of a semicircle, embracing the end of a saloon, nearly 300 feet 
long. It is lighted by immense windows, between columns, has an opaque ceiling, 
and is at present heated by common German stoves. It is too gloomy for the growth 
of plants, but those grown in the glass sheds of the kitchen-garden are carried there, sunk 
in the ground, and gravel-walks, turf, and every article added, to render an illusion to a 
romantic scene in the open air as complete as possible. The effect was, after all, it is 
said, never satisfactory but when illuminated. This palace, the original exterior of 
which was in a very simple style, and the interior most magnificent, is said to have been 
the design of Potemkin, but it was entirely re- modelled at his death by Catherine, used 
as barracks by Paul, and is now very imperfectly restored. (Ed. Encyc. art. Landscape 
Gardening. ) 

This winter-garden or conservatory, so much spoken of, is thus described by Storch : " Along one 
side of the vestibule is the winter-garden, an enormous structure, disposed into a garden, only separated 
from the grand hall by a colonnade. As, from the size of the roof, it could not be supported without 
pillars, they are disguised under the form of palm-trees. The heat is maintained by concealed flues placed 
in the walls and pillars, and even under the earth leaden-pipes are arranged, incessantly filled with boil- 
ing water. The walks of this garden meander amidst flowery hedges, and fruit-bearing shrubs, winding 
over little hills, and producing, at every step, fresh occasions for surprise. The eye of the beholder, when 
weary of the luxuriant variety of the vegetable world, finds recreation in contemplating some exquisite 
production of art : here a head, from the chisel of a Grecian sculptor, invites to admiration ; there a 
motley collection of curious fish, in crystal vases, suddenly fixes our attention. We presently quit these 
objects, in order to go into a grotto of looking-glass, which gives a multiplied reflection of all these won- 
ders, or to indulge our astonishment at the most extraordinary mixture of colors in the faces of an 
obelisk of mirrors. The genial warmth, the fragrance and brilliant colors of the nobler plants, the volup- 
tuous stillness that prevails in this enchanted spot, lull the fancy into sweet romantic dreams ; we imagine 
ourselves in the blooming groves of Italy ; while nature, sunk into a death-like torpor, announces the 
severity of a northern winter through the windows of the pavilion. In the centre of this bold creation, 
on a lofty pedestal, stood the statue of Catherine II., surrounded by the emblems of legislature, cut in 
Carrara marble. It has been thrown out of the building on its being made into barracks." 

The gardens at Potemkin's other residences, as well as many imperial and private gardens in Russia, 
were laid out by Gould, a pupil of Brown. Sir John Carr relates an anecdote on Gould's authority, which 
was confirmed to us, in 1813, by the present gardener, Call, his successor, and deserves a place here. In 
one of the prince's journeys to the Ukraine, Gould attended him with several hundred assistants, destined 
for operators, in laying out the grounds of Potemkin's residence in the Crimea. Wherever the prince 
halted, if only for a day, his travelling pavilion was erected, and surrounded by a garden in the English 
taste, composed of trees and shrubs, divided by gravel- walks, and ornamented with seats and statues, all 
carried forward with the cavalcade." On another occasion, " having accidently discovered the ruins of 
a castle of Charles XII. of Sweden, he immediately not only caused it to be repaired, but surrounded by 
gardens in the English taste." (Carr's Baltic, &c.) 

260. The most extensive seats laid out in the modern style, in the neighbourhood of 
Moscow, are those of Gorinka, a seat of Count Alexy Razumowsky (Jig. 23.), and ' 
Petrowka, a seat of Petrowsky Razumowsky. The former is remarkable for its botanical 
riches, and an immense extent of glass. The grounds are of great extent, but the sur- 
face flat, and the soil a dry sand. A natural forest of birch and wild cherry clothes the 
park, and harmonises the artificial scenes. The mansion, built by an English artisan, is 
highly elegant; and the attached conservatories and stoves, and decorated lawn, form 
a splendid and delightful scene, unequalled in Russia. 





261. Petrowka contains both an ancient garden, already referred to, and a large extent of 
ground, laid out in the modern style, and adorned with buildings, from designs by Signor 
Camporezi. There is some variety of surface, abundance of birch and fir woods, with 
some oaks and aspens interspersed, and a large piece of water. Among the ornamental 
buildings is a cotton-manufactory, in actual use as such. The practice of introducing 
manufactories as garden-buildings, is very general in Russia, and almost peculiar to that 

262. Among other gardens near Moscow may be mentioned those of Count Alexy 
Razumowsky, and of Paschow, in Moscow; of Zaritzina (fig. 24.), a singular Turkish 
palace, built by Potemkin for Catherine ; of Astankina Count Cheremetow, Peckra, 
Prince Galitzin, and various others,' which would well bear description. In general, ex- 
tent, exotics, and magnificent artificial decorations are more the object of the modern style 


in Russia, than scenes merely of picturesque beauty. We think this may be accounted 
for, partly from the general want of refinement of taste in that country, and partly from 
its inaptitude for that style. The nobles of Russia, suddenly rendered aware of being 
distanced in point of civilisation by those of most other European countries, are resolved 
not merely to imitate, but even to surpass them in the display of wealth. The most 
obvious marks of distinction, in refined countries, are necessarily first singled out by 
rude and ambitious minds, and large magnificent houses and gardens are desired, rather 
than comfortable and elegant apartments, and beautiful or picturesque scenes ; since, as 
every one knows, it is much more easy to display riches than to possess taste ; to strike 
by what is grand, than to charm by what is beautiful. 

263. Around Petersburg and Moscow are several public gardens and various private ones, 
which their owners, with great liberality, convert into places of public entertainment, to 
which all the people of decent appearance are at liberty to come. The country-seats of 
the two brothers Nariskin deserve our particular notice, as being frequented on Sundays 
by great numbers of the higher classes. A friendly invitation, in four different lan- 
guages, inscribed over the entrance to the grounds, authorises every one, of decent 
appearance and behaviour, to amuse himself there in whatever way he pleases, without fear 
of molestation. In several pavilions are musicians, for the benefit of those who choose 
to dance ; in others are chairs and sofas, ready for the reception of any party who wish 
to recreate themselves by sedate conversation, after roaming about with the great throng ; 
some parties take to the swings, the bowling-green, and other diversions ; on the canals 
and lakes are gondolas, some constructed for rowing, others for sailing ; and if this be 
not enough, refreshments are spread on tables, in particular alcoves, and are handed 
about by persons in livery. This noble hospitality is by no means unenjoyed ; the con- 
course of persons of all descriptions, from the star and riband, to the plain well-dressed 
burgher, forms such a party-colored collection, and sometimes groups so humorously 
contrasted, that for this reason alone it is well worth the pains of partaking once in the 
amusement. (Starch's Petersburgh, p. 441.) 

264. In the country parts of Russia, hundreds or even thousands of miles may be 
gone over without meeting with any country-seat worth mentioning. The nearest to 
Moscow, southwards, which we have seen, is that of Sophiowski, in Podob'a, 1000 wersts 


SUBSECT. 2. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants 

of Ornament- 

265. Dutch flower-roots, would doubtless be introduced in the imperial gardens with 
the Dutch taste in design ; and soon after copied by such of the nobility as could afford 
to copy in matters of this kind. It was reserved, however, for Catherine the Second to 
give the first impulse to this taste, by establishing at Petersburg, the first public botanic- 
garden in 1785, for the use of the academy of sciences. Another was soon after formed 
for the medical college. 

266. The botanic garden of the university of Moscow was founded by the present 
emperor, in 1801, but was unfortunately destroyed by the French in 1812; at which 
time the university was burned down. Both, however, are now restored to their original 

267. The first private botanic garden formed in Russia was that of Count Dimidow, 
begun during Peter the Great's reign. It was chiefly devoted to native plants ; but 
still the hot-houses for exotics occupied more than one acre of ground. Two botanists 
were sent to travel over the whole of Asiatic Russia. In 1786 a catalogue was pub- 
lished, when the collection amounted to 4363 species or varieties, exclusive of 572 
varieties of fruit-trees, 600 varieties of florists' flowers, and 2000 species which had not 
flowered. " Une seule anecdote," says Deleuze, " will prove how eager Dimidow was to 
enrich his garden. Being at Rome, in 1773, he found in the garden of the Petits Au- 
gustins del corso, the handsomest orange-tree he had ever seen. The monks did not wish 
to part with it, and he was obliged to employ a good deal of money and influence to over- 
come their scruples. Having succeeded, he caused the tree, which was planted in the 
open air, to be taken up with an immense ball, put in a large box, set on a carriage made 
on purpose, and transported to Moscow." (Annales, &c. torn. ix. 174.) 

268. The botanic garden of Gorinka, already mentioned, presents the most extensive 
private establishment not only in Russia but perhaps in the world. The great extent of 
glass has been already mentioned. When we saw these hot-houses, in 1814, they were 
much injured by the French ; but the whole garden is now, we understand, completely 
reinstated. Dr. Fischer, its director, is a well known botanist, and corresponds with 
most botanical cultivators in Europe. A catalogue of this garden was published by Dr. 
Redowsky, in 1804. (Bib. Ranks.} Its proprietor having lately died, this garden will 
probably share the fate of many others. 

There are other private botanic gardens near Petersburg and Moscow ; and good collections of orna- 
mental plants at Pawlowsky and Gatschina, both imperial residences. The Baron Rahl has an extensive 
range of hot-houses, devoted chiefly to orange-trees and tender plants ; and many of the Dutch and 
German merchants cultivate flowers in the gardens of their summer-residences, on the Strelna road, at 
Petersburg. Excepting however among the first of the nobility, and the wealthy foreign merchants, 
ornamental culture of every description is quite unknown in Russia. The taste of the ordinary nobleman 
is too gross ; the peasant is out of the question, and there Is no middle class in the empire of the Tzars. 

269. The climate of Russia is adverse to floriculture. Dr. Howison remarks (Caled. 
Mem. iii.), " that there is scarcely any plant, or flowering shrub, which can resist the 
intense frost and cold of the winter in Britain, to be found out of doors in Russia ; and, 
at times, even the hardy whin-bush is destroyed." He says, the gardener, in the 
Tauridon palace, Call, showed him " lilac-trees, laburnums, different varieties of thorn, 
whin-bushes, &c. growing in large wooden tubs, filled with earth, and which were 
preserved there all winter, with the intention of being sunk in the borders of the garden, as 
soon as the weather should grow warm enough to admit of it. In the gardens of the 
villas and country-houses of the higher classes of Russians and foreigners settled in the 
country, in the short period of a week from the disappearance of the winter, a beautiful 
and rich display of shrubs and flowers in full blow, consisting of hydrangea, various 
species of geranium and myrtle, wall-flower, carnation, &c. become visible. All these 
are, in like manner, reared in hot-houses. As their bloom fades, fresh plants are brought 
from the conservatory to replace them, thus keeping up an artificial garden, as it may be 
called, during the whole warm season ; and when the cold weather begins again, the 
whole are removed and replaced in the green-house." 

SUBSECT. 3. Russian Gardening, in respect to its horticultural Productions. 

270. Dutch and German fruits were introduced to Russia with the Dutch and French 
taste in gardening, by Peter the Great. With the English style, Catherine introduced 
English gardeners and English fruits. Before this period, the wild pear, the wild cherry, 
the black currant, the cranberry, and the strawberry must have been almost the only 
fruits seen in aboriginal Russia ; all these may be gathered in the woods. The apple is 
abundant in the Ukraine, and a century ago, as at present, may have been sent to 
Moscow for the use of the higher classes. At present, the imperial family, and a few, 
perhaps six or eight of the first nobility, enjoy almost all the European fruits in tolerable 
perfection, chiefly by the influence of glass and fire heat. The quantity of pines and 
grapes grown in the neighbourhood of Petersburg, is indeed an astonishing feature in its 


horticulture. Pines, grapes, and peaches, being grown so as to ripen in August and 
September, enjoy, in these months, abundance of sun, and nearly equal in flavor 
those grown in England or Holland ; but the apple, pear, cherry, and plum, being in 
that part of the empire considered as only half hardy fruits, rarely ripen in the open 
air so as to be fit for the dessert ; and are generally planted in houses, or against walls, 
and brought forward by glass. About Petersburg the branches of the cherry-tree are 
protected by burying in the soil, as the French do those of the fig-tree, in the fruit-gardens 
of Argenteuil. The climate being less severe about Moscow, the hardier fruits ripen 
somewhat better in the open air, but still far inferior to what they do at Edinburgh, which 
is in the same parallel of latitude. We have seen apples, pears, cherries, &c. fit to eat, 
in the hot-houses of the imperial gardens at Tzaritzina, in April, but without flavor. 

271. Almost all the horticulture of Russia is contained in Moscow and around Peters- 
burg ; elsewhere scarcely any sort of fruit-tree is to be found but the wild pear. Kitchen- 
gardens are rare, even in Podolia, a very fine Polish province in the Ukraine, with a 
deep rich soil, level surface, and favorable climate. The only fruits a Russian peasant 
or minor Russian nobleman can taste are the wild pear (groutchky}, dried or green, the 
strawberry, and the cranberry. Of the last, a cooling acid beverage is made by infusion 
in water. 

272. If any culinary vegetables were known in Russia, before the beginning of the 
last century, it could only have been the dwarf, ragged-leaved brown kale and the mush- 
room ; the potatoe is but lately introduced, and that only in a few places. Many of 
the peasants refuse to eat or cultivate this root, from mere prejudice, and from an idea 
very natural to a people in a state of slavery, that any thing proposed by their lords must 
be for the lord's advantage, and not for theirs ; thus the first handful of food thrown to 
untamed animals operates as a scare. 

The example of the court, and the number of foreigners employed in the Russian service, civil and military, 
in their literary institutions, and established as medical or commercial men in the towns, will, no doubt, 
gradually introduce a variety of culinary plants. The late war may also have had some influence, by giving 
the, till then, untravelled noble a taste for the comforts of Germany and France ; but, unfortunately, the 
Russians are averse to a country life, and will continue to be so" till they acquire a taste for domestic 
enjoyments and rural recreations. Dr. Howison (Mem. of Caled. Hort. Soc. vol. iii. 77.) has given " an 
account of the most important culinary vegetables cultivated in the interior of the Russian empire." Of 
these, the cucumber, melon, yellow turnip, radish, and bulbous celery, were introduced from Germany, 
and are known but to a few. The remaining sorts mentioned are, the variegated cabbage, introduced 
from the South Sea Islands; mustard, from Sarepta, near the Chinese wall ; and an onion from Chinese 
Tartary! These were introduced by Hasenkampf, of the late Russian embassy to China. The English and 
German court-gardeners grow abundance of all our best vegetables, and contrive to prolong the season of 
some of them, as cauliflowers, celery, cabbage, &c. by earthing them in cellars. A succession of salad- 
ing is kept up in hot-houses, during winter, and even the first crops of all the common oleraceous and 
acetaceous plants are reared under glass and by fire heat in some of the best gardens. In Storch's 
Petersburg (chap, iv.), the dependence of Russia on foreign countries for her culinary vegetables and 
fruits is amply detailed. In the Crimea, according to Mary Holderness, horse-radish, asparagus, carrot, 
dock, sorrel, nettles, capers, and mustard, are gathered wild, and used as pot-herbs. Cabbages are culti- 
vated, and they attain a great size : onions, pompions, water-melons, and capsicum, are also grown, 
(Notes, &c. 125.) 

SUBSECT. 4. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Timber-trees and Hedges. 

273. Forest or hedge planting is scarcely known in Russia. There are yet abundance 
of natural forests for timber and fuel, and in the northern parts where no system of pas- 
turage can take place, enclosures are not now, and probably never will be, of any use. 
Hedges are in use in the gardens of the capital, and of the city of residence. The time 
is not yet come for planting the sides of the high-roads, though that would be a grand 
feature of improvement. In some governments, towards the south, this has been partially 
done in a few places, by stakes of the silvery-leaved, or Huntingdon willow (Salix alba], 
but the trembling poplar, birch, and lime, are the proper trees for the northern parts, and 
the cherry, alder, sycamore, oak, elm, walnut, &c. may be introduced in advancing 

SUBSECT. 5. Russian Gardening, as empirically practised. 

274. The very limited use of gardens in this country has been already noticed. Few are 
to be seen attached to the isbas, or log-houses of the boors, and not many to the rich 
privileged slaves, or the native freedmen of the towns. There is no such thing as a Rus- 
sian farmer ; every proprietor farms the whole of his own estate by means of his slaves 
and an agent. The greater part of these proprietors have no gardens, or if they have, 
they are wretched spots, containing a few borecoles, and but rarely potatoes or 
legumes. The use of gardens is, therefore, almost entirely confined to the imperial 
family, the highest class of nobles, and a few foreigners, who have settled in the principal 

275. There are nurseries established in different districts by government, especially in 
Courland and the Ukraine. In the Nitika nursery, in the Crimea, apple, pear, peach, 
almond, vine, fig, olive, and pomegranate plants ar.e propagated under Stevens, a Ger- 
man, and sold at low prices. 


276. The head operative gardeners of Russia are almost all foreigners or sons of 
foreigners. Sometimes a nobleman sends a slave as an apprentice to a gardener, for his 
own future use ; but generally the assistant labourers are mere Russian boors, slaves of 
the lord ; or other slaves who have obtained permission to travel and work on their own 
account for a few years. These boors make very tractable labourers ; for the Russian is 
imitative and docile, to a high degree. They require, however, to be excited by interest 
or fear. The freed slaves on the government estates in the Ukraine, Mary Holderness 
informs us (Notes on the Crimea, &c. 1821.), dig sitting and smoking. 

277. The garden-artists of Russia are the English or German head-gardeners attached 
to the establishment of the emperor, or of some eminent noble. Gould, Potemkin's 
gardener, was the Brown of Russia in Catherine's time. This man had a character in 
some degree analogous to that of his master ; he lived in splendor, kept horses and women, 
and gave occasionally entertainments to the nobility. A few years ago he returned to 
England, and died at an advanced age in 1816, at Ormskirk in Lancashire, his native town. 

A foreigner once established as head-gardener to the emperor, or any of the first nobility in Russia, 
becomes in some degree a despot, like his master, and unless he commits very gross errors indeed his 
conduct is never enquired into, nor does he lose his place but with life, or return home. He is not very 
liberally paid, but he enjoys every comfort the state of society there affords ; lives in a house that would 
be reckoned a considerable mansion in England, and has abundance of servants, and a carriage and 
horses, at his command. His country, and its broad cloth, procure him the respect of the nobles, and the 
dread of the slaves ; the former he may render tributary by presents of seeds, and the latter he may kick 
and beat at pleasure. If at any time he goes too far, a few radishes to the police-bailiffs, or a few peachei, 
or a melon, to the chevaliers their masters, will restore every thing to harmony. 

SUBSECT. 6. Russian Gardening, as a Science, and as to the Authors it has produced. 

278. Science of every kind stagnates in Russia. However adroit the foreign gar- 
deners may be, in adapting practices to the climate, it can hardly be expected, in the 
circumstances in which they are placed, that they should increase the knowledge brought 
with them. Separated from their friends, surrounded by strangers using a language 
with which they never become familiar, without the means of procuring new books, and 
rarely coming in contact with intelligent gardeners or naturalists ; much of the know- 
ledge they carried with them, is unavoidably forgotten or neglected. We regret to add, 
that it has been remarked by various travellers, that even the moral sense of Englishmen, 
who settle in Russia, becomes in time contaminated by the baneful influence of Russian 
manners. The want of common honor and honesty which pervades all ranks of the 
natives in Russia, from the first minister to the meanest slave, is incredible. One won- 
ders at first, how such an immoral state of society can exist ; but the refined moral habits 
of civilised nations, like their refinements in cookery and dress, may all be traced to the 
simple principle of self-preservation : and as a savage can put up with a homely fare 
and a coarse garb, so it would appear a barbarous people may hang together by a sort of 
tattered moral principle. 

279. We know of no original Russian author on gardening. There is a poem, On 
Gardens, by Samboursky, translated into the French language by Masson de Blamont : 
there is also a poem on glass, by the Russian poet Lomanosow, which, as containing a 
eulogium on hot-houses, may be considered as belonging to this subject. Some transla- 
tions have been published in German ; and various papers on botanical, physiological, 
and agricultural subjects, appear from time to time, in the Transactions of the Imperial 
CEconomical Society. 

SECT. VIII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Poland. 

280. Gardening, as an art of design, was introduced into Poland by the electoral kings 
about the end of the seventeenth century, and especially by Stanislaus Augustus, the third 

281. In respect to 'gardens in the geometric style of design, the most ancient royal ex- 
ample is the Jardin Electoral de Saxe. It was never completed, and is now a public 
garden. Le Jardin Kraszinski is another public garden ; but by far the most remarkable 
is that of Lazienki, or the Bath, formed by the last king, on the site of an ancient park, 
at Ujasdow, within the suburbs of the city. At the beginning of the reign of Stanislaus, 
in 1764, it was a marshy wood, planted with alders, with some canals and other stagnated 
pieces of water, near which was a grotesque edifice, called the Bath, and from which this 
park takes its name. 

The palace of Lazienki (fig. 25.), a beautiful piece of Roman architecture, from the designs of Camsitzer, 
a German artist, is placed on an island in a considerable piece of water. It consists of a centre and two 
wings. The centre is placed in the middle of a narrow part of the lake, and the wings are on opposite 
shores, and joined to the centre by arches with orangeries over. The entrance is by a carriage -portico, in 
one of the wings, to which you arrive without seeing the lake ; and on entering the orangery, its first effect 
is surprising and delightful. On the north shore of this lake is an open amphitheatre of stone with its 
orchestra on the brink of the water ; and near the margin an island of trees, which served as the prosce- 
nium. This theatre was at all times open to the public ; and in addition to the ordinary exhibitions, ships and 
naval engagements were occasionally exhibited. The gaiety which reigned here during the first years of 
the reign of Stanislaus, the singular effect of the illuminations, the ships, and the resounding of the music 


in the woods, arc still recollected by some of the oldest inhabitants of Warsaw, and gpofcen of with feelings 
of regret The grounds were not extensive, nor, excepting near the palace, much ornamented : they con- 
sisted of a number of broad green alleys, crossing each other at right angles ; of smaller covered paths, 
leading to open circles of turf for dances and music, and for tents and booths on extraordinary occasions. 
In several places coffee-rooms and ice-cellars were established, and still remain ; and there are two pavilions 
for the king's mistresses; and another, which served as a seraglio, for strangers or visitors of the king: the 
three being connected with the palace by arbor-like paths, or arcades of trellis work, covered by creepers. 


One thing deserves to be remarked as to these gardens, which is, perhaps, not to be found in any others 
in Europe. Pedestals, as if for placing statues, were ranged in different parts of the grounds, particularly 
along the broad walk leading from the palace to the amphitheatre. On these pedestals on extraordinary 
occasions, selected living figures, male and female, dressed in character, were placed, and taught to main- 
tain certain attitudes, after the manner of the representations called Tableaux, and which are sometimes, 
though rarely, produced in private circles at Paris and Vienna on days when theatrical amusements are 
forbidden. It is not to be wondered at that so luxurious a king should have wanted decision of character, 
lost his honor, kingdom, and, in short, every thing worth having. In 1813 this seat was nearly in the 
state in which it was left by Stanislaus ; but we understand it has since undergone several changes. 

282. The principal private garden in the ancient style was that of Villaneuve, the 
property of Count Stanislaus Pototcky, a few miles from the capital, but now modernised. 
Judging from the excellent views of these gardens, painted by B. Cannaletti, and now in 
the zaniosk, or castle, in Warsaw, they must have been elegant of the kind. At Cracovie 
there are the remains of a geometric garden, of a few acres, laid out by Marshal Loudon, 
when Austrian governor of that city ; one of a convent of some extent, and a small public 
garden. But in the south of Poland, and especially in Gallicia, the only thing remark- 
able as to design in gardens, is the powerfully walled enclosures of the convents and 
religious houses, in some of which are venerable orchards, broad grass-walks, mossy trees, 
and curious sun-dials. 26 

283. English gardening was introduced into Poland by the Princess 
Isabella Czartoryska, at Pulhawa. This lady, highly accomplished, of 
great taste, and much good sense, had been a considerable time in 
England. She carried to Poland a gardener, Savage, and with his 
assistance, and that of Vogel and Frey, artists of Warsaw, she laid out 
Pulhawa, between 1780 and 1784, and published in Polish (Mysli 
Rozne o Sposobie Zakladania Ogrodow) a work with plates, on English 
gardening, in 1 801 . The situation of Pulhawa, like almost every other 
with which we are acquainted in Poland or Russia, is flat and sandy ; 
but is somewhat relieved by the Vistula. On the brink of this river, on 
a wooded bank, stands the house, a plain Grecian building, which with 
the grounds are described by Burnet, in his view of Poland, (chap, xi.) 
There are several decorative buildings, and statues {jig. 26. ) ; de- 
tached clumps of shrubs are more frequent in these gardens than 
would be admitted by a good taste in England ; but all Poland is a 

natural forest ; and as the grand object of improvement in every country, is to obtain 
applause by the employment of art and expense, artificial forms, from their rarity, are 
better calculated for this purpose than such as are more universally beautiful, but so 
common locally as to want the charm of novelty, or whose beauties are too refined to 
be generally understood. Thus clumps in Poland may be as much esteemed as groups 
are in England, on the same principle, that, in a wild country, butcher-meat is more 
esteemed than game, because the latter is the common food. 

Zamoyst the seat of Count Zamoski, and Villaneuve the residence of Count Potocky, are also examples of 
the modern style. The first are of limited extent, but the latter, near Warsaw, are very extensive, and 
were laid out chiefly from the designs of Princess Czartoryska. 

The gardens of General Benningsen, near Wilna, were in a mixed style, surrounded by oak and pine 
forests. They were destroyed during the retreat of the French army in 181. 

Those of Colonel Lachanitzki, at Poniemenia, on the banks of the Niemen, at Grodno, are not extensive, 
but contain more romantic and picturesque scenery than any garden we have seen in Poland. 

284. The oldest botanic garden in Poland is that of Wilna, founded by Catherine, soon 
after the dismemberment of that country ; the most thriving is that of Cracovie, placed in 
1812 under the direction of Professor Oestricher, a zealous botanist. A garden was also 
begun about 1810, in Warsaw, on the steep banks of the Vistula. Of the original 


Warsaw garden, of which a catalogue was published towards the middle of the last cen- 
tury, we could, in 1813, procure no account. Count Benningsen had an excellent 
botanic garden at his seat near Wilna, which, as already observed, was destroyed and the 
chateau burned down in 1812. It was rich in hardy plants. At Pulhawa the Princess 
Isabella Czartoryska has a considerable collection, and used frequently to send her 
gardener (Savage), lately deceased, to England to procure the newest exotics. 

285. A few flowers are cultivated in some of the wealthier citizens' gardens, around War- 
saw, and a few in gardens of the conventual institutions ; but in a general point of view, 
they are as uncommon in Poland as in Russia. In both countries a few may occasionally 
be seen on market-days, which have been gathered in the fields, and brought in by the 
peasants ; these are purchased by the minor nobles to decorate their rooms, by the monks 
to display on their altars, or by devotees to present to the virgin or the image of their 
patron saint. The floors of the higher classes, in Poland, are often strewed with the 
leaves of the Acorus calamus, which abounds in the marshes of that country. In some 
districts, towards Courland, the spray of the spruce fir is used for this purpose ; a practice, 
as Mary Woolstonecraft has remarked, common in Sweden and Norway. 

286. The horticulture of Poland is at a very low ebb : excepting in a few of the noble- 
men's gardens and those of the richest monasteries, there was till lately no vegetable but the 
kohl rabi, and no fruit but the apple, pear, and cherry. Towards the sea-coast, and on 
the borders of Austria, there is greater variety. The potatoe is now in more general use 
in Poland than in Russia, though a slight prejudice still exists against it, from its having 
been introduced by the Germans. The cucumber is cultivated in many places for salting, 
or preserving by barrelling and sinking the barrel in their wells. In some places, the 
common carnation poppy is grown for the seed, which taken when beginning to ripen, 
and strewed on a sort of milk-porridge, or milk-paste, made from the meal of buck-wheat, 
or Polish millet (Dactylon sanguinale), is reckoned a delicacy. Bees are kept by some of 
the freed men or minor nobles. The Polish hives and mode of taking the honey, to be 
afterwards described, are exceedingly simple, and never requiring the death of the insects, 
seem preferable to any mode of bee-culture yet devised by the bee-masters of other coun- 
tries. Hirschfield mentions, that the gardens of Prince Casimir Poniatowski, elder 
brother of the last king, contained at one time 5000 annanas, in a range of hot-houses 600 
feet long. In 1813, the only pines grown in Poland, were a few at Pulhawa, and some 
grown by a German, who rented the hot-houses belonging to the late king's establishment 
at Warsaw. Only one or two instances then existed of vines and peaches being grown 
near the capital, but there were abundance of these and other fruits at Pulhawa and 
Zamoyst, and some few at Villaneuve. The Polish noblemen have gained in every kind of 
knowledge from having been so long a period in the French service ; and since the re- 
establishment of peace, they have set about agricultural and gardening improvements, 
with a considerable degree of energy. 

287. Planting in Poland is but little required for purposes of utility. Some public 
avenues have been formed near Warsaw and Posen ; and the elm, one of the best avenue 
trees, thrives at both places. There are scarcely any hedges in the country, excepting in 
gardens and near towns. 

288. Original Polish authors on gardening are not to be expected : but translations of 
various works on rural economy were pointed out to us in the library of the Dominicans, 
at Grodno ; but the only Polish work on gardening, which may be considered as original, 
we believe to be Mysli Rozne o Sposobie Zakladania Ogrodow, &c. 1808 ; or, " Various 
Thoughts on the Manner of planting Gardens," by Princess Isabella Czartoryska. 

SECT. IX. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in Spain and 


289. The love of gardens, or of rural life, it is alleged by Hirschfield, is far from being 
general in Spain : not however from lightness of character or bad taste, but from a kind 
of supineness which cannot be better described than by calling it Spanish. This supine- 
ness is the more incomprehensible, as the country, though desert and uncultivated in 
many places, is yet full of natural charms in others, thus indicating as it were a field of 
exertions for the hand of man. In many provinces, Puente informs us, one may travel 
several leagues without seeing a tree, and according to the same author, the environs of 
Madrid neither present pavilions nor country-houses, and it was not till towards the end 
of the eighteenth century that they began to repair the roads around the capital, and 
border them with trees. 

290. The Arabs of Spain attended to agriculture, translated and commented on the 
ancient authors, and though they occupied themselves more particularly in the study of 
medicine and botany, they did not neglect the culture of gardens. Many of them 
travelled to their brethren in Asia, to pursue natural history, and bring plants to Europe. 
Ebn-Alwan has left us a list of plants in the garden of Seville, in the eleventh century, 


which are more numerous than those which were cultivated by the Greeks and Romans. 
The recent substitution of a representative for a despotic government, so happily brought 
about ( 1 820), can hardly fail of acting as a stimulus to exertion in our art, in common 
with every other. 

SUBSECT. J . Spanish Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

291. The oldest garden in Spain is said to be that of the Moorish palace of Alcazar, 
near Seville ; the greater part of this palace was constructed by Peter the Cruel, between 
the years 1353 and 1364, who exactly copied the Arabian style of the ancient part of the 
edifice ; and the remainder was erected by Charles V. The outside of the Alcazar is 
miserable in its appearance, but the first court after entering the gate has a very grand 
effect; the part looking into that court is purely Arabic in its style, though ascertained 
to have been constructed since the conquest by the Christians. The courts are orna- 
mented with marble fountains, and are well shaded with corridors, supported by marble 
pillars. The garden of the Alcazar is said to have been laid out by the Moors, and is 
preserved in its original state. It contains walks paved with marble, parterres laid out 
with evergreens, and shaded with orange-trees. In many parts of it there are baths, 
supplied by marble fountains from an aqueduct, and they have a contrivance for ren- 
dering the walks one continued fountain by forcing up small streams of water from 
minute pipes in the joinings of the slabs, which in this climate produces a most grateful 
effect. As a specimen of an Arabian garden in its original state, this is an interesting 
object, and we naturally associate with it recollections gathered from the Eastern 
writers ; especially from the Song of Solomon, in which the descriptions very well agree 
with this garden ; for, in addition to the other circumstances, it is completely walled 
round, and is secluded from every one, except the inhabitants of one part of the palace. 
(Jacob's Travels in the South of Spain.) 

292. The remains of a reputed Moorish garden still exists at Grenada, another residence 
of the Arabian kings. It is situated on the Serra del sol, or mountain of the sun, occu- 
pies above twenty acres, is covered with wood cut into quarters by straight and winding 
walks, and interspersed with fountains ; the latter sometimes ostentatiously displayed, 
and at other times secreted so as to escape notice till they are brought to play on the 
spectator, and raise a laugh at his expense. Sir John Carr mentions that they take a 
particular delight in playing off these reversed showers which rise from the principal 
walks and places of repose, against the ladies. Several of these fountains, and many of 
the walks were formed by Charles V., so that excepting certain venerable cypresses, and 
the old palace, no other part can with certainty be traced to the days of the Moorish 

293. In the beginning of the jifteenth century, soon after the union of Spain under one 
monarch, Charles V. made considerable improvements, and formed gardens and foun- 
tains at different palaces, of which little now remain. 

294. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, under the reign of Philip IV. were 
laid out the finest gardens in Spain. These are the gardens of the Escurial in Madrid, 
of Ildephonso in its neighbourhood, and of Aranjuez near Toledo. Evelyn in 1667, 
being anxious to receive some account of them, writes to the Earl of Sandwich, then the 
English ambassador at Madrid, who answers him in such a way that Evelyn was " ex- 
ceedingly affected with the descriptions, and greatly instructed in many particulars." 

The gardens of the Escurial adjoin the palace from which you descend to them by vast terraces and stairs 
of marble varied by fountains. The garden, or rather park below, is of great extent, and the compart- 
ments formed by the intersection of the alleys, are filled with different sorts of fruit-trees. This is the gene- 
ral outline, and for the details of the statues, fountains, trellis-work, basins, &c. we must refer the reader 
to Thompson's Description of the Escurial , or the art. Escurial, in the Encyc. Brit. 

The garden of Ildephonso is situated around a summer-house, or Chateau de plaisance of that name; 
and here nature and art, says P. Caimo (Lettres d'un vago Italiano, &c.), combine to spread their respec- 
tive beauties, and render this garden as magnificent as agreeable. Fountains, jets-d'eau, canals, temples, 
covered seats, cabinets, bowers, grottoes, labyrinths, pastures, hedges of myrtle and laurel, are so distributed 
as to produce the best effect. The water is collected in streams from the surrounding mountains, and 
made to unite in a torrent which precipitates itself into an immense reservoir. Hence, from this abundant 
source, the fountains are as powerful as numerous, and no species of artificial ornament is omitted that 
can embellish a garden. The alleys are very long, some of them three fourths of a league. Most of them 
are kept shorn on the sides forming a thick close surface from the ground to the summits of the trees, and 
statues are placed at regular distances. 

The garden of Ildephonso occupies a ridge, rising to the south, and falling both to the east and to the 
west. Near the palace it is laid out in the old taste, with clipped hedges and straight walks, highly adorned 
and refreshed with numerous fountains; but in proportion to the distance it becomes more wild, till it ter- 
minates in the uncultivated and pathless forest, where the craggy rocks appearing among oaks and pines, pre- 
sent a striking contrast with the works of art. This garden, Townsend observes, is delightful for its walks, 
which although shady, are neither damp nor gloomy ; and if it be true that beauty is founded on utility, this 
place will always deserve to be admired. In the present day, it is not uncommon to build the mansion in the 
middle of a field, open and exposed to every wind, without shelter, without a fence, wholly unconnected 
with the garden. Near the habitation all is wild ; and art, if any where, appears only at a distance. In all 
this we can trace no utility, nor will succeeding generations discover beauty. On the contrary in the gar- 
den of St. Ildephonso, we find every thing, which in a sultry season is desirable ; a free circulation of air, 
a deep shade, and refreshing vapors to absorb the heat ; whilst from its contiguity to the mansion the 
access to it is easy, and at any time these comforts may be instantly enjoyed ; yet without their numerous 


fountains, the clipped hedges, and the narrow walks, the circulation would be less rapid, the shade less 
deep, and the refreshing vapor would be wanting. (Townsend's Travels in Spain, i. 360.) 

Of the palace and gardens of Aranjuez, Baretti observes (Tour in 1776, vol. ii.), " that a poet would 
say, that Venus and Love had here consulted with Catullus and Petrarch, in order to construct a country- 
residence worthy of Psyche, of Lesbia, of Laura, or of some Infanta of Spain." The park, which is several 
leagues in circumference, is intersected by alleys, three, and even four m iles in length ; these alleys are 
formed of double rows of elms, and are sufficiently wide for four carriages to drive abreast. On each side, 
between the rows of trees, is a canal kept clear by a continual stream which passes through it. This water 
has contributed to render the trees of an enormous size and thick verdure from top to bottom. The com- 
partments, or islands, formed by the alleys and the canals, are covered with copse, and occupied with deer, 

but verges into an open hilly country. The palace is near the centre of the park, on the margin of the 
river, and both banks are united by a bridge of five arches. In front of the palace is an immense cir- 
cular level lawn, ornamented with four trees in its centre. On the whole, according to Baretti's description 
this must have been the finest park in the old style in the world. 

295. Of private gardens, a few are mentioned by Townsend, and Sir John Carr, some 
as belonging to British merchants, and situated round the principal sea-ports, and a few 
to Spanish nobles in the interior. At the Retiro, near Malaga, a seat of Couut Villacasa, 
and formerly a royal residence, are gardens in the Moorish style, with straight cypress 
walks, and excellent water-works. The archbishop of Valencia has a country-house and 
beautiful gardens at Puzol, near the city. The hermitages of Montserrat, near Tarra- 
gona, abound in oak, olives, ash, elm, box, myrtle, eglantine, jessamine, rosemary, 
lavender, thyme, and other aromatic shrubs and plants, tastefully disposed among the 
rocks and declivities, by the hand of nature, with very little assistance from man. 

Granjas, the seat of Don Ramon Fortuny, near Tarragona, appears to be in good taste, combining the 
ancient style with the cultivation of the orange, fig, vine, olive, and other fruits, and with an accidental 
mixture of rocks and picturesque scenery. A very interesting engraving of this peculiar and beautiful 
residence is given by Sir John Carr, in his travels in Spain ; the doors of the dining-room, he informs us, 
open into a small garden, the walls of which are covered with myrtles, jessamines, and roses, and the view 
is over an orchard of olives, oranges, and pomegranates. In the centre of the garden are grotesque water- 
works. We are not aware of any attempt to introduce the modern style of landscape-gardening in this 

296. Gardening in Portugal is very little attended to as an art of taste. Travellers 
mention a few villas belonging to merchants in the neighbourhood of Lisbon ; and, as 
usual, there are some avenues or public walks near the town. Montserrat, near Cintra, 
a seat of the late eminent merchant, Beckford, was formed at immense expense by a na- 
tive of Cornwall for M. de Vismes, and further improved by the former gentleman. It 
is laid out in the geometric style ; abounds in inequalities, stairs, terraces, statues, and 
orange-trees. Of late, we are informed, it has been much neglected. Repton (Frag, on 
Lands. Card. 1815,) gives an engraving of a plan which he had sent out to Lisbon, for 
laying out a small garden in the modern style. 

SUBSECT. 2. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers 
and Plants of Ornament. 

297. The study of plants is of great antiquity in Spain. This study was introduced 
by the Arabs ; there was a considerable collection of plants at Seville early in the 
eleventh century ; and half the common plants of the country, Harte informs us, have 
names derived from the Arabic. The succeeding seven centuries present a blank in this 
branch of gardening history. According to Deleuze, the taste shown for botany in Spain 
and Portugal, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, declined with the sciences ; 
and that country where they had been cultivated when the rest of Europe was in a state 
of barbarism, appeared to sink into apathy, after having shone with the greatest eclat 
under Charles the Fifth and Emanuel of Portugal. 

298. The public garden of Madrid was established in 1753. Ferdinand the Sixth gave 
its direction to his first physician, Don Joseph Sagnol. He bought the private garden of 
Don Joseph Queer, who cultivated at home a great number of foreign plants : he named 
this botanist professor, and added Don Jean Minuart. At the same time, he arranged 
instructions for travellers going to America, and ordered them to bring home seeds, and 
to add the indication of the climate, and the nature of the soil where they collected them. 
They also sent travellers with particular orders to make collections of vegetables. It is 
from these treasures that the royal garden of Madrid has become the nursery of the plants 
of Peru, Mexico, and Chili ; and from thence they have been sent to other gardens of 
Europe. The same king, Sir J. E. Smith informs us (Suppt. Encyc. JBrit. art. Botany), 
invited Linnseus, with the offer of a large pension, to superintend a college formed for the 
purpose of making new enquiries into the history of nature and the art of agriculture. 
Linnaeus, as appears by his correspondence, recommended Lrefling. 

299. A taste for flowers and plants of ornament is not very general in Spain, though 
odoriferous flowers, as the jessamine, the orange, &c. are said to be in repute with the 
ladies ; and various sorts are grown in the conventual gardens of the priests, for official 
decorations in churches and oratories. 

300. The botanic garden of Coimbra in Portugal was founded in 1773. 



SUBSECT. 3. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in respect to its horticultural 
Productions and Planting, 

301. Horticulture has made but little progress in Spain. The earliest of the few 
Spanish authors who have written on gardens, is Herrera, whose book on rural economy 
appeared early in the seventeenth century. It contains a treatise on gardens (De las 
Huertas], in which he distinguishes only two sorts; one for " delight and provision for 
the house," and the other for supplying the public market. Private gardens, he says, 
need not be extensive ; those for selling vegetables and fruits should be near a town or 
village, and well supplied with water. He gives directions for cultivating the vine, fig, 
olive, apple, pear, and the common culinary plants. Of these, the soil and climate are 
peculiarly favorable to the alliaceous and cucurbitaceous tribes, some sorts of which, as the 
onion and winter-melon, form articles of foreign commerce. 

302. The fruits of Spain are more numerous than those of any other European country. 
Besides all those of Italy, native or acclimated, Spain possesses the date, tamarind, and 
various fruits of the West Indies. The varieties of the grape, fig, melon, and orange 
are numerous, and many of them excellent. The pine-apple is little cultivated in 
Spain ; but is grown in a few places, in the southern provinces (Jacob}, in the open air. 

303. Culinary herbs and roots are not much attended to in Spain. Onions and garlic 
are in universal use ; and the sweet potatoe (Convolvulus batatus) is cultivated in various 
places. The British residents import their potatoes from their native country. 

304. Forcing is unknown in Spain, but there are hot-houses for plants at Madrid, and 
at Coimbra and Montserrat in Portugal. 

305. Planting timber-trees or hedges is scarcely known in either Spain or Portugal. 

SECT. X. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in European Turkey. 

306. Of Turkish gardening, when the country was under the Romans, nothing is 
known. The Roman taste would pass to Byzantium when the seat of empire 
was removed there in the fourteenth century by Constantine ; but as to its history when 
the rest of Europe was enveloped in ignorance and superstition, very little is known. 
The numerous Greek authors on rural matters (Geoponici), who wrote between the 
fourth and fourteenth centuries, do little more than copy Columella and other Latin 
georgical writers ; they mention very few plants as ornamental, and treat chiefly of 
agriculture, vineyards, and poultry. 

307. The modern taste for gardens in Turkey is materially influenced by their national 
character, and the nature of the climate. Gardens of taste are considered places of shade, 
repose, and luxurious enjoyment ; not of active recreation, or a varied display of verdant 
scenery. " For some miles round Adrianople," Lady M. W. Montague observes, in 1717, 
" one sees nothing but gardens. The rivers are bordered with fruit-trees, under which 
the citizens divert themselves in the evenings ; not in walking, which is not a Turkish 
pleasure, but in seating themselves on a carpet spread on the turf, under the thick shade 
of a tree ; there they take coffee, and smoke amidst vocal or instrumental music, groups 
of dancing females, and other sports." 

308. The gardens of the sultan at Constantinople acquired a degree of celebrity through 
the letters of Lady M. W. Montague, to which, it appears from subsequent authors who 
have examined them, they are by no means entitled. These gardens were visited by Dr. 
Pouqueville in 1798, and it is generally allowed that he has described them with as little 
imagination and as much accuracy as any writer. The grand seignior's gardener was then 
a German, a native of Rastadt, by name Jaques, whose salary was 6000 piastres a-year. 
He conducted Dr. Pouqueville and his companion between the first and second ram- 
parts of the town, which form the natural fortifications of the seraglio on the side to the 

Tfie palace is, properly speaking, a town within itself, having its walls crowned with battlements, and 
its bastions and its gates, like an old fortified place. Dr. Clarke says, that the seraglio occupies the whole 
site of the ancient Byzantium ; and Pouqueville, that the present manege is placed where there was a hippo- 
drome at the time of the lower empire ; so that the destination of the place has not been much altered for 
the last fifteen hundred years. The first garden they saw was a place enclosed on three sides, with a 
palisade, the fourth side being formed by the rampart. It was filled with shrubs ; such as early roses, 
heliotropes, and others, distributed in clumps, with several beams, and a great deal of rubbish lying about. 
At last they arrived at the entrance of the sultan's garden. 

The gateway to the gardenia of white marble, about fifteen feet high, by four wide, decorated with 
columns, in a very bad taste. A treillage, twenty-five feet high and fifteen wide, extremely massy, forms 
a cross, running each way, from one side to the other of the garden, dividing it into four equal divisions. 
In the centre of the cross, it forms a dome over a small basin of white marble, in which \sajet-tfeau 
Jaques ordered some of the men to make it play, but the water did not rise above six feet It was, indeed, 
an exhibition much below mediocrity- The four squares formed by this cross, are planted with flowers, and 
in the middle of each are basins again, with jets-<Peau quite in miniature That to the left, as we entered, 
appealed the most singular of them. After the water has risen to the height of about four feet, it divides 
like a parasol, and each stream falls upon a shell, upon the circuit of the basin, which again divides it 
into an infinite number of still smaller streams, scarcely bigger than threads. We contemplated this chef. 
fceuvrc for some minutes, and thought it very pretty for amusing children. 




Tlie trcillage, a work truly German, seems, from its solidity, calculated to brave the injuries of time for 
a long series of years. It is covered with jessamine, which perfumes the whole garden ; and, to say the 
truth, it has no difficult task to perform, for the enclosure is so small, that there can hardly be said to be 
sufficient space for the air to circulate freely. To the right, which is the side towards the sea, the treil- 
lage leads to the kiosque of the grand seignior, called Jeni-kiosque, the new pavilion. Three circular steps 
lead up to it, which occupy, in the semicircle they form, the portion of the kiosque that projects into the 

A number of cages, with canary-birds, were hanging about ; these little creatures sung charmingly, and 
had been taught to draw water. About fifteen paces from this kiosque, running along the same rampart, 
is a terrace of about fifty feet in length, and twelve in breadth, adorned with flowers, which has lately 
been turned into a conservatory, 

The largest garden, to which they descended from the terrace, is a hundred and twenty paces long, and 
fifty broad. At the eastern extremity is a hot-house, where Jaques was cultivating a number of foreign 
plants and flowers with great care. The hot-house was little better than a shed ; under it were a number 
of benches, rising in a stage one above the other, with the flower-pots ranged upon them. Among the 
plants, some from Abyssinia and the Cape held a distinguished rank for their superior fragrance. An- 
other garden, or rather a terrace, raised five-and-twenty feet high, which looks down upon the garden 
just quitted, contained nothing but a red and parched soil, with a few withered plants. 

An aviary had been made by order of the Sultana Valide ; and this, according to the ideas of the Turks, 
is the most curious thing upon the terrace. " I quitted this dismal garden," says Dr. Pouqueville, " this 
kiosque of Hassan Pasha, perfectly free from the chimeras with which my imagination had been pre- 
viously filled. I had formerly read the letters of Lady Montague, and I seriously believed that I 
was to find walls incrusted with emeralds and sapphires ; .parterres enamelled with flowers ; in short, the 
voluptuous palace of Armida; but her account is drawn from the sources furnished by her own brilliant 
imagination." We quitted the burning garden to visit the haram. The haram of the sultan the 
promised paradise. Lady Montague was now about to triumph. 

The garden of the haram is a square very ill kept ; it is divided from east to west by a terrace. It wag 
here that the feast of tulips was formerly held ; but this has been long abolished. According to all ap- 
pearance it must have been a very poor thing ; bat the pens of romance-writers can embellish objects the 
most ordinary, and make them appear of prodigious importance. Some clumps of lilacs and jessamine, 
some weeping willows hanging over a basin, and some silk-trees, are the only ornaments of this imaginary 
Eden ; and these the women take a pleasure in destroying as soon as the flowers appear, by which their 
curiosity is excited. 

A plan of these gardens is given by Kraaft (Af.27.), from which little can be gathered bat that they 
abound in trees and buildings, and are surrounded by a formidable wall. 

309. Various opinions have existed as to the sultan's garden. Thornton, author of a late 
work on Turkey, arraigns Dr. Pouqueville for not being more dazzled with the magni- 
ficence of the haram, and for thinking that Lady Mary Wortley Montague has rather 3 , in 
her descriptions of eastern luxury and splendor, painted from a model formed by her 
own brilliant imagination, than from reality. But it is certain, H. M. Williams observes, 
that Dr. Clarke's testimony is a strong confirmation of Dr. Pouqueville's. Indeed, there 
is so striking a similarity in the accounts given by the two doctors, that each strongly 
supports the truth of the other, and both lessen extremely the ideas we have hitherto 

F 2 


been led to entertain of the luxury and magnificence that reigns in the grand seignior's 
seraglio. (Pouquevillc's Travels, translated by H. M. Williams.) 

310. Flower-gardening. " When the Turks," observes Deleuze, " by the taking of Con- 
stantinople, had given stability to their empire, they devoted themselves particularly to 
the culture of flowers." Belon, in 1558, speaks with admiration of the gardens which he 
saw among them. " There are no people," he says, " who delight more to ornament 
themselves with beautiful flowers, nor who praise them more, than the Turks. They 
think little of their smell, but delight most in their appearance. They wear several sorts 
singly in the folds of their turban ; and the artisans have often several flowers of different 
colors before them, in vessels of water. Hence gardening is in as great repute with them 
as with us ; and they grudge no expense in procuring foreign trees and plants, especially 
such as have fine flowers." Busby, ambassador at Constantinople in 1550, has the same 
remarks, and adds, that they frequently give flowers in presents ; and that, though very 
avaricious in other things, they do not hesitate to pay dear for them. 

311. Of the horticulture of Turkey little is known, or how far the use of gardens is 
general. " The capital of the Turkish empire," T. Thornton observes (Present State of 
Turkey, 22.), " though the soil in its immediate vicinity is barren and ungrateful, 
receives from the neighbouring villages, and from the surrounding coasts of both the seas 
which it commands, all the culinary herbs and fruits of exquisite flavor which the most 
fastidious appetite can require. On the shores on both sides of the Bosphorus the 
ground forms a chain of schistous hills, covered with vineyards and gardens, and 
beautiful trees and shrubs ; and the valleys, which are exceedingly fertile, are in the highest 
state of cultivation.'* 

Of the botany and gardening of the Morea some account is given by Dr. Pouqueville. (Travels in 1798.) 
" This country, formerly a part of Greece, is rich in vegetable productions, but at present proportionably 
poor in cultivation. There is no great variety cultivated in the gardens ; the ground in general is iH 
prepared ; the Greeks are unacquainted with the spade, and only use a mattock for turning it. Spinach 
and artichokes, which will even grow naturally without cultivation, are among the best culinary veget- 
ables. Cabbages and cauliflowers grow to a prodigious size ; they have also very good carrots. Beans 
and French beans are produced in such abundance, that they might become an object of exportation ; but 
the seeds of both are much smaller than ours in France. The lettuces are small ; and the celery never 
will be good while, as at present, they do not earth it up. The tomatoes are very fine, as is the fruit 
yielded by the melongena. The melons, water-melons, and gourds, are not to be exceeded in any part of 
the world. Mint, balm, fennel, parsley, and other herbs, abound in the gardens. The orchards are well 
furnished with almonds, oranges, lemons, citrons, peaches, pears, apricots, quinces, cherries, pomegranates, 
medlars; they have also the arbutus, the service-tree, and the carob-tree; all these might be improved, if 
more pains were taken in cultivating them." (p. 204.) The account which this author, and also Dr. Hol- 
land (Albania and Greece, &c. 1812 and 1815), gives of the plants, the timber, and the fruit-trees, natives 
of the Morea, is highly interesting; he regrets that he could not occupy himself more with the subject, 
adding, that a botanist might compose a work worthy of the age in which we live, in undertaking a 
complete Flora Peloponnesica. 


Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Gardening in the British Isles. 

312. That gardening was introduced to Britain by the Romans, there can be but little 
doubt. According to Strabo, writing in the fourth century, " The people of Britain 
are generally ignorant of the art of cultivating gardens, as well as of other parts of agri- 
culture" (lib. iii. p. 200.) ; but Tacitus, half a century afterwards (A. D. 79), informs 
us, that " the soil and climate were very fit for all kinds of fruit-trees, except the vine and 
the olive ; and for all plants and edible vegetables, except a few, which were peculiar to 
hotter countries." (Vita Agric. cap. xiv.) Afterwards they found different parts of the 
country not unfit for the vine ; and wine was made in England towards the end of the 
third century, under the Emperor Probus. The remains of Roman villas discovered in 
different parts of the .country may be considered as existing evidence that Roman gardening 
was established, both as an art of taste, and of vegetable culture, by the generals and other 
members of the government. Pliny expressly states, that cherries were introduced into 
Britain about the middle of the first century : they had been brought to Italy by Lucullus 
only a century before. 

313. Modem British gardening seems to have received its first stimulus during the 
reign of Henry VIII. ; a second powerful impulse in the time of Charles II., with the 
splendid style of Le Notre ; again, with the introduction of the modern style during the 
reign of Geo. II. ; next, in the early part of the reign of Geo. III. with the plants of 
North America, and finally through the establishment of the Horticultural Society during 
the regency. 

314. The outline of gardening history here submitted will be found amply illustrated 
by the literature and topography of British gardening in Part IV., and indeed by all 
the other chapters on the statistics of British gardening. 


SECT. I. British Gardening as an Art of Design and Taste. 

815. Of British gardening, as an art of taste, nothing is known for the first thousand 
years of our aera. With the eleventh century commences some notices as to England ; 
with the fifteenth, a few indications as to Scotland ; and with the seventeenth century, 
some hints as to the state of our art in Ireland. 

SUBSECT. 1. Gardening in England, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

316. Roman landscape-gardening was lost in England when that people abandoned 
Britain to the Saxons in the beginning of the fifth century ; but as it had revived in 
France under Charlemagne, it would probably be re-introduced into England with the 
Norman Conqueror, in the end of the eleventh century. 

317. Henry I. (1100), the third king after William the Conqueror, had, according to 
Henry of Huntingdon (History, lib. 7.), a park (habitationem ferarum) at Woodstock; 
and it may not be too much to conjecture, that this park was the same which had sur- 
rounded the magnificent Roman villa, whose extensive ruins, occupying nearly six acres, 
have been recently dug up on the Puke of Marlborough's estates in that neighbourhood. 
Blenheim, the first residence in Britain, or perhaps in Europe, in respect to general orandeur, 
may in this view be considered as the most interesting in point of its relation to antiquity. 

318. In the time (/Henry II. (1154), Fitzsteven, it is observed by Daines Barrington, 
states, that the citizens of London had gardens to their villas, " large, beautiful, and 
planted with trees." In De Cerceau's Architecture, published in the time of Henry III. 
there is scarcely a ground-plot not laid out as a parterre or a labyrinth. 

319. During Henry V.'s. reign, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, King James I. 
of Scotland was a prisoner in Windsor castle for several years. In the poem written by 
that monarch he gives the following account of a royal garden there : 

" Now was there maide fast by the touris wall " So thick the bewis and the leves grene 
A garden faire, and in the corneris set Beschudit all the alleyes that there were, 

Ane herbere grene, with wandis long and small And myddis every herbere might be sene 
Railit about, and so with treeis set The scharp grene swete jenepere, 

Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet, Growing so fair with branches here and there, 

That lyfe was non, walkyng there for bye That as it semyt to a lyfe without, 

That myght within scarce any wight espye. The bewis spred the herbere all about" 

The Quair, by King James I. of Scotland, published by Lord Woodhouselee. 

320. Towards the end of the ffteenth century, Leland, in his Itinerary, states, that at 
" Wresehill Castelle, in Yorkshire, the gardeins within the mote, and the orchardes 
without, were exceeding fair. And yn the orchardes, were mountes, opere topiaris, 
writhen about with degrees like cokil shelles, to com to the top without payn." (Itinerary, 
&c. p. 60.) Such a mount still exists at the castle inn at Marlborough, not ascended 
by steps or degrees, but by a winding path. It is covered with ancient yew-trees, no 
longer opere topiaris. Leland also mentions the gardens at Morli, in Derbyshire, and 
some others of less note in the northern counties. 

321. During the reign of Henry VII., Holingshed informs us, that large parks or 
circumscribed forests of several miles in circumference were common. Their number in 
Kent and Essex alone amounted to upwards of a hundred, (p. 204.) The Earl of Nor- 
thumberland had in Northumberland, Cumberland, and Yorkshire, twenty-one parks, and 
5771 head of red and fallow deer. He had also parks in Sussex, and other southern 
counties. These parks were formed more from necessity than luxury ; tenants for land 
being then not so readily obtained as in later times. 

322. During the reign of Henry VIII. the royal gardens of Nonsuch were laid out 
and planted. " At Nonsuche," says Hentzner, " there were groves ornamented with trellis- 
work, cabinets of verdure, and walks embowered with trees, with columns and pyramids 
of marble. Two fountains that do spout water, the one round the other like a pyramid, 
on which are perched all over, small birds that spout water out of their bills. " These 
gardens are stated, in a survey taken in the year 1650, above a century after Henry's 
death, to have been cut and divided into several alleys, compartments, and rounds, set about 
with thorn-hedges. On the north side was a kitchen-garden, very commodious, and 
surrounded with a wall fourteen feet high. On the west was a wilderness severed from 
the little park by a hedge, the whole containing ten acres. In the privy-gardens were 
pyramids, fountains, and basins of marble, one of which is " set round with six lilac-trees, 
which trees bear no fruit, but only a very pleasant smell." In the privy-gardens were, 
besides the lilacs, 144 fruit-trees, two yews, and one juniper. In the kitchen-garden 
were seventy-two fruit-trees and one lime-tree. Lastly, before the palace, was a neat 
handsome bowling-green, surrounded with a balustrade of freestone. " In this garden," 
observes Daines Barrington, " we find many such ornaments of old English gardening, 
as prevailed till the modern taste was introduced by Kent." 

F 3 


Hampton-court was laid out about the middle of this reign, by Cardinal Wolsey. The labyrinth, one 
of the best which remains in England, occupies only a quarter of an acre, and contains nearly half a mile 
of winding walks. There is an adjacent stand, on which the gardener places himself, to extricate the 
adventuring stranger by his directions. Switzer condemns this labyrinth for having only four stops, and 
gives a plan for one with twenty. Daines Barrington says (Archceolog.}, that he got out by keeping close 
to the hedge. 

323. During Elizabeth's reign, Hatfield, Lord Treasurer Burleigh's, Holland-house, 
and some other old seats were laid out. Of Hatfield, Hentzner says, the " gardens are 
surrounded by a piece of water, with boats rowing through alleys of well cut trees, and 
labyrinths made with great labor ; there are jels-d'eau and a summer-house, with many 
pleasant and fair fish-ponds. Statues were very abundant. The Gardener's Labyrinth, 
published during this reign, contains plates of " knotts and mazes cunningly handled 
for the beautifying of gardens." 

324. During the reign of James L the gardens of Theobalds and Greenwich were 
formed or improved. The garden at Theobalds, Mandelso, a traveller who visited 
England about 1640, describes as "a large square, having all its walls covered with 
fillery (trellis-work), and a beautiful jet-d'eau in the centre. The parterre hath many 
pleasant walks, part of which are planted on the sides with espaliers, and others arched 
over. Some of the trees are limes and elms, and at the end is a small mount, called 
the Mount of Venus, which is placed in the midst of a labyrinth, and is upon the whole 
one of the most beautiful spots in the world.". ( Voyages de Mandelso, torn. i. p. 598.) 
Lord Bacon attempted to reform the national taste during this reign, but apparently 
with little immediate success. He wished still to retain shorn trees and hedges ; but 
proposed winter, or evergreen gardens, and rude or neglected spots, as specimens of wild 
nature. " As for the making of knots or figures," says he, " with divers colored earths 
they be but toys. I do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden-stuff they 
are for children." (Essay on Gardens.) Sir Henry Wotton says, " the garden at Lord 
Verulam's was one of the best he had seen, either at home or abroad." Lawson's New 
Orchard was published in 1626; he gives directions also for parterres and labyrinths. 
A curious idea is given of the taste of these times in what he says of the latter. " Mazes 
well framed a man's height may, perhaps, make your friend wander in gathering berries, 
till he cannot recover himself without your help." 

325. During the commonwealth a Janua Trilinguis was published at Oxford, in which 
we are informed, that " gardening is practised for food's sake in a kitchen-garden and 
orchard, or for pleasure's sake in a green grass-plot and an arbor." As to the formation 
of the latter, the author adds, " the pleacher (topiarius] prepares a green plat of the more 
choice flowers and rarer plants, and adorns the garden with pleach-work ; that is, with 
pleasant walks and bowers, &c. to conclude with purling fountains, and water- works." 
(chap. 32.) We learn also from this comprehensive author (Commenius) the ancient use 
of parks. We are told, " the huntsman hunteth wild beasts, whilst he either allureth 
them into pitfalls, and killeth them, or forceth them into toils ; and what he gets alive 
he puts into a park." (chap. 37.) 

326. During the reign of Charles II. , landscape-gardening received a grand impulse. 
This monarch, we are informed by Daines Barrington, sent for Perault and Le Notre ; 
the former declined coming to England, but the latter planted Greenwich and St. 
James's Parks. Charles planted the semicircle of Hampton Gourt ; the beginning, as 
Switzer informs us, of a grand design never completed. Lord Capel and the Earl of 
Essex are mentioned by Switzer as eminent encouragers of gardening during this reign. 
The latter sent his gardener, Rose, to study the much celebrated beauties of Versailles ; 
and on his return he was appointed royal gardener. 

Chatsworth (fig. 28.), the magnificent seat of the Duke of Devonshire, was laid out in this reign ; and 
it is conjectured, from a design from the same artist. (Beauties qf England and Wales. Derbyshire.} Waller 
the poet formed his residence at Beaconsfield about the same time. The grounds there being very irre- 
gular, he has been at considerable labor in reducing the parts near the house and banquetting-room to 
regular slopes and levels, harmonising with an oblong basin or canal. It is but justice to the memory of 
this amateur, who was undoubtedly a man of taste in his day, that, in the more remote scenes, no appear- 
ance of art is discernible, or seems ever to have been intended. Their dry, ragged-edged paths, conducted 
through the natural woods, form a fine contrast to the artifioial scenes at Prior's Park! 

Garden-buildings, Daines Barrington conjectures, were first erected in England during this reign by 
Inigo Jones, at Beckett near Farringdon. There a banquetting-room is placed on a point of land project- 
ing into a lake, and is surrounded with a broad base, or platform, protected by a parapet-wall, and 
shaded by the far-projecting eaves of the building. It consists of one apartment with a cellar below ; and 
the covered platform, or base, is supposed to be for the purpose of angling. 

327. Evelyn, the well-known author of Sylva and other gardening books, flourished 
during this reign. In his memoirs (published by Bray, 1818) are the following remarks 
on the gardens of England, in respect to taste and style : 

Wooton, in Surrey, 1652, the residence of his father he describes as, for woods and waters, among 
the most natural and magnificent examples which England afforded " till this late and universal lux- 
ury of tne whole nation since abounding in such expenses." 

' Gave my brother some directions about his garden, which he was desirous to put into some form, for 
which he was to remove a mountain overgrown with large trees and thickets, and a moat within ten 





yards of the house :" this his brother " succeeded in doing, by digging down the mountain, and flinging it 
into a rapid stream, which carried away the sand, filled up the moat, and levelled that noble area where 
now the garden and fountain is." 

Grown? s-bridge near Tunbridge, " a pretty melancholy place." 

1654. Lady Brook's garden at Hackney, " one of the neatest and most celebrated in England." 

Caver sham, Lord Craven's, Berkshire. " Goodly woods felling by rebels." 

Cashiobury (fig. 29. ), Lord Essex, Hertfordshire. " No man has been more industrious than this noble 


F 4 



lord (Essex) in planting about his seat, adorned with walks, ponds, and other rural elegancies." " The 
gardens are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, having so skilful an artist to govern them as Cooke, who 
is, as to the mechanical part, not ignorant in mathematics, and pretends to astrology. There is an excellent 
collection of the choicest fruit. My lord not illiterate beyond the rate of most noblemen of this age." 

Wilton, Lord Pembroke's, Wiltshire. " The garden, heretofore esteemed the noblest in England, is a 
large handsome plain, with a grotto and water-works, which might be made much more pleasant were 
the river that passes through cleansed and raised ; for all is effected by mere force," &c. 

Hampton Park, Middlesex, " formerly a flat naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime- 
trees, and the canal for water now near perfected ; also the hare-park. In the garden is a rich and noble 
fountain, with syrens, statues, &c. cast in copper by Fanelli, but no plenty of water. The cradle-walk of 
hornbeam in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, very observable. There is a parterre 
which they call Paradise, in which is a pretty banquetting-house set over a cave or cellar." 

1662. A citizen's garden. " One Loader, an anchorsmith in Greenwich, grew so rich as to build a house 
in the street, with gardens, orangeries, canals, and other magnificence, on a lease. His father was of the 
same trade, and an anabaptist." 

Bushnell's Wells at Enstone. " This Bushnell had been secretary to Lord Verulam. It is an extraor- 
dinary solitude. There he had two mummies, and a grot, where he lay in a hammoc like an Indian. 
Hence we went to Ditchley, an ancient seat of the Lees," &c. Bushnell's gardens and water-works 
still exist, and are shown as curiosities to strangers. 

Ham House, and garden of the Duke of Lauderdale, Middlesex, "inferior to few of the best villas of 
Italy itself, the house furnished like a great prince's ; the parterres, flower-gardens, orangeries, groves, 
avenues, courts, statues, perspectives, fountains, aviaries, and all this at the banks of the sweetest river 
in the world, must needs be admirable." 

Wansted House, Essex, (fig. 30.) " Sir Josiah Child's prodigious cost in planting walnut-trees about his 
seat, and making fish-ponds some miles in circuit in Epping-forest, in a barren spot, as oftentimes these 

suddenly monied men for the most part seat themselves." In 1822 this magnificent seat was reduced to a 
mere mass of materials, through the improvidence of Wellesley Long Pole, who became possessed of it by 
marriage. The house was sold in lots, and the ground let in small portions on building leases. 

Sir Henry Capell's orangery and myrtitieum at Kew, " most beautiful and perfectly well kept. He was 
contriving very high palisadoes of reeds to shade his oranges during the summer, and painting these reeds 
in oil " 

Althorp, Lord Northampton's, Northamptonshire. " The iron gate opening into the park of very good 
work, wrought in flowers, painted in blue, and gilded" 

Bedd.inef.on, the seat of the Carews, Surrey, now decaying, " heretofore adorned with ample gardens, and 
the first orange-trees that had been seen in England, planted in the open ground, and secured in winter 
only by a tabernacle of boards and stoves, &c. standing a hundred and twenty years. Large and goodly 
trees, and laden with fruit, now in decay, as well as the grotto and fountains. The cabinets and other 
curiosities in the house and abroad being now fallen to a child under age, and only kept by a servant or 
two from further dilapidation. The estate and park about it also in decay." 

Marsden, Surrey. " Originally a barren warren, bought by Sir Robert Clayton, who built there a pretty 
house, and made such alteration by planting, not only an infinite store of the best fruit, but so changed the 
natural situation of the hills, valleys, and solitary mountains about it, that it rather represented some 

holly, and'juniper; they were 

crypt through the mountain in the park, 30 perches in length. Such a Pausilippe (alluding to thegrot of 
Pausilippo at Naples) is no where in England besides. The canal was now digging, and the vineyard 
planted" This crypt was in part remaining in 1816, but stopped up at the further end. 

SiuaUouifield, Lady Clarendon, Berkshire. " Lady C. skilled in the flowery part, my lord in diligence of 
planting. Water flagged with calamus, all that can render a country-seat delightful, and a well furnished 
library in the house." (Mem. by Bray, i. 432.) 

328. During the same reign (Charles II.) notes were made on some of the gardens round 
London by J. Gibson, which have been subsequently published in the Archeeologia,. 
(vol. xii.) Many of those mentioned by Evelyn are included, and spoken of in nearly the 
same terms by Gibson. Terrace-walks, hedges of evergreens, shorn shrubs in boxes, and 
orange and myrtle trees are mentioned as their chief excellencies. The parterre at Hampton 
Court is said to resemble a set of lace patterns. Evelyn himself is said to have a " pleasant 


villa at Deptford, a fine garden for walks and hedges, and a pretty little green-house with 
an indifferent stock in it. He has four large round pliilareas, smooth-clipped, raised on a 
single stalk from the ground, a fashion now much used. Part of his garden is very 
woody and shady for walking ; but not being walled, he has little of the best fruits." 

329. During the reign of William and Mary, gardening, Switzer says, arrived at its 
highest perfection. King William, Daines Barrington informs us, gave vogue to dipt 
yews, with magnificent gates and rails of iron, not unfrequent in Holland, and about 
this time (see Huetiana] introduced into France, and, in reference to the opaque stone- 
walls which they supplanted, called there dairs-voyees. The most extensive iron screens 
of this sort in England, next to those of Hampton Court, were formed by Switzer, at 
Leeswold, in Flintshire, laid out by that artist in a mixed style, or what is called 
Bridgeman's first manner. Hampton Court being at this time the actual residence of 
the royal family, the gardens underwent considerable improvement. An elegant alcove 
and arched trellis were added at the end of one of the alleys, and four urns placed before 
the principal part of the house, supposed by Daines Barrington (Archatologia) to be the 
first that were thus used in England. Towards the end of this century, vegetable sculp- 
tures, and embroidered parterres, were probably in their highest vogue, a conjecture 
confirmed by the works of Le Blond, James, Switzer, &c. published during this and the 
following reign. Sir William Temple's Essay on the Gardens of Epicurus appeared 
about the same time. His picture of a perfect garden, is that of a flat, or gentle de- 
clivity of an oblong shape, lying in front of the house, with a descent of steps from a 
terrace, extending the whole length of the house. This enclosure is to be cultivated as a 
kitchenrgarden and orchard. Such a garden he found at Moor Park, Hertfordshire, 
laid out by the Countess of Bedford, celebrated by Dr. Donne, " the sweetest place, I 
think, that I have seen in my life, before or since, at home or abroad." Lord Walpole, 
in his enthusiasm for the modern style, observes on this description, that any man might 
form as sweet a garden, who had never been out of Holborn. It has long since been 
destroyed, and its place occupied by lawn and trees. 

330. During Queen Anne's reign the principal alteration mentioned by Daines Bar- 
rington, as having taken place in the royal gardens, was that of covering the parterre 
before the great terrace at Windsor with turf. Switzer mentions, that her Majesty finished 
the old gardens at Kensington, begun by King William. Wise, who had been apprentice 
to Rose, and succeeded him as royal gardener, turned the gravel-pits into a shrubbery, 
with winding walks, with which Addison was so struck, that he compares him to an epic 
poet, and these improved pits as episodes to the general effect of the garden. Wise and 
London afterwards turned nurserymen, and designers of gardens, in which last capacity 
they were nearly in as great demand as was afterwards the celebrated Brown. To 
London and Wise, as designers, succeeded Bridgeman, who appears to have been a more 
chaste artist than any of his predecessors. He banished vegetable sculpture, and intro- 
duced wild scenes and cultivated fields in Richmond park ; but he still clipt his alleys, 
though he left to their natural growth the central parts of the masses through which they 
were pierced. Blenheim, Castle Howard, Cranbourne, Bushy Park, Edger, Althorpe, 
New Park, Bowden, Hackwood, Wrest, and indeed almost all the principal noblemen's 
seats in the ancient style, were laid out during this, the preceding, and part of the latter 
reigns, or between the years 1660 and 1713. Blenheim was laid out by Wise in three 
years ; Wansted and Edger were the last of London's designs. (Switzer.} 

331. During the reign of George I. nothing of consequence appears to have been done 
to the royal gardens ; though, near the end of it, Vanbrugh was appointed surveyor of 
the waters and gardens of the crown, but continued only a year or two in office. 

332. During the reign of George IL Queen Caroline enlarged and planted Kensington 
Gardens, and formed what is now called the Serpentine River, by uniting a string of 
detached ponds. This was a bold step, and led the way to subsequent changes of taste. 
Lord Bathurst informed Daines Barrington, that he was the first who deviated from the 
straight line in pieces of made water, by following the natural lines of a valley, in widen- 
ing a brook at Ryskins, near Colebrook ; and that Lord Straffbrd thinking that it was 
done from poverty or economy, asked him to own fairly, how little more it would have 
cost him to have made it straight. From Lord Walpole's correspondence (published 
1819) we learn that Queen Caroline proposed to shut up St. James's Park, and convert 
it into a noble garden for the palace of that name. When her Majesty asked Lord 
Walpole's father what it might probably cost, he answered " only three crowns." 

Cannons, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Chandos, is one of the principal places laid out in the 
ancient style during this reign. We are ignorant of the name of the French artist who gave the design, 
but the execution was superintended by Dr. Blackwell, a physician and agriculturist of some note. The 
Duke is mentioned by Miller, as one of the principal encouragers of gardening. As far as we have been 
able to learn, the last extensive residence laid out in the ancient style, in England, was Exton Park, in 
Rutlandshire, then the property of the Earl of Gainsborough, the Maecenas of his age. It was finished 
about the year 1730. Kent had already returned from Italy, and been employed as a painter and architect, 
and he began to display his genius a few years afterwards as a landscape-gardener. 


333. In this brief outline of the progress of the ancient style in England, we have not 
had room to notice numerous fine gardens formed by private individuals, preferring rather 
to notice what had been done in the gardens of the court, which, as they generally lead 
the fashion in every country, may be considered as a tolerably exact index of the state of 
a nation's taste. The reader who is desirous of tracing more minutely the progress of 
this branch of gardening among the landed proprietors of England, will find himself 
amply gratified by consulting The Beauties of England and Wales; a work in which is 
exhausted every source of antiquarian and topographical research, up nearly to the present 
time. The histories of gardening, by Lord Walpole and Daines Barrington, and the 
prefaces to the gardening works of Miller and Switzer, may also be referred to. 

334. The modern style of landscape-gardening was introduced during the early part of 
the eighteenth century. The origin of this style, and by whom and where it was first 
exhibited, have given rise to much discussion, and various opinions and assertions. 

The continental nations in general assert that we borrowed it from the Chinese ; or with Gabriel Thouin 
and Malacarne, deny us the merit of being the first either to borrow or invent it, by presenting claims of 
originality (166. and 78.) for their respective countries. Gabriel Thouin asserts (Plans Raisonnes, preface, 
&c.) that the first example was given by Dufresnoy (166.), a Parisian architect, in the Faubourg Saint 
Antoine, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The claims of Malacarne of Padua, in behalf of 
Charles I. Duke of Savoy, about the end of the sixteenth century, have been already adverted to. In as 
far as literature is concerned, we think that Tasso's claim to priority is indisputable. (See Dissertaztone su 
i Giardini Inglese, by Hippolyto Pindemonte, Verona, 1817, or a translation of part of it by us in the 
New Monthly Magazine, Feb. 1820.) Deleuze, the historian of botany and ornamental plants, (A/males du 
Musee, torn. viii. 1806,) endeavours, at some length, to prove that the new style of gardening arose from 
the necessity of finding room for the great number of ornamental shrubs and trees introduced from Ame- 
rica, during the first half of the eighteenth century. Boettinger, in his Racemazionem zur Gartenkunst 
der Alien, &c. carries us "back to the descriptions of the grotto of Calypso by Homer, the vale of Tempe 
by jElian, and of Vaucluse by Petrarch. 

335. British authors are of various opinions as to the origin of the modern style. 

The poet Gray (Life and Letters, &c. Letter to Mr. How, dated 1763) is of opinion, that " our skill in 
gardening, or rather laying out grounds, is the only taste we can call our own ; the only proof of original 
talent in matters of pleasure. This is no small honor to us ; since neither France nor Italy have ever 
had the least notion of it.' 

Warton and Lord Walpole, the former in his Essay on Pope, and the latter in his History of_Modern 

ling, agree in referring the first ideas to Milton ; and Wa 
may have had a very considerable influence. 

Gardening, agree in referring the first ideas to Milton ; and Warton adds, that the Seasons of Thomson 

George Mason, the author of an Essay on Design in Gardening, which appeared in 1768, and is one of the 
earliest prose works on the modern style, states, that " were only classical authorities consulted, it would 
hardly be supposed that even from the earliest ages any considerable variation in taste had ever prevailed." 
(Essay on Design, &c. p. 27.) Speaking of the Chinese style he says, " little did Sir William Temple 
imagine, that in not much more than half a century, the Chinese would become the nominal taste of his 
country ; or that so many adventurers in it would do great justice to his observation, and prove by their 
works, how difficult it is to succeed in the undertaking. Yet to this whimsical exercise of caprice, the 
modern improvements in gardening may chiefly be attributed." (Essay on Design, &c. p. 50.) No man 
could be a more enthusiastic admirer of the classics, a warmer patriot, or a more rigid critic, than this 
author ; and it appears from another part of his work (Discussion on Kent, p. 105.) that he was well aware, 
when he wrote the above passage, that the origin of the modern style was generally traced to Kent. That 
he should derive it from our attempt at the Chinese manner, we consider as a proof of candor and 

Mason the poet states, in a note to the English Garden, that " Bacon was the prophet, Milton the herald, 
of modern gardening; and Addison, Pope, and Kent, the champions of true taste." The efficacy of 
Bacon's ideas, G. Mason considers to have been " the introduction of classical landscapes," though this 
does not very clearly appear from his essay, the object of which seems to be, to banish certain littlenesses 
and puerilities, and to create more variety, by introducing enclosures of wild scenery, as well as of culti- 
vation. The title of champion, applied to Addison, alludes to his excellent paper in the Spectator, No. 414. 
" On Che causes of the pleasures of the imagination arising from the works of nature, and their superiority 
over those of art," published in 1712 ; and when applied to Pope, it refers to his celebrated Guardian, 
No. 173. published the following year. Boattinger, however, affirms that the bishop of Avranches had 
thrown out similar ideas, previously to the appearance of the Spectator. (See Huetiana, Pensee 51. 
" Beautes naturelles prtferables aux beautes de Vart ;" and p. 72. " Desjardins d la mode.") 

The Rev. Dr. Alison, author of the Analysis of Beauty, seems to consider the modern style as derived 
from our taste for the classic descriptions of the poets of antiquity. " In this view," (alluding to the pro- 
gress of art from the expression of design to the expression of variety and natural beauty,) he observes, 
' I cannot help thinking that the modern taste in gardening (or what Walpole very justly, and very em- 
phatically, calls the art of creating landscape,) owes its origin to two circumstances, which may, at first, 
appear paradoxical, viz. to the accidental circumstances of our taste in natural beauty being founded upon 
foreign models ; and to the difference or inferiority of the scenery of our own country to that which we 
were accustomed peculiarly to admire." 

Eustace, the Italian tourist, considers Tasso's garden of Armida as more likely to have given rise to the 
English style than any classical work, or even the Paradise of Milton. 

Our own opinion inclines to that of G. Mason, without doubting that examples of wild scenery, with 
walks, may have been exhibited long before both in Italy and this country. The general progress of ideas 
in matters of taste and refinement, required the creation of such a style ; and the highly-cultivated state 
of the country, the accounts of Chinese gardens, and the descriptions of the poets, would all conspire to 
its production. 

336. The principles of modem, landscape-gardening were unquestionably first laid down 
by English writers. It is allowed on all sides, that Addison and Pope " prepared for 
the new art of gardening the firm basis of philosophical principles." Addison's paper on 
Imagination, was published so early as 1712; and Pope's celebrated Guardian on Ver- 
dant Sculpture, in 1713. Pope attacked the verdant sculpture, and formal groves of the 
ancient style, with the keenest shafts of ridicule ; and in his epistle to Lord Burlington, 
laid down the justest principles of art ; the study of nature, of the genius of the place, 
and never to lose sight of good sense. 


337. The first examples of modern landscape-gardening were given by Pope and Addi- 
son. In so far as was practicable on a spot of little more than two acres, Pope practised 
what he wrote ; and his well-known garden at Twickenham contained, so early as 1716, 
some highly picturesque and natural-like scenery ; accurately described by various con- 
temporary writers. Only the soil of Pope's garden now remains. (See Beauties of 
England and Wales.} Addison had a small retirement at Bilton, near Rugby, laid out 
in what may be called a rural style, and which still exists, with very little alteration be- 
sides that of time. 

338. The first artists who practised in the modern style, were Bridgeman and Kent. 
Bridgeman was the fashionable designer of gardens in the beginning of the 18th century, 
and may be considered as having succeeded to London and Wise, London having died 
in 1713. Lord Walpole conjectures Bridgeman to have been " struck and reformed" 
by the Guardian, No. 173. He banished verdant sculpture, and introduced morsels of 
a forest appearance in the gardens at Richmond ; " but not till other innovators had 
broke loose from rigid symmetry." But it was reserved for Kent, the friend of Lord 
Burlington, says Daines Barrington, to carry Pope's ideas more extensively into execu- 
tion. It was reserved for him " to realise the beautiful descriptions of the poets, for 
which he was peculiarly adapted by being a painter ; as the true test of perfection in 
modern gardening is, that a landscape-painter would choose it for a composition." Kent, 
according to Lord Walpole, appeared immediately after Bridgeman began to make in- 
novations on the old style. Among these innovations the capital stroke was the destruc- 
tion of walls for boundaries, and the introduction of ha-has ; the harmony of the lawn 
with the park followed. Kent appeared at this moment, and saw that all nature was a 
garden ; " painter enough to taste the charms of landscape, bold and opinionative enough 
to dare and to dictate, and born with a genius to strike out a great system ; from the 
twilight of imperfect essays, he realised the compositions of the greatest masters in paint- 
ing." " Kent," continues his lordship, " was neither without assistance nor without 
faults. Pope contributed to form his taste ; and the gardens at Carleton House were 
probably borrowed from the poet's at Twickenham." 

339. The origin and establishment of the modern style of landscape gardening in England 
appears thus to have been effected by Addison, Pope, Bridgeman, and Kent. 

The various deviations from rigid uniformity, or more correctly, the various attempts to succeed in the 
Chinese manner, appear to have taken a new and decisive character under the guidance of Kent, a circum- 
stance, in our opinion, entirely owing to his having the ideas of a painter ; for no mere gardener, occupied 
in imitating the Chinese, or even Italian manner, would ever have thought of studying to produce pictu- 
resque effect. Picturesque beauty, indeed, we consider to have been but little recognised in this country, 
excepting by painters, previously to the time of Pope, who was both a painter and a poet. The continued 
approbation of the modern style, as purified from the Chinese absurdities, originally more or less introduced 
with it, and continued in many places long after Kent's time, we consider to be chiefly owing to the cir- 
cumstance of the study of drawing and landscape-painting having become a part of the general system of 
education ; and thus, as Alison observes, our taste for natural beauty was awakened ; " the power of 
simple nature was felt and acknowledged, and the removal of the articles of acquired expression, led men 
only more strongly to attend to the natural expression of scenery, and to study the means by which it 
might be maintained or improved." 

340. The adoption and extension of the modern style in England may next be con- 
sidered. The means which led to its popularity in Britain, and indeed over the whole of 
Europe, were the examples of artists and authors, to which it gave rise. 

341. The country-seats in which the modern style was first employed are described by 
Shenstone, G. Mason, and Wheatley, in their works on gardening, and incidentally by 
some other authors. 

Stowe appears to have been the first extensive residence in which the modern style was adopted. 
Lord Cobham seems to have been occupied in re-modelling the grounds at Stowe, about the same time 
that Pope was laying out his gardens at Twickenham. His lordship began these improvements in 1714, 
employing Bridgeman, whose plans and views for altering old Stowe from the most rigid character of the 
ancient style to a more open and irregular design, are still in existence. Kent was employed a few years- 
afterwards, first to paint the hall, and afterwards in the double capacity of architect and landscape-gar- 
dener ; and the finest buildings and scenes there are his creation. The character of Stowe is well known : 
nature has done little ; but art has created a number of magnificent buildings, by which it has been at- 
tempted to give a sort of emblematic character to scenes of little or no natural expression. The result 
is unique ; but more, as expressed by Pope, " a work to wonder at," than one to charm the imagination. 
The friends of Lord Cobham seem to have considered him as the first who exhibited the new style to his 
country, if we may judge from the concluding lines of an epitaph to his memory, placed jn the garden, 


Woburn Farm, near Weybridge, in Surrey, is supposed to have been one of the first small places where 
the new system struck out by Kent was adopted. Southcote, says G. Mason, possessed a genius in many 
respects well suited to the purpose, but was rather too lavish of his flowery decorations. The extent 
of the grounds was one hundred and fifty acres, thirty-five of which were ornamented to the highest 
degree, two-thirds of the remainder were in pasture on rising grounds, and the rest in tillage. The 
decorations consisted in having a broad margin of shrubbery and gravel-walk to almost every fence, 
but varied by difference of style, views, buildings, &c. It is minutely described in Wheatley 's Observations, 
as an example of an ornamented farm. G. Mason thinks the decorated strip often too narrow, and some- 
times offensive, from the impossibility of concealing the fence. To this bordering walk, he thinks, may 
probably be attributed the introduction of the belt. His remarks refer to the year 1768. In 1803, it had 
repeatedly changed proprietors, and scarcely a vestige remained to distinguish it from a common farm. 

Pains Hill, the creation of the Hon. Charles Hamilton, ninth son of James, sixth earl of Abercorn, is 
supposed to have been one of the next specimens exhibited of the modern style. Hamilton is said to have 
tudied pictures, with a view to the improvement of grounds. Pains Hill is a small park, surrounded on 


three sides by garden and picturesque scenery. Excepting from the house, there is no distant prospect ; 
but the surface being considerably undulated, the vifcws from the walks across the park have some variety, 
and are always agreeable. This place is one of the few, described by Wheatley, which is still in perfect 

P Hasley seems to have been improved about the same time as Pams Hill, in effecting which, Lord 
Lyttelton might probably receive some hints from the poet Thomson, who was then his guest. The 
grounds are much varied, and the distant prospects picturesque. A very small rill, which passed through 
the grounds in a sort of dell, was surrounded with shrubbery and walks, from w hich the park-scenery 
formed a sort of foreground, and sometimes a middle distance to the offscape ; thus, in the language of 
Wheatley, " blending the excellencies of the park and the garden." The fine trees, the distant prospects, 
and the principal buildings, still remain ; but the garden-scenery has been long since choked by the 
growth of the forest-trees; and some years ago the fence was removed, and the whole thrown into 
the park. 

South Lodge comes next in order. Soon after the improvements of Hamilton and Lyttelton, " the great 
Pitt," G. Mason informs us, " turned his mind to the embellishment of rural nature," and exercised his 
talent at the South Lodge upon Enfield Chace. " The first ground surrounding the enclosure was then 
wild and woody, and is diversified with hill and dale. He entertained the idea (and admirably realised 
it) of making the interior correspond with the exterior scenery. His temple of Pan is mentioned in Observ- 
ations. But the singular effort of his genius was a successful imitation of the picturesque appearance of a 
by-lane, on the very principles Price supposes it might be practicable." 

The Leasawes were improved about the same time. It was literally a grazing-farm, with a walk, in 
imitation of a common field, conducted through the several enclosures. Much taste and ingenuity was dis- 
played in forming so many points of view in so confined an extent, and with so few advantages in point of 
distance. But root-houses, seats, urns, and inscriptions, were too frequent for the whole to be classed with 
a common, or even an improved or ornamented English farm. It was, in fact, intended as an emblematical 
scene in which constant allusion was made to pastoral poetry ; and if we consider it in this light, in that of 
a sentimental farm, it was just what it ought to have been. We regret to find that Repton should attack 
the taste of this amiable man, from a misconception, as we presume, of his intentions, by blaming him for 
not " surrounding his house with such a quantity of ornamental lawn or park only, as might be consistent 
with the size of the mansion or the extent of the property." We fear that if Shenstone had adopted this 
mode of improvement, thp Leasowes had never been distinguished from places got up by the common rou- 
tine of professorship. Shenstone broke his heart through the infamous conduct of a Birmingham attorney, 
in whose hands he had placed the title-deeds of his estate. The farm is now much neglected, though the 
paths, and many of the seats and root-houses, still remain. 

Claremont and Esher are well known. Both were laid out by Kent and Claremont, afterwards enlarged, 
and the house and kitchen-gardens added by Brown. Walpole and Wheatley have celebrated both, and 
also Garth. Esher is praised by Warton, in his poem " The Enthusiast or Lover of Nature," 1740. Esher 
no longer exists ; but Claremont is kept up in tolerable style by Prince Leopold. 

Persfield was laid out so late as 1750. It is a small park, with an interesting walk, carried along the brow 
of a romantic rocky bank of the river Wye, perhaps as faultless as the nature of the place admits of. " I 
cannot recollect," says G. Mason, writing of this place in 1768, " that any of the scenes on the Wye are 
the least adulterated by the introduction of any puerile appendage whatever." 

342. The artists or jn-qfessors who establislied the modem style were, Bridgeman, Kent, 
Wright, Brown, and Earaes. 

Of Bridgeman we have been able to procure no information. 

Kent was born in Yorkshire, and apprenticed to a coach-painter in 1719. He soon afterwards came to 
London, discovered a genius for painting, was sent to Italy, patronised there by Lord Burlington, returned 
with his lordship, and lived with him in Burlington House till 1748, when he died at the age of 63 years. 
On his first return, he was chiefly employed to paint historical subjects and ceilings ; and the hall at Stowe 
is from his pencil. Soon afterwards he was employed as an architect ; and, lastly, as a landscape-gardener. 
It is not known where he first exercised his genius as a layer-out of grounds ; probably at Claremont and 
Esher, two of his designs, both minutely described by Wheatley, and, judging from the age of the trees, 
laid out some time between 1725 and 1735. Kent was also employed at Kensington Gardens, where he is 
said to have introduced parts of dead trees to heighten the allusion to natural woods. Mason, the poet, 
mentions Kent's Elysian scenes in the highest style of panegyric, and observes in a note, that he prided 
himself in shading with evergreens in his more finished pieces, in the manner described in the 14th and 
15th sections of Wheatley's Observations. " According to my own idea," adds G. Mason, " all that has 
since been done by the most deservedly admired designers, by Southcote, Hamilton, Lyttelton, Pitt, Shen- 
stone, Morris, for themselves, and by Wright for others, all that has been written on the subject, even the 
Gardening Didactic Poem and the Didactic Essay on the Picturesque, have proceeded from Kent. Had 
Kent never exterminated the bounds of regularity, never actually traversed the way to freedom of man- 
ner, would any of these celebrated artists have found it of themselves ? Theoretical hints from the 
highest authorities had evidently long existed without sufficient effect. And had not these great masters 
actually executed what Kent's example first inspired them with the design of executing, would the subse- 
quent writers on gardening have been enabled to collect materials for precepts, or stores for their ima- 

Wrieht seems to have been in some repute at the time of Kent's death. " His birth and education," 
G. Mason informs us, " were above plebeian ; he understood drawing, and sketched plans of his designs ; but 
never contracted for work, which might occasion his not being applied to by those who consider nothing so 
much as having trouble taken off their hands." At Becket, the seat of Lord Barrington, he produced an 
admired effect on a lawn ; and at Stoke, near Bristol, he is supposed to have decorated a copse-wood with 
roses, in the manner advised in the fourth book of the English Garden, and extensively displayed at 
Fonthill Abbey. He also designed the terrace-walk and river at Oatlands, both deservedly admired ; the 
latter being not unfrequently mistaken for the Thames itself. 

Brown is the next professor, in the order of time. He was a native of Northumberland, filled the situation 
of kitchen-gardener at a small place near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire ; and was afterwards head-gardener at 
Stowe till 1750. He was confined (see Beauties of E. and W. Bucks] to the kitchen-garden, by Lord Cobham, 
who, however, afterwards recommended him to the Duke of Grafton, at Wakefield Lodge, Northampton- 
shire, where he directed the formation of a large, lake, which laid the foundation of his fame and fortune. 
Lord Cobham afterwards procured for him the situation of royal gardener at Hampton Court and Windsor. 
He was now consulted by the nobility, and among other places at Blenheim. There he threw a dam across 
the vale, and the first artificial lake in the world was completed in a week. By this he attained the summit 
of his popularity. The fashion of employing him continued, says G. Mason, not only to 1768, but to the 
time of his death, many years afterwards. Repton has given a list of his principal works, among which 
Croome and Fisherwicke are the two largest new places which he formed, including at Croome the man- 
sion and offices, as well as the grounds. The places he altered are beyond all reckoning. Improvement 
was the passion of the day ; and there was scarcely a country-gentleman who did not, on some occasion 
or other, consult the royal gardener. Mason, the poet, praises this artist, and Lord Walpole apologises 
for not praising him. Daines Barrington says, " Kent hath been succeeded by Brown, who hath un- 
doubtedly great merit in laying out pleasure-grounds ; but I conceive that, in some of his plans, I sec 
rather traces of the kitchen-gardener of old Stowe, than of Poussin or Claude Lorrain. I could wish, there- 


fore, that Gainsborough gave the design, and that Brown executed." The works and memory of Brown 
have been severely attacked by Knight and Price, and strenuously defended by Repton, who styles him " hig 
great self-taught predecessor." " Brown," observes G. Mason, " always appeared to myself in the light 
of an egregious mannerist ; who, from having acquired a facility in shaping surfaces, grew fond of exhi- 
biting that talent, without due regard to nature, and left marks of his intrusion wherever he went. His 
new plantations were generally void of genius, taste, and propriety ; but I have seen instances of his ma- 
naging old ones much better. He made a view to Cheney's church, from Latimer (Bucks), as natural 
and picturesque as can well be imagined. Yet at the same place he had stuffed a very narrow vale, by the 
side of an artificial river, with those crowded circular clumps of firs alone, that Price attributes to him. 
The incongruity of this plan struck most of the neighbouring gentlemen, but was defended by the artist 
himself, under shelter of the epithet ' playful,' totally misapplied." (Essay on Design, p. 130. 2d edit. 1795.) 

That Brown must have possessed considerable talents, the extent of his reputation abundantly proves ; 
but that he was imbued with much of that taste for picturesque beauty which distinguished the works of 
Kent, Hamilton, and Shenstone, we think will hardly be asserted by any one who has observed atten- 
tively such places as are known to be his creations. Whatever be the extent or character of the surface, 
they are all surrounded by a narrow belt, and the space within is distinguished by numbers of round or 
oval clumps, and a reach or two of a tame river on different levels. This description, in short, will apply to 
almost every place in Britain laid out from the time (about 1740) when the passion commenced for new- 
modelling country-seats, to about 1785 or 179(), when it in a great measure ceased. The leading outline of 
this plan of improvement was easily recollected and easily applied ; the great demand produced abundance 
of artists ; and the general appearance of the country so rapidly changed under their operations, that in 
1772, Sir William Chambers declared, that if the mania were not checked, in a few years longer there 
would not be found three trees in a line from the Land's-end to the Tweed. Brown, it is said, never went 
out of England, but he sent pupils and plans to Scotland and Ireland ; and Paulowsky, a seat of the late 
emperor Paul, near Petersburg, is said to be from his design. Brown, as far as we have learned, could not 
draw, but had assistants, who made out plans of what he intended. He generally contracted for the 
execution of the work. He amassed a handsome fortune, and his son Launcelot has sat in several 

The immediate successor of Brown was his nephew, Holland, who was more employed as an architect 
than as a landscape-gardener, though he generally directed the disposition of the grounds when he was 
employed in the former capacity. Holland, we believe, retired from business some years ago. 

Eames is the next artist that deserves to be mentioned ; of him, however, we know little more than that 
he is mentioned in terms of respect by G. Mason. 

343. The authors who established the modern style are, Addison, Pope, Shenstone, 
G. Mason, Wheatley, and Mason, the poet. 

Addison's Spectators have been already referred to. 

Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington has also been noticed, as well as 

Shenstone' s Unconnected Thoughts ; the former published in 1716, the latter in 1764. 

G. Mason's Essay on Design in Gardening, from which we have so frequently quoted, was first published 
in 1768, and afterwards greatly enlarged in 1795. It is more a historical and critical work than a didactic 
performance. Mason was an excellent classical scholar : he lived much alone, and almost always in London, 
being connected with the Sun Fire Office. 

Wheatley's Observations on Modern Gardening, published in 1770, is the grand fundamental and standard 
work on English gardening. It is entirely analytical j treating, first, of the materials, then of the scenes, 
and lastly, of the subjects of gardening. Its style has been pronounced by Ensor inimitable ; and the 
descriptions with which his investigations are accompanied, have been largely copied and amply praised 
by Alison, in his work on taste. The book was soon translated ^into the continental languages, and is 
judiciously praised in the Mercure de France, Journal Encyclopedique, and Wieland's Journal. G. Ma- 
son alone dissents from the general opinion, enlarging on the very few faults or peculiarities which 
are to be found in the book. Wheatley, or Whateley, (for so little is known of this eminent man, that we 
have never been able to ascertain satisfactorily the orthography of his name,) was proprietor of Nonsuch 
Park, in Surrey, and was secretary to the Earl of Suffolk. He published only this work, soon after which 
he died. After his death, some remarks on Shakspeare, from his pen, were published in a small 12mo. 

The English Garden, a poem by W. Mason, was published in four different books, the first of which 
appeared in 1772. With the' exception of the fourth book, it was received with very great applause. The 
precepts for planting are particularly instructive. On the whole, the work may. be classed with the Observ- 
ations of Wheatley ; and these two books may be said to exhibit a clear view of the modern style, as first 
introduced and followed by liberal and cultivated minds ; whilst the Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, 
by Sir William Chambers, published in 1772, holds up to ridicule the absurd imitations of uncultivated 
amateurs and professors, who have no other qualifications than those acquired in laboring with the spade 
under some celebrated artist. Mason was a clergyman, resident in Yorkshire, and died in 1797. 

344. The partial corruption of the modern style took place as soon as it became fashion- 
able ; though it may be true, that " in all liberal arts, the merit of transcendent 
genius, not the herd of pretenders, characterises an sera," yet in an art like that of 
laying out grounds, whose productions necessarily have such an influence on the general 
face of a country, it is impossible to judge otherwise of the actual state of the art, than 
from the effect which is produced. This effect, about forty years ago, when clumps and 
belts blotted every horizon, could never be mistaken for that intended by such pro- 
fessors as Kent, or such authors as Wheatley and Mason. The truth is, such was the rage 
for improvement, that the demand for artists of genuine taste exceeded the regular supply ; 
and, as is usual in such cases, a false article was brought to market, and imposed on the 
public. A liberal was thus for a time reduced to a mechanic art, and a new character given 
to modern improvements, which, from consisting in a display of ease, elegance, and 
nature, according to the situation, became a system of set forms, indiscriminately applied 
in every case. This system was in fact more formal, and less varied, than the ancient 
style to which it succeeded, because it had fewer parts. An ancient garden had avenues, 
alleys, stars, pates-d'oye, pelotons or platoons (square clumps), circular masses, rows, 
double and single, and strips, all from one material, wood; but the modern style, as 
now degraded, had only three forms, a clump, a belt, and a single tree. Place the belt 
in the circumference, and distribute the clumps and single trees within, and all that re- 
spects wood in one of these places is finished. The professor required no further exa- 
mination of the ground than what was necessary to take the levels for forming a piece of 


water, which water uniformly assumed one shape and character, and differed no more 
in different situations, than did the belt or the clump. So entirely mechanical had the 
art become, that any one might have guessed what would be the plan given by the pro- 
fessor before he was called in ; and Price actually gives an instance in which this was 
done. The activity of this false taste was abated in England before our time ; but we 
have seen in Scotland, between the years 1795 and 1805, we believe, above a hundred 
of such plans, in part formed by local artists, but chiefly by an English professor, who 
was in the habit of making annual journeys in the north, taking orders for plans, which 
he got drawn on his return home, not one of which differed from the rest in any thing 
but magnitude. These plans were, in general, mounted on linen, which he regularly 
purchased in pieces of some hundreds of yards at a time, from a celebrated bleachfield 
adjoining Perth. 

345. The monotonous productions of this mechanical style soon brought it into disrepute ; 
and proprietors were ridiculed for expending immense sums in destroying old avenues 
and woods, and planting in their room young clumps, for no other reason than that it 
was the fashion to do so. 

The first symptoms of disapprobation that were ventured to be uttered against the degradation of the new 
taste, appear to be contained in an epistolary novel, entitled Village Memoirs, published in 1775, in 
which the professors of gardening are satirised under the name of Layout A better taste, however, than 
that of Layout is acknowledged to exist, which the author states, " Shenstone and nature to have brought 
us acquainted with." Most of the large gardens are said to be laid out by some general undertaker, " who 
introduces the same objects at the same distances in all." (p. 143.) The translation of Girardin Dela Com- 
position des Pay sages, ou des Moyens d'embellir la Nature autour des Habitations, enjoignant VagreaUe a 
I'utile, &c. accompanied with an excellent historical preface by Daniel Malthus, Esq. in 178o, must have 
had considerable influence in purifying the taste of its readers. A poem in Dodsley's collection, entitled, 
Some Thoughts on Building and Planting, addressed to Sir James Lowther, Bart published in the same 
year, and in which the poet recommends, that 

" Fashion will not the works direct, 
But reason be the architect." 

must have had some effect But the Essay on Prints, and the various picturesque tours of Gilpin, pub- 
lished at different intervals from 1768 to 1790, had the principal influence on persons of taste. The beauties 
of light and shade, outline, grouping, and other ingredients of picturesque beauty, were never before ex- 
hibited to the English public in popular writings. These works were eagerly read, and brought about 
that general study of drawing and sketching landscape among the then rising generation, which has ever 
since prevailed ; and will do more, perhaps, than any other class of studies, towards forming a taste for the 
harmony and connection of natural scenery, the only secure antidote to the revival of the distinctness and 
monotony which characterise that which we have been condemning. 

346. The monotonous style has been ably exposed by Price and Knight. The Essays on 
the Picturesque, of the former, and the poem of the latter, though verging on the opposite 
extreme of the evil they wished to remove, have greatly improved the taste of proprietors 
and patrons. The object of The Landscape, a didactic poem, is to teach the art of cre- 
ating scenery more congruous and picturesque than what is met with in that " tiresome 
and monotonous scene called Pleasure-ground." Price's Essays on the Picturesque, and 
on the use of studying Pictures, with a mew to the improvement of real Landscape, are 
written with the same intention ; but, as might be expected from a prose work, enter on 
the subject much more at length. In order to discover " whether the present system of 
improving is founded on any just principles of taste," Price begins by enquiring, 
" whether there is any standard, to which, in point of grouping and of general compo- 
sition, works of this sort can be referred ; any authority higher than that of the persons 
who have gained the most general and popular reputation by their works, and whose 
method of conducting them has had the most extensive influence on the general taste." 
This standard (which, it will be recollected by the candid reader, is desired only for what 
relates to grouping and composition, not to utility and convenience, as some have unfairly 
asserted) Price finds in the productions of those great artists, who have most diligently 
studied the beauties of nature, both in their grandest and most general effects, and in their 
minutest detail ; who have observed every variety of form and of color ; have been abte 
to select and combine ; and then, by the magic of their art, to* fix upon the canvass 
all these variousxbeauties. " Price recommends the study of the principles of painting, 
" not to the exclusion of nature, but as an assistant in the study of her works." He 
points out and illustrates two kinds of beauty in landscape ; the one the picturesque, 
characterised by roughness, abruptness, and sudden variation ; the other beauty in the 
more general acceptation, characterised by smoothness, undulations, intermixed with a 
certain degree of roughness and variation, producing intricacy and variety. Such beauty 
was made choice of by Claude in his landscapes, and such, he thinks, particularly adapted 
to the embellishment of artificial scenery. These principles are applied by Price, in a 
very masterly manner, to wood, water, and buildings. 

347. The reformation in taste contended for by Price and Knight was, like all other pro- 
posals for reform, keenly opposed by professors, by a numerous class of mankind who hate 
innovation, and with whom " whatever is is right," including perhaps some men of taste, 
who had no feeling for the picturesque, or had mistaken the object of the book. The 
first answer to Price's work, was a letter by Repton, in which candor obliges us to state, 


that the latter has misrepresented his antagonist's meaning, by confounding the study of 
pictures with that of the study of the principles of painting. Price published an able 
answer to this production, which, he informs us, was even more read than the original 
essays. Two anonymous poems of no merit made their appearance, as satires on The 
Landscape, and indirectly on the Essays on the Picturesque. The Review of the Land- 
scape, and of an Essay on the Picturesque, &c. by Marshall, was published in 1795. 
There can scarcely be any thing more violent than this publication. The periodical 
critics brought forward all sorts of reasons against the use of the study of pictures, and 
deny (with truth perhaps as to themselves) the distinct character of the picturesque. Mr. 
Price they treat as " a mere visionary amateur," and Knight as " a Grub-street poet, 
who has probably no other garden than the pot of mint before his windows." 

The vaguy opinion of a great mass of country-gentlemen, tourists, and temporary authors, may be also in- 
cluded; these taking the word picturesque in its extreme sense, and supposing it intended to regulate what 
was useful, as well as what was ornamental, concluded that Price's object was to destroy all comfort and 
neatness in country-seats, and reduce them to mere portions of dingle or jungle scenery. Such opinions we 
have frequently heard expressed by men in other respects of good sense. Even continental authors have 
imbibed and disseminated similar exaggerations. " Egares par Gilpin, qui a cherche par ses voyages en 
diverges parties de I'Angleterre et de VEcosse, a donner des regies, pour y assujeter le genre pittoresque et 
romantique, Us ont pris ro^.casion pour demander que Vart fut totalement banni des jardins. Us adoptent 
le pittoresque d'un Salvat(#~ Rosa dans les paysages, comme le vrai nature dans Vart defaire des jardins, et 
on rejette comme un asservissement d ce meme art, toutes les regies qu'un Bridgcuiater (Bridgeman) et un 
Brown avoient publiees dans ce genre." (Description Pittoresque des Jardins, du gout le plus moderne. 
Leipsig, 1802. See also Tubinger's Taschenbuch,fur nature und Gartenfreunde, 1798, p. 194.) 

Of enlightened and liberal minds, who have in some degree opposed Price's principles, we can only in- 
stance the late W. Wyndham, who in a letter to Repton, (Repton was at one period secretary to Wyndham, 
when that gentleman was in office,) written after the publication of his defence, combats, not the works of 
Price, but the popular objections to the supposed desire of subjecting every thing to the picturesque. 
" The writers of this school," he observes, " show evidently that they do.not trace with any success the 
causes of their pleasure. Does the pleasure that we receive from the view of parks and gardens, result 
from their affording in their several parts, subjects that would appear to advantage in a picture ? What 
is most beautiful in nature, is not always capable of being represented in a painting ; as prospects, moving 
flocks of deer. Many are of a sort which have nothing to do with the purposes of habitation ; as the sub- 
jects of Salvator Rosa. Are we therefore to live in caves? Gainsborough's Country Girl is more pictu- 
resque than a child neatly dressed. Are our children to go in rags ? No one will stand by this doctrine ; 
nor do they exhibit it in any distinct shape at all, but only take credit for their attachment to general 
principles, to which every one is attached as well as they. Is it contended, that in laying out a place, 
whatever is most picturesque is most conformable to true taste ? If they say so, they must be led to conse- 
quences which they can never venture to avow. If they do not say so, the whole is a question of how 
much or how little, which, without the instances before you, can never be decided." " Places are not to 
be laid out with a view to their appearance in a picture, but to their use, and the enjoyment of them in 
real life ; and their conformity to these purposes is that which constitutes their true beauty. With this 
view, gravel walks, and neat mown lawns, and, in some situations, straight alleys, fountains, terraces, 
and, for aught I know, parterres and cut hedges, are in perfect good taste, and infinitely more conform- 
able to the principles which form the basis of our pleasure in those instances, than the docks and thistles, 
and litter and disorder, that may make a much better figure in a picture." (Letter from Wyndham, 
published by Repton, in a note to his Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening.) 

The opinion of Professor Dugald Stewart, as given incidentally in his Philosophical Disquisitions on the 
Beautiful, (Essays, p. 285. 1810. 4to. edit.) is of great value. He says, " As to the application of the know- 
ledge thus acquired from the study of paintings, to the improvement of natural landscape, I have no doubt, 
that to a superior understanding and taste, like those of Price, it may often suggest very useful hints ; but 
if recognised as the standard to which the ultimate appeal is to be made, it would infallibly cover the face 
of the country with a new and systematical species of affectation, not less remote than that of Brown from 
the style of gardening which he wishes to recommend ; let painting be allowed its due praise in quicken- 
ing our attention to the beauties of nature j in multiplying our resources for their farther embellishme.nt ; 
and in holding up a standard, from age to age, to correct the caprices of fashionable innovations ; buf let 
our taste for these beauties be chiefly formed on the study of nature herself ; nor let us ever forget so far 
what is due to her indisputable and salutary prerogative, as to attempt an encroachment upon it by laws, 
which derive the whole of their validity from her own sanction." (p. 287.) 

348. To draw a fair conclusion from these different opinions, it is necessary to take the 
whole of them, and the general scope of the authors into view. From the vein of excel- 
lent sense which pervades Wyndham's letter, and particularly the latter part of it, which 
we have extracted entire, it is impossible to avoid suspecting, either that there is a cul- 
pable obscurity in the works referred to, or that Wyndham had not sufficiently, if at all, 
perused them. We are inclined to believe that there is some truth in both suppositions. 
We have no hesitation, however, both from a mature study of all the writings of these 
gentlemen, relating to this subject, as well as a careful inspection of their own residences, 
in saying, that there is not an opinion in the above extract, to which Price and Knight would 
not at once assent. Knight's directions, in regard to congruity and utility, are as distinct as 
can well be expected in a poem. Price never entered on the subject of utility. His 
works say, " Your object is to produce beautiful landscapes ; at least this is one great 
object of your exertions. But you produce very indifferent ones. The beauty of your 
scenes is not of so high a kind as that of nature. Examine her productions. To aid 
you in this examination, consult the opinions of those who have gone before you in the 
same study. Consult the works of painters, and learn the principles which guided them 
in their combinations of natural and artificial objects. Group your trees on the principles 
they do. Connect your masses as they do. In short, apply their principles of painting 
whenever you intend any imitation of nature, for the principles of nature and of painting 
are the same." Are we to apply them in every case? Are we to neglect regular 
beauty and utility ? Certainly not, that would be inconsistent with common sense." 


349. The taste of the present day in landscape-gardening may be considered as com- 
paratively chastened and refined by so much discussion, so many errors and corrections, 
and a great many fine examples. It is also more liberal than it was half a century ago ; 
admitting the use of the beauties of every style, even the geometric, as occasion requires ; 
in short, considering beauty as always relative to the state of society ; and in gardening, 
even to the state of the surrounding country. The principal artist of the present period, 
or that which has intervened since the death of Brown and Eames, was the late H. Repton, 
Esq. This gentleman, from being an amateur, began his career as professor of landscape- 
gardening about thirty years ago (1788) ; and till a sort of decline or inactivity of taste 
took place ten or twelve years since, he was extensively consulted. Though at first an 
avowed defender and follower of Brown, he has gradually veered round with the change 
effected in public opinion by the Essays on the Picturesque, so that now, comparing his 
earlier works of 1795 and 1805, with his Fragments on Landscape Gardening, published 
in 1817, he appears much more a disciple of Price than a defender of his " great self- 
taught predecessor. " Repton was a beautiful draftsman, and gave, besides plans and 
views, his written opinion in a regular form, generally combining the whole in a manu- 
script volume, which he called the red book of the place. He never, we believe, undertook 
the execution of his plans ; nor has, as far as we are aware, been employed out of Eng- 
land, but Valleyfield, in Perthshire, was visited by his two sons, and arranged from their 
father's designs. The character of this artist's talent seems to be cultivation rather than 
genius, and he seems more anxious to follow than to lead, and to gratify the preconceived 
wishes of his employers, and improve on the fashion of the day, than to strike out grand 
and original beauties. This, indeed, is perhaps the most useful description of talent both 
for the professor and his employers. Repton's taste in Gothic architecture, and in ter- 
races, and architectural appendages to mansions, is particularly elegant. His published 
Observations on this subject are valuable, though we think otherwise of his remarks on 
landscape-gardening, which we look upon as puerile, wanting depth, often at variance 
with each other, and abounding too much in affectation and arrogance. On the whole, 
however, we have no hesitation in asserting, that both by his splendid volumes, and ex- 
tensive practice among the first classes, he has supported the credit of this country for 
taste in laying out grounds. Repton was born near Felbrig, in Norfolk, and died at 
Hare-street, in Essex, in 1817. 

350. The principal country-seats which display the modern taste of laying out grounds, 
will be found arranged in the order of the counties in Part IV. of this work, Book I. 
and Chapter II. 

SUBSECT. 2. Gardening in Scotland, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

351. Gardening was introduced into Scotland by the Romans, and revived by the reli- 
gious establishments of the dark ages. 

352. In the sixth century, is supposed to have been formed, the garden of the abbey 
of Icolmkill, in the Hebrides. It is thus noticed by Dr. Walker (Essays, vol. ii. p. 5.), 
from its remains as they appeared in the end of the eighteenth century. " On a plain 
adjoining the gardens of the abbey, and surrounded by small hills, there are vestiges of a 
large piece of artificial water, which has consisted of several acres, and been contrived both 
for pleasure and utility. Its banks have been formed by art into walks, and though now 
a bog, you may perceive the remains of a broad green terrace passing through the middle 
of it, which has been raised considerably above the water. At the place where it had 
been dammed up, and where there are the marks of a sluice, the ruins of a mill are still 
to be seen, which served the inhabitants of the abbey for grinding the corn. Pleasure- 
grounds of this kind," adds Dr. Walker, " and a method of dressing grain still un- 
practised in these remote islands, must, no doubt, have been considered in early times, 
as matters of very high refinement." 

353. In the twelfth century, Chalmers informs us (Caledonia Depicta, vol. i. p. 801.), 
" David I. had a garden at the base of Edinburgh castle. This king," he adds, 
" had an opportunity of observing the gardens of England under Henry I. when Norman 
gardening would, no doubt, be prevalent;" and we may reasonably suppose that he was 
prompted by his genius to profit from the useful, and to adopt the elegant, in that agree- 
able art. 

354. During the greater part of the fourteenth century, Scotland was in a state of intes- 
tine war ; but in that succeeding, it is generally believed architecture and gardening 
were encouraged by the Jameses. James I., as we have seen (319.) admired the gar- 
dens of Windsor, in 1420, and having been in love there, and married an English woman, 
would in all probability imitate them. He is described in the Chronicles of Scotland as 
" an excellent man, and an accomplished scholar. At his leisure hours he not only in- 
dulged himself in music, in reading and writing, in drawing and painting ; but when 
the circumstances of time and place, and the taste and manners of those about him made 
it proper, he would sometimes instruct them in the art of cultivating kitchen and pleasure 


gardens, and of planting and engrafting different kinds of fruit-trees. " (Scoticron. lib. xvi. 
cap. 30.) 

355. In the middle of the fifteenth century, James III. is described by Pitscottie, as 
" delighting more in music and policie (probably from the French polir, to remove, level, 
or improve ; or from a corruption of se polir, to improve one's self, levelling and smooth- 
ing the grounds about a house, being naturally tlje first step after it is built), and build- 
ing, than he did in the government of his realm." The general residence of this mo- 
narch was Stirling Castle ; and a piece of waste surface in the vale below is said to have 
been the site of the royal gardens. Enough remains to justify a conjecture, that at this 
early period they displayed as much skill as those of any other country. We allude 
to a platform of earth resembling a table, surrounded by turf seats, or steps rising in gra- 
dation, the scene, no doubt, of rural festivities. 

356. In the middle of the sixteenth century, the Regent Murray had a garden in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, which still exists. It contains some venerable pear-trees, 
a magnificent weeping thorn-tree of great age, and the remains of elm-bowers, which 
have doubtless in their time sheltered the fair queen of Scots, but the interwoven boughs 
of which now appear in the shape of fantastically bent trunks, thin of spray and leaves. 
(Hort. Tour, &c. p. 226.) 

357. There are various remains of gardens of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Scotland. 
At the palace of Falkland is a large square enclosure, on a dull flat, in which there 
exist only a few stunted ash-trees, though the boundary stone wall is still a formidable 
fence. The gardens of Holyrood House appear to have been exceedingly confined ; the 
boundary wall only remains, and there are some indications of the rows of trees which 
stood in the park, which seems to have extended to the base of the adjoining hill, Arthur's 
Seat. The palace of Scone, we learn from Adanson, a poet of the seventeenth century, 
was surrounded by " gardens and orchards, flowers and fruits;" and the park, in which 
are still some ancient trees, " abounded in the hart and fallow deer." Generally a few 
old trees in rows adjoin the other royal residences, and oldest baronial castles ; but they 
give no indications of the extent to which art was carried in their disposition. 

358. During the seventeenth century, a few gardens must have been formed in Scot- 
land. About the end of this century, the grounds of the Duke of Hamilton were 
planted, in all probability by a French artist. The design of Chatelherault, an orna- 
mental appendage to the palace of Hamilton, is named after, and formed in imitation of, 
the residence of that illustrious family in France, laid out by Le Notre. 

359. About the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Earl of Lauderdale is said to 
have sent plans, sections, and sacks of earth from his domain at Hatton, to London and 
Wise, in London ; and these artists, it is added, formed a plan, and sent down a gardener 
to superintend its execution. Hatton is still a fine old place ; but has long changed its 

360. English artists were called into Scotland during this century. Switzer, Laurence, and Langley 
mention in their works, that they were frequently called into Scotland to give plans of improvement. 
Switzer appears to have resided a considerable time in Edinburgh, as he there published, in 1717, a tract 
on draining, and other useful and agricultural improvements. The Earls of Stair and Haddington (who 
wrote on trees), both great planters, about this time, probably consulted them ; as would, perhaps, Fletcher 
of Saltoun, the proprietors of Dundas Castle, Barnton, Saughton Hall, Gogar, and particularly Cragie 
Hall, a residence laid out with much art and taste, and next in rank, in these respects, to Hatton. New 
Liston, Dalkeith House, Hopeton House, and various other places near Edinburgh, are also in Switzer's 
style. New Liston and Hopeton House, planted, we believe, from 1735 to 1740, were probably the last 
considerable seats laid out in the ancient style in Scotland. 

361. The modern style was first introduced into Scotland by the celebrated LordKames, 
who, some time between 1740 and 1750, displayed it on his own residence at Blair 
Drummond. An irregular ridge, leading from the house, was laid out in walks, com- 
manding a view, over the shrubs on the declivity, of portions of distant prospect. One 
part of this scene was composed entirely of evergreens, and formed an agreeable winter- 
garden. Lord Kames did not entirely reject the ancient style, either at Blair Drum- 
mond, or in his Essay on Gardening and Architecture, published in the Elements of 
Criticism. In that short but comprehensive essay, he shows an acquaintance with the 
Chinese style, and the practice of Kent ; admits both of absolute and relative beauty 
as the objects of gardening and architecture, and from this complex destination, accounts 
for that difference and wavering of taste in these arts, " greater than in any art that has 
but a single destination." (Vol. ii. p. 431. 4th edit. 1769.) 

Lord Kames's example in Scotland may be compared to that of Hamilton or Shenstone in England ; it 
was not generally followed, because it was not generally understood. That the Elements of Criticism, 
though long since obsolete as such, tended much to purify the taste of the reading class, there can be no 
doubt. Every person also admired Blair Drummond ; but as every country-gentleman could not bestow 
sufficient time and attention to gardening to be able to lay out his own place, it became necessary to have 
recourse to artists ; and, as it happened, those who were employed had acquired only that habit of me- 
chanical imitation which copies the most obvious forms, without understanding the true merits of the 
original. In short, they were itinerant pupils of Brown, or professors in his school, who resided in Scot- 
land ; and thus it is, that after commencing in the best taste, Scotland continued, till within the last 
twenty years, to patronise the very worst. 

362. The grounds of Duddingston House may be referred to as o contrast to the style of 



Blair Drummond, and a proof of what we have asserted in regard to the kind of modern 
landscape-gardening introduced to Scotland. This seat was laid out about the year 1750. 
The architect of the house was Sir William Chambers ; the name of the rural artist, 
whose original plans we have examined, was Robertson, nephew to the king's gardener 
of that name, sent down from London. We know of no example in any country of so 
perfect a specimen of Brown's manner, nor of one in which the effect of the whole, and 
the details of every particular part, are so consistent, and co-operate so well together in 
producing a sort of tame, spiritless beauty, of which we cannot give a distinct idea. It 
does not resemble avowed art, nor yet natural scenery ; it seems, indeed, as if nature 
had commenced the work and changed her plan, determining no longer to add to her 
productions those luxuriant and seemingly superfluous appendages which produce 
variety and grace. The trees here, all planted at the same time, and of the same age, 
seem to grow by rule. The clumps remind us of regularly tufted perukes. The waters 
of the tame river neither dare to sink within, nor to overflow its banks ; the clumps keep 
at a respectful distance ; and the serpentine turns of the roads and walks, seem to hint 
that every movement to be made here, must correspond. 

The extent of Duddingston, we suppose, may exceed 200 acres. The house is placed on an eminence in 
the centre, from which the grounds descend on three sides, and on the remaining side continue on a level 
till they reach the boundary belt. This belt completely encircles the whole ; it is from 50 to 200 feet wide, 
with a turf drive in the middle. One part near the house is richly varied by shrubs and flowers, and kept 
as garden-scenery ; in the rest the turf is mown, but the ground untouched. A string of wavy canals, on 
different levels, joined by cascades, enter at one side of the grounds, and taking a circuitous sweep through 
the park, pass off at the other. This "water creates occasion for Chinese bridges, islands, and cascades. 
The kitchen-garden and offices are placed behind the house, and concealed by a mass of plantation. 
Over the rest of the grounds are distributed numerous oval unconnected clumps, and some single trees. 
In the drive are several temples and covered seats, placed in situations where are caught views of the 
house, sometimes seen between two clumps, and at other times between so many as to form a perspective 
or avenue. There is also a temple on the top of a hill, partly artificial, which forms the object from 
several of these seats, and from other open glades or vistas left in the inside of the belt. The outer margin 
of this plantation is every where kept perfectly entire, so that there is not a single view but what is 
wholly the property of the owner ; unless in one instance, where the summit of Arthur's Seat, an adjoining 
hill, is caught by the eye from one part of the belt, over the tops of the trees in its opposite periphery. 
That this place has, or had in 1790, great beauties, we do not deny; but they are beauties ot a peculiar 
kind, not of general nature not the beauties of Blair Drummond, or such as a liberal and enlightened 
mind would desire to render general ; but in great part such as Sir William Chambers holds up to ridicule 
in his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (see his Introduction, p. 611.), and Price, in his Essays on 
the Picturesque. Yet Duddingston may be reckoned the model of all future improvements in Scotland, till 
within the last twenty years. The same artist laid out Livingston, effected some improvements at Hope- 
ton House, Dalkeith, Dalhousie, Niddry, the Whim, Moredun, various other places near Edinburgh, and 
some in Ayrshire. 

363. No artist of note had hitherto arisen in Scotland in this department of gardening, 
if we except James Ramsay. This person was employed by Robertson, in Ayrshire, as 
a mason, but soon displayed a* taste for disposing of verdant scenery, and afterwards 
became a landscape-gardener of considerable repute. He gave ground-plans and draw- 
ings in perspective, both of the buildings and verdant scenery. Leith Head, a small 
place near Edinburgh, is entirely his creation. His style was that of Brown, in his 
waters and new plantations near the house ; but he was less attached to the belt, his 
clumps were not always regular, and he endeavoured to introduce a portion of third 
distance into all his views. Ramsay died at Edinburgh in 1794, and this record of his 
taste is due to his memory. 

364. English professors of the modern style have occasionally visited Scotland, and some 
regularly. From nearly the first introduction of the new style to the present time, 
annual journeys have been made into Scotland from the county of Durham by the late 
White, and subsequently by his son. White, senior, we believe, was a pupil of Brown, 
of much information on country-matters, and generally respected in Scotland. Of his 
professional talents we have said enough, when we have mentioned their source. Air- 
thrie, near Stirling, and Bargany, in Ayrshire, are the principal productions of this 
family. In what respects the talents of White, junior, differ from those of his father, or 
whether they differ at all, we are not aware ; though we think it highly probable they 
will partake of the general improvement of the age. We have already mentioned that 
none of the eminent English artists had ever been in Scotland ; but that Valleyfield 
was laid out from Repton's designs. Nasmyth, an eminent landscape-painter in Edin- 
burgh, and G. Parkyns, author of Monastic Remains, have occasionally given designs 
for laying out grounds in Scotland, both in excellent taste.' 

The country-seats of Scotland are elsewhere described. (Part IV. Book I. Chap. III.) 

SUBSECT. 3. Gardening in Ireland, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

365. Of the ancient state of gardening in Ireland very little is known. A short Essay 
on the Rise and Progress of Gardening in Ireland, by J. C. Walker, is given in the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy (vol. xiv. part 3.) from which we shall glean 
what is available for oar purpose. 

366. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, Fynnes Morrison, "a minute observer," travelled 


through that kingdom. He does not once mention a garden as appertaining either to a 
castle or to a monastery ; he only observes, " that the best sorts of flowers and fruits are 
much rarer in Ireland than in England ; which, notwithstanding, is more to be attri- 
buted to the inhabitants than to the ayre." In an inedited account of a Tour in 1634, 
also quoted by Walker (Trans. R. L A.\ Bishop Usher's palace is said to have a " pretty 
neat garden." 

367. Of remains of ancient gardens in Ireland we may quote a few examples. Some 
of the largest sculptured evergreens are at Bangor, in the county of Down ; and at 
Thomas-town, in the county of Tipperary, are the remains of a hanging garden, formed 
on the side of a hill, in one corner of which is a verdant amphitheatre, once the scene of 
occasional dramatic exhibitions. Blessington gardens, if tradition may be relied on, 
were laid out during the reign of James II. by an English gentleman, who had left" his 
estate at Byfleet in Sussex, to escape the persecution of Cromwell. In King William's 
time, knots of flowers, curious edgings of box, topiary works, grassy slopes, and other 
characteristics of the Dutch style, came into notice. Rowe and Bullein, Englishmen, 
who had successively nurseries at Dublin, were in these days the principal rural artists 
of Ireland; though Switzer and Laurence, as well as Batty Langley, occasionally 
visited that country. 

368. The first attempts to introduce the modem style into Ireland are supposed to have 
been made by Dr. Delany at Delville near Glassnevin, about the year 1720. Swift has 
left a poetical description of these scenes. Dr. Delany, Walker says, impressed a vast 
deal of beauty on a very small spot of ground ; softened the obdurate straight line of 
the Dutch into a curve, melted the terrace into a sloping bank, and opened the walk to 
catch the vicinal country. Walsh (History of Dublin, 1820) says, these grounds retain 
all the stiffness of the old garden. As there existed an intimacy between Pope and 
Delany, it is supposed the former may have assisted his Irish friend. This example 
appears to have had the same sort of influence in Ireland, that the gardening of Lord 
Kames had in Scotland. It gave rise to a demand for artists of the new school ; and the 
market was supplied by such as came in the way. Much less, however, was done in that 
country, partly from the abundance of picturesque scenery in many districts, and partly 
from other obvious causes. Mount Shannon, near Limerick, the seat of the late Chan- 
cellor Clare, is said to have been laid out from his lordship's designs, and the recent 
improvements at Charleville forest, where one of the most comfortable and magnificent 
castles in Ireland has been executed by Johnson of Dublin, were the joint productions 
of Lord and Lady Charleville. Walker mentions Marino, Castle-town, Carton, 
Curraghmore, the retreat of St. Woolstans, and Moyra, as exhibiting the finest garden, 
scenery in Ireland. Powerscourt, and 

Mucross, near the lakes, are reckoned the 
most romantic residences, and are little in- 
debted to art. St. Valori, Walker's own 
seat, is a beautiful little spot near the well- 
known village of Bray. Miss Plumtree 
mentions Blarney Castle (Jig. 31.), as one 
of the most enchanting spots in the world. 
There have been delightful shrubberies, 
which might easily be restored. The cas- 
tle stands on a rock not very high, and 
below are fine meadows, with an ample 
stream flowing through them ; there is 
plenty of wood, and a considerable lake at 
a short distance from the house, which furnishes excellent trt/ut : in short, nature has left 
little for art to supply; and yet this charming spot is deserted, abandoned, looking 
wholly neglected and forlorn. (Residence in Ireland, 1817, 240.) 

369. English artists professing the modern style have been but little employed in Ireland, 
the common practice being to engage a good kitchen-gardener from England, and leave 
every thing to him. Sutherland was, in 1810, the local artist of greatest repute. A. 
M'Leish has since settled in this country, and, from what we know of this artist, we 
have little doubt he will contribute, in an eminent degree, to establish and extend a 
better taste than has yet appeared there. W. T. Mackay, curator of the Trinity-college 
garden, is said to excel in laying f out grounds. Though landscape-gardeners from the 
metropolis have not been called to' Ireland, yet it has happily become not an unfrequent 
practice to employ eminent English architects, a practice, as far as taste is concerned, 
certain of being attended with the most salutary effects. 

SECT. II. British Gardening, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament. 

370. Flowers are more or less cultivated wherever gardening is practised ; but a parti- 
cular attention to this department of the art can only take place under circumstances of 

G 2 


ease, and a certain degree of refinement. A taste for fine flowers has existed in Holland 
and the Netherlands from a very remote period, and was early introduced into England ; 
but when that taste found its way to Scotland and Ireland, is much less certain. 

SUBSECT. 1. Gardening in England, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and the 
Establishment of Botanic Gardens. 

371. The taste for florists' flowers, in England, is generally supposed to have been 
brought over from Flanders with our worsted manufactures, during the persecutions of 
Philip II. ; and the cruelties of the Duke of Alva, in 1567, was the occasion of our re- 
ceiving, through the Flemish weavers, gillyflowers, carnations, and provins roses. But 
flowers and flowering shrubs were known and prized even in Chaucer's time, as appears 
from a well-known passage of that poet. An Italian poet published, in 1586, a volume 
of poems, one of which is On the Royal Garden ; from this poem it would appear that 
Queen Elizabeth was attached to the culture of flowers, but few are named either in these 
poems, or in the description of Theobald's. Parterres seem to have been introduced in 
the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and also the tulip, and damask and musk 
roses. Gerrard, who published his herbal three years before, mentions James Garnet, 
" a London apothecary, a principal collector and propagator of tulips, for twenty years 
bringing forth every season new plants of sundry colors not before seen, all which to de- 
scribe particularly were to roll Sisyphus's stone, or number the sands." 

372. One of the earliest notices which ive have of a botanic garden in England is that of 
the Duke of Somerset, at Sion House, in the beginning of this century. It was placed 
under the superintendence of Dr. Turner, whom Dr. Pulteney considers as the father of 
English botany. Turner had studied at Bologna and at Pisa, where, as we have already 
seen (91.), botanic gardens were first formed. After being some years with the Duke 
of Somerset, he retired from Sion House to Wells, where he had a rich garden, and died 
there in 1560. About this time existed the botanic gardens of Edward Saintloo, 11 
Somersetshire, James Coel, at Highgate, J. Nasmyth, surgeon to James I., and John 
de Franqueville, merchant in London. From the care of the latter, Parkinson observes, 
" is sprung the greatest store that is now flourishing in this kingdom." Gerrard had a 
fine garden in Holborn, in the middle of the sixteenth century, of which there is a cata- 
logue in the British Museum, dated 1590. This garden was eulogised by Dr. Boleyn 
and others his contemporaries. Gerrard mentions Nicholas Lete, a merchant in London, 
" greatly in love with rare and fair flowers, for which he doth carefully send into Syria, 
having a servant there, at Aleppo, and in many other countries ; for which myself, and 
the whole land are much bound unto him." The same author also gives due honor to 
Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord Edward Zouch, the patron of Lobel, who brought plants and 
seeds from Constantinople, and to Lord Hudson, Lord High Chamberlain of England, 
who, he says, " is worthy of triple honor for his care in getting, as also for his keeping 
such rare and curious things from the farthest parts of the world." (Pulteney 's Sketches, 125.) 

373. In the beginning oft/ie seventeenth century, flowers and curious plants appear to 
have been very generally cultivated. Platt's Paradise of Flora, which is the first book 
that treats expressly on flowers, appeared in 1600. Parkinson published his Paradisus 
in 1629. " A modern florist," observes Dr. Pulteney, " wholly unacquainted with the 
state of the art at the time Parkinson wrote, would perhaps be surprised to find that his 
predecessors could enumerate, besides 16 described as distinct species, 1 20 varieties of 
the tulip, 60 anemones, more than 90 of the narcissus tribe, 50 hyacinths, 50 carnations, 
20 pinks, 30 crocuses, and above 40 of the Iris genus." (Sketches, &c. vol. ii. 123.) The 
laurel, or bay-cherry, was then very rare, and considered as a tender plant, being de- 
fended " from the bitterness of the winter by casting a blanket over the top thereof," and 
the larch-tree was only reared up as a curiosity. Greenhouse-plants were placed in 
cellars, where they lost their leaves, but those of such as survived shot out again in spring 
when removed to the open air. 

Flowers were much cultivated in Norwich, from the time of the Flemish weavers settling there. Sir J. 
R Smith (Linn. Trans. voL ii. p. 296:) mentions a play called Rhodon and Iris, which was acted at the 
florists' feast at Norwich, in 16.jT7 ; a proof that the culture of flowers was in great estimation there at that 
time ; and in 1671 Evelyn mentions Sir Thomas Brown's garden there, as containing a paradise of rarities, 
and the gardens of all the inhabitants as full of excellent flowers. From Norwich the love of flowers 
seems to have spread to other manufacturing establishments ; and the taste still continues popular, not 
only there, but among the weavers in Spitalflelds, Manchester, Bolton, and most of the commercial towns 
in Lancashire, and many in Cheshire, Derbyshire, and other adjoining counties. A florists' society is 
established in almost every town and village in the northern district. These societies have annual shows*, 
as in London and Norwich ; and a book, called The Flower Book, is published annually in Manchester, 
containing an account of their transactions, the prizes which have been given, and the new flowers which 
have been originated. 

Ham House, the Duke of Lauderdale's, had famous parterres and orangeries at this time. Sir Henry 
Capell had a very fine orangery and myrtilleum at Kew ; and Lady Clarendon, who, Evelyn informs us", 
was well skilled in flowers, had an ample collection at Swallowfield in Berkshire. 

In the garden of William Coyte, of Stubbers, in Essex, the yucca blossomed in 1604, for the first time in 
England. (Lobel, Hist. Plant.} 

The place of Royal Herbalist was created by Charles I. ; and Parkinson was appointed to fill it. Queen 


Mary appointed Plunkenet to be his successor, " a man distinguished for botanical knowledge." Under 
this botanist's directions, collectors were despatched to the Indies in search of plants. 

Tradescant's botanic garden at Lambeth was established previously to 1629. Tradescant was a Dutch- 
man, and gardener to Charles I. In 1656, his son published a catalogue of this garden, and of the museum, 
which both of them had collected. Weston observes (Catalogue of Authors on Gardening, 30) that the 
garden having for some years lain waste, on the 1st of May, 1749, William Watson, F. R. S., having 
visited its site, found many of the exotics remaining, having endured two great frosts in 1729 and 1740. A 
furious account of the garden is given by Sir W. Watson, in the Philosophical. Transactions, (vol. xl.) 
Tradescant left his museum to E. Ashmoll, who lodged in his house. Mrs-. Tradescant contested the will, 
and on losing the cause drowned herself. 

The Chelsea botanic garden seems to have existed about the middle of this century. In 1685, Evelyn 
visited Watts, their head gardener. " What was very ingenious, was the subterranean heat conveyed by 
means of a stove under the conservatory, all vaulted with brick, so that he has the door and windows open 
in the hardest frosts, excluding only the snow." (Memoirs, &c. vol. i. 606.) In Watts's garden was a tulip- 
tree, and in the hot-house a tea-shrub. (Ray.) The ground occupied by this garden was rented from Sir 
Hans Sloane ; who afterwards, in 1722, when applied to for its renewal, granted it in perpetuity at 51 a 
year, and fifty new plants to be presented annually to the Royal Society, till their number amounted 'to 
two thousand. 

Parlous private botanic gardens existed at the end of this century. That of the celebrated naturalist 
Ray, in Essex, Dr. Uvedale's, at Enfield, and especially that of the Duchess of Beaufort, at Badmington. 
were rich in plants ; but that of Sir Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, surpassed them all. 

374. A public botanic garden in England was first founded at Oxford, in 1632, nearly 
a century after that at Padua. This honor was reserved for Henry, Earl of Danby, who 
gave for this purpose five acres of ground, built green-houses and stoves, and a house 
for the accommodation of the gardener, endowed the establishment, and placed in it, as 
a supervisor, Jacob Bobart, a German, from Brunswick, who lived, as Wood tells us, in 
the garden-house, and died there in 1697. The garden contained at his death above 
1600 species. Bobart's descendants are still in Oxford, and known as coach-proprietors. 

375. Green-houses and plant-stoves seem to have been introduced or invented about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. They were formed in the Altorf garden in 1 645. 
Evelyn mentions Loader's orangery in 1662, and the green-house and hot-house at 
Chelsea are mentioned both by that author and Ray in 1685. 

376. During the ivhole of the eighteenth century, botany was in a flourishing state in 
England. Previously to this period the number of exotics in the country pro- 
bably did not exceed 1000 species : during this century above 5000 new species were 
introduced from foreign countries, besides the discovery of a number of new native 
plants. Some idea may be formed of the progress of gardening, in respect to ornamental 
trees and shrubs, from the different editions of Miller's dictionary. In the first edition 
in 1724, the catalogue of evergreens amounts only to twelve. The Christmas-flower 
and aconite were then rare, and only to be obtained at Fairchild's at Hoxton : only 
seven species of geraniums were then known. Every edition of this work contained 
fresh additions to the botany of the country. In the preface to the eighth and last edition, 
published in 1768, the number of plants cultivated in England is stated to be more than 
double those which were known in 1731. Miller was born in 1691 ; his father was 
gardener to the Company of Apothecaries, and he succeeded his father in that office in 
1722, upon Sir Hans Sloane's liberal donation of near four acres to the Company. He 
resigned his office a short time before his decease, which took place in 1771, and was 
succeeded by Forsyth, who was succeeded by Fairbairn, and the last by Anderson the 
present curator. 

377. As great encouragers of botany during this century, Miller mentions in 1724, 
the Duke of Chandos, Compton Speaker of the House of Commons, Dubois of Mitcham, 
Compton Bishop of London, Dr. Uvedale of Enfield, Dr. Lloyd of Sheen. Dr. James 
Sherrard, apothecary, had one of the richest gardens England ever possessed at Eltham. 
His gardener, Knowlton, was a zealous botanist, and afterwards, when in the service of 
the Earl of Burlington, at Londesborough, discovered the globe conferva. Dr. 
Sherrard's brother was consul at Smyrna, and had a fine garden at Sedokio, near that 
town, where he collected the plants of Greece and many others. The consul died in 
1728, and the apothecary in 1737. Fairchild, Gordon, Lee, and Gray of Fulham, 
eminent nurserymen, introduced many plants during the first half of the century. The 
first three corresponded with Linnaeus. Collinson, a great promoter of gardening and 
botany, had a fine garden at Mill-hill. Richard Warner had a good botanic garden at 
Warnford Green. The Duke of Argyle, styled a tree-monger by Lord Walpole, had 
early in this century a garden at Hounslow, richly stocked with exotic trees. A num- 
ber of other names of patrons, gardeners, and authors, equally deserving mention, are 
necessarily omitted. Dr., afterwards Sir John Hill, had a botanic garden at Bayswater ; 
he began to publish in 1751, and produced numerous works on plants and flowers, 
which had considerable influence in rendering popular the system of Linnaeus, and 
spreading the science of horticulture, and a taste for ornamental plants. In 1775 Drs. 
Fothergill and Pitcairn sent out Thomas Blaikie (170.) to collect plants in Switzer- 
land, and this indefatigable botanist sent home all those plants mentioned in the Hortus 
Kewensis, as introduced by the two Doctors. 

378. During the latter part of the eighteenth century, Hibbert, of Chalfont, and 

G 3 


Thornton, of Clapham, opulent commercial men, may be mentioned as great encouragers 
of exotic botany. The collection of Heaths, Banksias, and other Cape and Botany Bay 
plants, in the Clapham garden, was most extensive ; and the flower-garden, one of the 
best round the metropolis. The Duke of Marlborough, while Marquis of Blandford, 
formed a collection of exotics at White Knights, surpassed by none in the kingdom. 
(Historical Account of White Knights, 8cc. 1820, quarto.) R. A. Salisbury, one of our 
first botanists, and a real lover of gardening, had a fine garden and rich collection 
at Chapel Allerton, in Yorkshire. Subsequently, he possessed the garden formed by 
Collinson at Mill Hill. Choice collections of plants were formed at the Earl of Tan- 
kerville's at Walton, the Duke of Northumberland's at Sion House, at the Comte 
de Vandes' at Bayswater, Vere's at Knightsbridge, and many other places. Lee, Lod- 
dige, Knight, Colville, and several other nurserymen, might be named as greatly 
promoting a taste for plants and flowers by their well-stocked nurseries and publications. 
Of these the Heathery, the Botanical Cabinet, and the Genus Protea, are well known 
and esteemed works. A grand stimulus to the culture of ornamental plants, was given 
by the publication of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, begun in 1787, and still continued 
in monthly numbers. Here the most beautiful hardy and tender plants were figured 
and described, and useful hints as to their culture added. Other works by Sowerby, 
Edwards, Andrews, &c. of a similar nature, contributed to render very general a know- 
ledge of, and taste for plants, and a desire of gardens and green-houses, to possess these 
plants in a living state. Maddocks's Florists' Directory, which appeared in 1792, re- 
vived a taste for florists' flowers, which has since been on the increase. 

379. The royal gardens at Kew were begun about the middle of this century, 
under the auspices of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of George III. The exotic 
department of that garden was established-chiefly through the influence of the Marquis 
of Bute, a great encourager of botany and gardening, who placed it under the care of 
W. Alton, who had long been assistant to Miller, of the Chelsea garden. Sir John 
Hill published the first Hortus Keivensis in 1768, but subsequent editions have been 
published under the direction of Aiton, the father and son ; the last, in five volumes, 
the joint production of Dr. Dryander and R. Brown, is reckoned a standard work. A 
compendium in a pocket-volume has been published, which enumerates about 10,000 
species. Sir Joseph Banks gave the immense collections of plants and seeds obtained in 
his voyages to this garden, and this example has been followed by most travellers, so that 
-it is now the richest in England, as far as respects its catalogue, though it is generally 
believed a greater, or at least, an equal number of species are actually cultivated in the 
botanic garden of Liverpool. 

380. The Cambridge botanic garden was founded about the middle of the eighteenth 
century by Dr. Walker. It has chiefly become celebrated for the useful catalogue of 
plants (Hortus Cantabrigiensis) published by Donn, its late curator. The garden is 
small, and never at any one time could contain all the plants, to the number of 9000, 
enumerated in that work. But if ever introduced there, that circumstance is supposed 
to justify their insertion in the catalogue. 

381. The nineteenth century has commenced with the most promising appearances 
as to floriculture and botany. The Linnsean and Horticultural Societies of London 
have been established ; and florists' societies are increasing ; and some other gardening 
and botanical associations forming in the counties. The number of plant-collectors sent 
out is greatly increased ; and not only do societies and public bodies go to this expense, 
but even private persons and nursery-men. The botanic gardens of Liverpool and Hull 
have been established, and others are in contemplation. 

382. The Liverpool garden owes its origin to the celebrated W. Roscoe. It was begun 
in 1803, and a catalogue published in 1808 by Shepherd, the curator, containing above 
6000 species. 

SUBSECT. 2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the Culture of Flowers and tJie 
Establishment of Botanic Gardens. 

383. A taste for florists' flowers, it is conjectured, was first introduced into Scotland 
by the French weavers, who took refuge in that country in the seventeenth century, and 
were established in a row of houses, called Picardy-row, in the suburbs of Edinburgh. 
It seems to have spread with the apprentices of these men to Dunfermline, Glasgow, 
Paisley, and other places ; for in Scotland, as in England, it may be remarked, that 
wherever the silk, linen, or cotton manufactures, are carried on by manual labor, the 
operators are found to possess a taste for, and to occupy part of their leisure time in the 
culture of flowers. 

384. The original botanic garden of Edinburgh took its rise about the year 1680, from 
the following circumstances : " Patrick Murray, Baron of Livingston, a pupil of Dr., 
afterwards Sir Andrew Balfour, in natural history, formed a collection of 1000 plants 
at Livingston ; but soon afterwards dying abroad, Dr. Balfour had his collection trans- 


ferred to Edinburgh, and there uniting it with his own, founded the botanic garden. 
It had no fixed support for some time ; but at length the city of Edinburgh allotted a 
piece of ground near the College-church, for a public garden, and appointed a salary for 
its support out of the revenues of the University." (Walker's Essays, 358.) In 1767, 
the garden was removed to a more eligible situation, considerably enlarged, and a very 
magnificent range of hot-houses erected under the direction of Dr. John Hope, who first 
taught the Linnaean system in Scotland. This garden, in general arrangement, and in the 
order in which it is kept, is inferior to none in the kingdom, though at Kew and Liver- 
pool, the collection of plants is necessarily much greater. The collection in 1812, 
amounted to upwards of 4000 species, among which are some rare acclimated exotic 
trees, which have attained a great size. This garden was again removed, in 1822, to a 
situation including sixteen acres, where it is established with extensive hot-houses, and 
other desiderata, in a very superior style. 

385. In the early part of the eighteenth century, this taste was introduced to the higher 
classes by James Justice, F. R. S., who had travelled on the continent, and spared no 
expense in procuring all the best sorts of florists' flowers from Holland, and many 
curious plants from London. Such was his passion for gardening, that he spent the 
greater part of his fortune at Crichton, near Edinburgh, where he had the finest garden, 
and the only pine-stove in Scotland, and the largest collection of auriculae, as he informs 
us, in Europe. In 1755, he published The Scots Gardener's Director, esteemed an ori- 
ginal work, and containing full directions, from his own experience, for the culture of 
choice flowers. About the end of this century, florists' societies which had existed 
before, but declined with the decline of gardeners' lodges, were revived in Edinburgh ; 
and there are now several in Glasgow, Paisley, and other parts of the country. Those 
at Paisley are considered remarkable for the skill and intelligence of their members, and 
the fine pinks and other flowers produced at their shows. (Gen. Rej). of Scot. App. to 
chap. 2.) The Edinburgh Florists' Society gave rise to the Caledonian Horticultural 
Society, which was established in 1809, and has greatly promoted this and other branches 
of gardening in Scotland. 

386. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the Marquis of Bute had a rich botanic 
garden in the island from which he takes his title. Towards the end, a sale botanic gar- 
den was formed at Forfar, by Mr. George Donn, a well-known botanist ; and another at 
Monkwood, in Ayrshire, by Mr. James Smith, which contains about 3500 species, 
chiefly indigenous. At Dalbeth, near Glasgow, T. Hopkirk, a wealthy commercialist, 
also maintained a respectable assemblage of natives. 

387. The nineteenth century will probably witness a great degree of progress in botany 
nd floriculture in Scotland. Notwithstanding the example of Justice in 1750, and the 

opening of the new botanic garden, with a tolerable collection in 1782, a taste for col- 
lections of plants can hardly be said to have existed among the higher classes in Scotland, 
previously to the present century. Flowers, either gathered, or in pots, were rarely pur- 
chased by the inhabitants of the capital, and not at all by those of any of the provincial 
towns. One, or at most, two green-houses might be said to have supplied all the wants 
of Edinburgh, till within the last twenty years, and the demand, though increased, is 
still of a very limited description among the middling classes. A very complete botanic 
garden has been lately formed at Glasgow, and W. J. Hooker, F. R. S., a distinguished 
botanist, appointed professor. A new stimulus to the introduction and culture of rare 
plants will be given by a periodical work, commenced by Dr. Hooker, and devoted to 
the description of such new plants as flower in Scotland ; for variety is useful in many 
things. Such flowers and exotics as were cultivated in the gardens of country-gentlemen 
were, till within the last thirty years, grown in the borders of the kitchen-garden, or in 
the forcing-houses ; but it has now become customary to have flower-gardens and hot- 
houses expressly for plants, as in England. (See Part IV. Book I. Chap. III.) 

SUBSECT. 3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to Floriculture and Botany* 

388. Botany and flower-gardening have been much neglected in Ireland. Parterres, it 
would appear, (J. C. Walkers Hist.} came into notice during the reign of King William. 
Dr. Caleb Thrilkeld was among the first of the few who formed private botanic gardens 
for their own use, and Sir Arthur Rawdon almost the only individual who displayed 
wealth and taste in collecting exotics. Upon visiting the splendid collection of Sir Hans 
Sloane, at Chelsea, Sir Arthur, delighted with the exotics there, sent James Harlow, a 
skilful gardener, to Jamaica, who returned with a ship almost laden with plants, in a 
vegetating state. For these a hot-house was built at Moyra, in the beginning of Charles 
the Second's reign, supposed to be the first erection of that kind in Ireland. 

389. In 1712, a small collection of plants was cultivated in the garden of the Dublin 
Medical College. 

390. The botanic garden of Trinity College was established in 1786, and though small, 
yet, as Neill observes, contains a richer and more varied collection than perhaps is to be 
found any where else within the same compass. There is also a botanic garden at Cork, 



391. The botanic garden of the Dublin Society was established in 1790, chiefly through 
the exertions of Dr. Walker Wade. It contains upwards of thirty acres, delightfully 
situated, and very ingeniously arranged. 

392. There are a few private collections in Ireland ; and one of the best flower-gardens 
is that of Lord Downes, at Merville, near Dublin ; but, in general, it may be stated, that 
ornamental culture of every kind is in its infancy in that country. Something will pro- 
bably be effected by the Dublin Horticultural Society, established in 1816. 

SECT. III. British Gardening, in reject to its horticultural Productions 

393. The knowledge of culinary vegetables and cultivated fruits was first introduced to 
this country by the Romans ; and it is highly probable that the more useful sorts of the 
former, as the brassica, and onion tribe, always remained in use among the civilised parts 
of the inhabitants, since kale and leeks are mentioned in some of the oldest records, and 
the Saxon month April was called Sjrrout Kale. 

394. The native fruits of the British isles, and which, till the 13th or 14th century, must 
have been the only sorts known to the common people, are the following : small purple 
plums, sloes, wild currants, brambles and raspberries, wood strawberries, cranberries, 
black-berries, red-berries, heather-berries, elder-berries, roan-berries, haws, holly-berries, 
hips, hazel-nuts, acorns, and beech-mast. The wild apple or crab, and wild cherry, 
though now naturalised, would probably not be found wild, or be very rare in the early 
times of which we now speak. The native roots and leaves would be earth-nut, and any 
other roots not remarkably acrid and bitter ; and chenopodium, sorrel, dock, and such 
leaves as are naturally rather succulent and mild in flavor. 

395. The more delicate fruits and legumes, introduced by the Romans, would, in all 
probability, be lost after their retirement from the island, and we may trace with more 
certainty the origin of what we now possess to the ecclesiastical establishments of the 
dark ages, and during the reign in England of the Norman line, and the Plantagenets. 
!t may in general be asserted, that most of our best fruits, particularly apples and pears, 
were brought into the island by ecclesiastics in the days of monastic splendor and luxury, 
during the 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. Gardens and orchards (horti et pomariaj 
are frequently mentioned in the earliest chartularies extant ; and of the orchards many 
traces still remain in different parts of the country, in the form, not only of enclosure- 
walls and prepared fruit-tree borders, but of venerable pear-trees, some of them still 
abundantly fruitful, and others in the last stage of decay. Of the state of horticulture 
previous to the beginning of the 16th century, however, no distinct record exists. About 
that time it began to be cultivated in England, and at more recent periods in Scotland 
and Ireland. 

SUBSECT. 1. Gardening in England, in respect to its horticultural Productions. 

396. TJie earliest notice of English horticulture which we have met with, is in Gaje's 
History of Ely, and William of Malmsbury, and belongs to the twelfth century. Brithnod, 
the first abbot of Ely, in 1 107, is celebrated for his skill in gardening, and for the ex- 
cellent gardens and orchards which he made near that monastery. " He laid out very 
extensive gardens and orchards, which he filled with a great variety of herbs, shrubs, and 
fruit-trees. In a few years the trees which he planted and ingrafted, appeared at a dis- 
tance like a wood, loaded with the most excellent fruits in great abundance, and added 
much to the commodiousness and beauty of the place." (Gale's Hist, of Ely, 2. c. ii.) 
William of Malmsbury speaks of the abundance of vineyards and orchards in the vale of 
Gloucester. At Edmondsbury, a vineyard was planted for the use of the monks of that 
place, in 1140. 

397. Inthe thirteenth century (A. D. 1294), the monks of Dunstable were atmuch ex- 
pense in repairing the walls about the garden and herbary of their priory ; and the her- 
bary mentioned in Chaucer's Nonne's Priest's Tale, appears to have been well stored with 
medical herbs, shrubs, &c. Paris, in describing the backwardness of the seasons in 
1257, says, that " apples were scarce, pears still scarcer; but that cherries, plums, figs, 
and all kinds of fruits included in shells, were almost quite destroyed." (Henry's Hist. 
b. iv. chap. 5. sect. 1.) 

398. Previously to the sixteenth century, it is generally said, that some of our most com- 
mon pot-herbs, such as cabbages, were chiefly imported from the Netherlands, their cul- 
ture not being properly understood in this country. " It was not," says Hume, " till the 
end of the reign of Henry VIII. that any salads, carrots, turnips, or other edible roots, 
were produced in England. The little of these vegetables that was used, was formerly 
imported from Holland and Flanders. Queen Catherine, when she wanted a salad, was 
obliged to despatch a messenger thither on purpose." (Hist. ofEng. anno 1547.) Fuller, 
in 1660, speaking* of the gardens of Surrey, says, " Gardening was first brought into Eng- 
land for profit about seventy years ago ; before which we fetched most of our cherries 
from Holland, apples from France, and hardly had a mess of raeth-ripe peas, but from 
Holland, which were dainties for ladies ; they came so far and cost so dear. Since gar- 


dening hath crept out of Holland to Sandwich, Kent, and thence to Surrey, where 
though they have given 6 an acre and upwards, they have made their rent, lived com- 
fortable, and set many people to work." (Worthies, partiii. p. 77.) 

599. During the reign of Henry VIII., rapid steps were made in horticulture. Ac- 
cording to some authors, apricots, musk-melons, and Corinth grapes from Zante, were in- 
troduced by that monarch's gardener ; and different kinds of salad, herbs, and esculent roots 
were, about the same time first brought into the country from Flanders. Salads, how- 
ever, according to Holingshed, are mentioned during Edward IV.'s reign. Henry had 
a fine garden at his favorite palace of Nonsuch, in the parish of Cheam, in Surrey. 
Here Kentish cherries were first cultivated in England. The garden wall was fourteen 
feet high, and there were 212 fruit-trees. Leland, who wrote during this reign, informs 
us (Itinerary, &c.), that at Morle in Derbyshire, " there is as much pleasure of orchards 
of great variety of fruit, as in any place of Lancashire. The castle of Thornbury, in 
Gloucestershire, had an orchard of four acres, and there were others at Wresehill on 
the Ouse." 

400. Books on horticulture appeared towards the middle of the sixteenth century. The 
first treatise of husbandry was a translation from the French, by Bishop Grosshead, in 
1500. In 1521, appeared Arnold's Chronicles, in which is a chapter on " The crafte of 
graffynge, and plantynge, and alterynge of fruits, as well in colours as in taste." The 
first author who treats expressly on gardening is Tusser, whose Five Hundred Points of 
good Husbandrie, $-c. with divers approved Lessons on Hopps and Gardening, &c. was 
first published in 1517. 

Thomas Tusser, (Sir J. Banks in Hort. Trans, i. 150.) who had received a liberal education at Eton 
school, and at Trinity-Hall, Cambridge, lived many years as a farmer in Suffolk and Norfolk ; he after- 
wards removed to London, where he published the first edition of his work, and died in 1580. In his 
fourth edition, in 1578, he first introduced the subject of gardening, and .has given us not only a list of the 
fruits, but also of all the plants then cultivated in our gardens, either for pleasure or profit, under the fol- 
lowing heads : 

Seedes and herbes for the kychen, herbes and rootes for sallets and sawce, herbes and roots to boyle or to 
butter, strewing herbs of all sorts, herbes, branches, and flowers for windowes and pots, herbs to still in 
summer, necessarie herbs to grow in the gardens for physick, not reherst before. This list consists of 
more than 150 species. 

Of fruits he enumerates, apple-trees of all sorts, apricoches, bar-berries, bollese black and white, cherries 
red and black, chestnuts, cornet plums (probably the Cornelian cherry) ; damisens white and black, 
filberts red and white, gooseberries, grapes white and red ; grene or grass-plums, hurtil-berries (vaccinium 
vitis-idcea], medlcrs or merles, mulberries ; peaches white, red, and yellow fleshed (called also the orange- 
peach) ; peres of all sorts, peer plums, black and yellow, quince trees ; raspes, reisons (probably currants), 
small riuts ; strawberries red and white ; service trees, wardens white and red ; wallnuts, wheat plums. 

Other fruits perhaps might have been added, as the fig ; that fruit having been introduced previous to 
1534, by Cardinal Pole. The orange and pomegranate, which Evelyn, in 1700, says, had stood at Bedding, 
ton 120 years ; and the melon, which, according to Lobel, was introduced before 1570, so that on the whole, 
we had all the fundamental varieties of our present fruits in the middle of the sixteenth century. The pine- 
apple is the only exception, which was not introduced till 1690. 

401. The fertility of the soil of England was depreciated by some in Tusser 's time, 
probably from seeing the superior productions brought from Holland and France. 
Dr. Boleyn, a contemporary, defends it, saying, " we had apples, pears, plums, cherries, 
and hops of our own growth, before the importation of these articles into England by 
the London and Kentish gardeners, but that the cultivation of them had been greatly 
neglected. He refers as a proof of the natural fertility of the land to the great crop of 
sea-pease (Pisum maritimum), which grew on the beach between Orford and Aldbo- 
rough, and which saved the poor in the dearth of 1555. Oldys soon afterwards, speaking 
of Gerrard's fine garden and alluding to the alleged depreciation of our soil and climate, 
says " from whence it would appear, that our ground could produce other fruits besides 
hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts." At this time, observes Dr. Pulteney (Sketches, 
&c. 118.), "kitchen garden wares were imported from Holland, and fruits from 

402. During^ the reign of Elizabeth, horticulture appears to have been in a state of 
progress. Various works on this branch then appeared, by Didymus Mountain, Hyll, 
Mascal, Scott, Googe, &c. ; these, for the most part, are translations from the Roman 
and modem continental authors. Mascal is said to have introduced some good varieties 
of the apple. 

403. Charles I. seems to have patronised gardening. His kitchen-gardener was 
Tradescant, a Dutchman, and he appointed the celebrated Parkinson his herbalist. In 
1629, appeared the first edition of this man's great work, in folio, entitled, " Paradisi 
in sole Paradisus terrestris ; or, a Garden of all sortes of pleasant Flowers, with a Kitchen 
Garden of all manner of Herbs and Roots, and an Orchard of all sort of Fruit-bearing 
Trees, &c." This, as Neill observes (Ed. Encyc. art. Hort.}, may be considered as the 
first general book of English gardening possessing the character of originality. For the 
culture of melons, he recommends an open hot-bed on a sloping bank, covering the 
melons occasionally with straw, the method practised in the north of France at this 
day. Cauliflowers, celery, and finochio, were then great rarities. Virginia potatoes 
(our common sort) were then rare ; but Canada potatoes (our Jerusalem artichoke) were 


in common use. The variety of fruits described, or at least mentioned, appears very 
great. Of apples there are 58 sorts; of pears, 64; plums, 61 ; peaches, 21 ; nectarines, 
5 ; apricots, 6 ; cherries, no fewer than 36 ; grape-vines, 23 ; figs, 3 ; with quinces, 
medlars, almonds, walnuts, filberds, and the common small fruits. 

404. Cromwell was a great promoter of agriculture and the useful branches of gar- 
dening, and his soldiers introduced all the best improvements wherever they went. He 
gave a pension of 100/. a-year to Hartlib, a Lithuanian, who had studied husbandry in 
Flanders, and published A Letter to Dr. Beati, concerning the Defects and Remedies 
of English Husbandry, and the Legacy, both useful works. He was an author, says 
Harte, who preferred the faulty sublime, to the faulty mediocrity. He recommended 
the adoption in England of the two secrets of Flemish husbandry, that of letting farms 
on improving leases, and cultivating green crops. 

405. Charles II. being restored to the throne, introduced French gardening, and his 
gardener, Rose, Daines Barrington informs us, " planted such famous dwarfs at Hamp- 
ton Court, Carlton, and Marlborough gardens, that London, who was Rose's apprentice, 
in his Retired Gardener, published 1667, challenges all Europe to produce the like." 
Waller, the poet, in allusion to the two last gardens, describes the mall of St. James's 
park, as : 

" All with a border of rich fruit-trees crown'd." 

When Quintinye came to England to visit Evelyn, Charles II. offered him a pension to 
stay and superintend the royal gardens here; but this, says Switzer (Pref. to Ichnographia 
ruslica), he declined, and returned to serve his own master. Daines Barrington conjec- 
tures that Charles 1 1. had the first hot and ice houses ever built in this country, as at the 
installation dinner given at Windsor, on the 23d of April, 1667, there were cherries, 
strawberries, and ice-creams. These fruits, however, had been long, as Switzer states, 
raised by dung-heat by the London gardeners, and the use of ices must have long before 
been introduced from the continent. 

406. Evelyn was a distinguished patron of horticulture. On returning from his 
travels, in 1658 he published his French Gardener, and from that time to his death in 
1706 continued one of the greatest promoters of our art. In 1664, he published his 
Pomona, and Calendarium Hortense ; the latter, the first work of the kind which had 
appeared in this country. In 1658, his translation of Quintinye's work on orange-trees, 
and his Complete Gardener appeared ; and his Acetaria, in 1669, was his last work on 
this branch of gardening. Evelyn is universally allowed to have been one of the warmest 
friends to improvements in gardening and planting that has ever appeared. He is 
eulogised by Wotton, in his Reflections on Ancient and Modern Learning, as having 
done more than all former ages, and by Switzer, in his historical preface to Ichnographia 
rustica, as being the first that taught gardening to speak proper English. In his Memoirs 
by Bray, are the following horticultural notices. 

1661. Lady Brook's at Hackney ; " vines planted in strawberry borders, staked at ten feet distance. I 
saw the famous queen-pine brought from Barbadoes, and presented to his majesty." Evelyn had seen one 
four years before, and he afterwards saw the first king-pine presented at the Banquetting-house, and tasted 
of it. At Kensington Palace is a picture, in which Charles II. is receiving a pine-apple from his gardener, 
Rose, who is presenting it on his knees. 

1666. At Sir William Temple's at East Sheen, the most remarkable things " are his orangery and gar- 
dens, where the wall fruit-trees are most exquisitely nailed and trained, far better than I have noted any 
where else." Sir William has some judicious remarks on the soils and situations of gardens, in his Essay 
written in 1668. He was long ambassador at the Hague, and had the honor, as he informs us, and as 
Switzer confirms, of introducing some of our best peaches, apricots, cherries, and grapes. 

1678. At Kew Garden, (Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 17.) " Sir Henry Capel has the choicest plantation of fruit in 
England, as he is the most industrious and most understanding in it." Daines Barrington (ArchtEologia, 
viii. 122.) considers Lord Capel to have been the first person of consequence in England, who was at much 
expense in his gardens, having brought over with him many new fruits from France. 

407. During the eighteenth century, the progress of horticulture, as of every other de- 
partment of gardening was rapid. This will appear from the great number of excellent 
authors who appeared during this period, as Millar, Lawrence, Bradley, Switzer, in the 
first half; and Hitt, Abercrombie, Marshal, M'Phail, and others in the latter part of the 
period. Switzer was an artist-gardener and a seedsman, and laid out many excellent 
kitchen and fruit gardens, and built some hot-walls and forcing-houses. 

408. Forcing-houses and pine-stoves appear to have been introduced in the early part 
of the eighteenth century : but forcing by hot beds and dung placed behind walls of 
boards were, according to Switzer ( Fruit Gardener} and Lord Bacon, in use for an un- 
known length of time. 

409. The pine-apple was first successfully cultivated by Sir Matthew Decker, at Rich- 
mond, in 1719. Warner, of Rotherhithe, excelled in the culture of the vine, and raised 
from seed the red, or Warner's Hamburgh, a variety which still continues to be much 

410. In the last year of the seventeenth century, appeared a curious work, entitled, 
FruitivaUs improved by inclining them to the Horizon, by N. Facio de Doulier, F. R. S. 


This work incurred the censure of the practical authors of the day .; but founded on 
correct mathematical principles, it attracted the attention of the learned, and of some 
noblemen. Among the latter was the Duke of Rutland, and the failure of the trial of 
one of these walls, led to the earliest example which we have been able to discover of forc- 
ing grapes in England. This, Lawrence and Switzer agree, was successfully accom- 
plished at Belvoir Castle, in 1705. Switzer published the first plans of forcing-houses, 
with directions for forcing generally, in his Fruit Gardener, in 1717. 

411. The nineteenth century has commenced by extraordinary efforts in horticulture. 
The culture of exotic fruits and forcing has been greatly extended, and while in the 
middle of the eighteenth century scarcely a forcing-house was met with, excepting near 
the metropolis ; there is now hardly a garden in the most remote county, or a citizen's 
potagery, without one or more of them. The public markets, especially those of the 
metropolis, are amply supplied with forced productions, and far better pines, grapes, and 
melons are grown in Britain than in any other part of the world. 

412. The London Horticultural Society, established in 1805, has made astonishing 
exertions in procuring and disseminating fruits, culinary vegetables, and horticultural 
knowledge, and has succeeded in rendering the subject popular among the higher classes, 
and in stimulating to powerful exertion the commercial and serving gardeners. A great 
and lasting benefit conferred on gardening by this society is the publicity and illustra- 
tion which they have given by their transactions to the physiological discoveries of 
Knight, who has unquestionably thrown more light on the nature of vegetation than 
any other man, at least in this country. 

SUBSECT. 2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to its horticultural Productions. 

413. The earliest Scottish horticulturists, Chalmers remarks, were the abbots ; and their 
orchards are still apparent to the eyes of antiquaries, while their gardens can now be 
traced only in the chartularies. A number of examples of gardens and orchards are 
mentioned in writings of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries : and even at this day, Mr. 
Neill observes, " several excellent kinds of fruits, chiefly apples and pears, are to be 
found existing in gardens, near old abbies and monasteries. That such fruits were 
introduced by ecclesiastics cannot admit of a doubt. The Arbroath oslin, which seems 
nearly allied to the burr knot apple of England, may be taken as an instance ; that apple 
having been long known all round the abbey of Aberbrothwick, in Forfarshire ; and 
tradition uniformly ascribing its introduction to the monks. The great care bestowed 
on the culture of fruits, and of some culinary herbs, by the clergy and nobility, could 
not fail to excite, in some degree, the curiosity and the attention of the inhabitants in 
general ; and it may, perhaps, be said that the first impulse has scarcely spent its force ; 
for it is thus but comparatively a short time (four or five centuries) since the cultivation 
of apples, pears, cherries, gooseberries, and currants, and many of the common kitchen- 
vegetables, were introduced into this country." (On Scottish Gardens and Orchards in 
Gen. Rep. of Scot. p. 8.) 

414. About the beginning of the eighteenth century, the best garden in Scotland was 
that of J. Justice, at Crichton, near Edinburgh. From the year 1760 to 1785, that of 
Moredun claimed the priority. Moredun garden was managed by William Kyle, author 
of a work on forcing peaches and vines ; and Dr. Duncan informs us, that the late Baron 
Moncrieff, its proprietor, " used to boast, that from his own garden, within a few miles ef 
Edinburgh, he could, by the aid of glass, coals, and a good gardener, match any country 
in Europe, in peaches, grapes, pines, and every other fine fruit, excepting apples and 
pears ;" these he acknowledged were grown better in the open air in England, and the 
north of France. (Discourse to Caled. Hort. Soc. 1814.) It is observed, in another of 
Dr. Duncan's discourses to this society, that in 1817, on the 10th of June, a bunch of 
Hamburgh grapes was presented, weighing four pounds, the berries beautiful and large. 
" In June, it is added, such grapes could not be obtained at any price, either in France, 
Spain, or Italy." These facts are decisive proofs of the perfection to which horticulture 
has attained in Scotland, in spite of many disadvantages of soil, climate, and pecuniary 

415. The Scotch authors on this department of gardening are not numerous. The 
first was Reid in the beginning, and the best, Justice, about the middle of the eighteenth 
century. In the nineteenth century, Nicol's works appeared, and a variety of other writers 
in the memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

416. The nineteenth century promises greatly to increase the reputation of Scotland 
for gardeners and gardening, not only from the general improvement in consequence of 
the increase of wealth and refinement among the employers and patrons of the art ; but 
from the stimulus of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, which, by well devised com- 
potitory exhibitions and premiums, has excited a most laudable emulation among 
practical gardeners of every class. 


SUBSECT. 3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to its horticultural Productions. 

417. As far as respects hardy fruits and culinary vegetables, the gardens of the prin- 
cipal proprietors in Ireland may be considered as approaching to those of Scotland or Eng- 
land, as they are generally managed by gardeners of these countries ; but, in respect to 
exotic productions, Irish gardens are far behind those of the sister kingdoms. Indeed, it 
is only within the last fifteen years that it has become the practice to build hot-houses of 
any description in that country ; and the number of these is still very limited. The first 
forcing-house was erected in the Blessington gardens. The gardens of the minor nobi- 
lity and gentry of Ireland are poor in horticultural productions ; many content them- 
selves with cabbages and potatoes, and perhaps a few pears, onions, and apples. 

SECT. IV. British Gardening, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and Hedges. 

418. The British Isles were well stocked with timber when comparatively unpeopled with 
men. As population increased, culture extended itself, and forests were encroached on or 
eradicated, to make room for the plough or the scythe. History, as far as it goes, bears 
witness to this state of things in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

SUBSECT. 1. Gardening in England, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and 


419. The woods of England were so numerous and extensive when Domesday-book 
was compiled, as to be valued, not by the quantity of timber, but by the number of 
swine which the acorns and mast could maintain. Four hundred years after this, in the 
time <?f Edward IV., an eminent writer says, that England was then a well timbered 

420. Till the beginning of the seventeenth century, the subject of planting for timber and 
fuel, seems not to have attracted much attention as an important part of the rural eco- 
nomy of England. Sir John Norden, in his Surveyor's Dialogue, published in 1607, 
notices the subject; as had been done before by Benose, in 1538, and Fitzherbert, in 1539. 
In 1612 was published, Of planting and preserving of Timber and Fuel, an old Thrift 
newly revived, by R. Q. ; and in the following year, Directions for planting of Timber 
and Fire Wood, by Arthur Standish. Planting for timber and copse is noticed in 
Googe's Husbandry, published in 1614, and is the express subject of Manwood's Treatise 
on Forests, and their Original and Beginning, published in 1615 ; and of Rathbone's Sur- 
veyor, in 1616. It is singular that so many books on this subject should have been pub- 
lished so near together at so early a period. The reason seems to be, as professor Mar- 
tyn has observed, that a material attack was made on the forest-trees in the 27th year of 
the reign of Henry VIII., when that monarch seized on the church-lands; and from 
this time the consumption of oak-timber was continually increasing, not only in conse- 
quence of the extension of commerce, and of great additions to the royal navy, but be- 
cause it was made more use of in building houses. This alarmed both government and 
individuals. Holinshead, who lived in the reign of Elizabeth, says, that in times past 
men were contented to live in houses built of sallow, willow, &c. ; so that the use of oak 
was, in a manner, dedicated wholly unto churches, religious houses, princes' palaces, 
navigation, &c. ; but now nothing but oak is any where regarded. 

In the reign of James L, it appears that there was great store of timber, more than proportioned to the 
demand. For on a survey of the royal forests, &c. in 1608, we find that a great part of what was then in- 
tended to be sold, remained a considerable time undisposed of. 

During the civil war, in the time of Charles I., and all the time of the interregnum, the royal forests, as 
well as the woods of the nobility and gentry, suffered so much, that many extensive forests had, in a few 
years, hardly any memorial left of their existence but their names. This loss would not have operated so 
severely, had the principal nobility and gentry been as solicitous to plant with judgment, as to cut down 
their woods. 

The publication of Evelyn's Sylva, in 1664, raised a great spirit of planting, and created a new a;ra in this 
as in other branches of gardening. In his dedication to Charles II., in 1678, he observes, that he need not 
acquaint the king how many millions of timber-trees have been planted in his dominions, at the instiga- 
tion, and by the sole direction of that work. The government at that time, alarmed by the devastation 
which had been committed during the civil war, gave great attention to the increase and preservation of 
timber in the royal forests. 

421. Tree-nurseries were established during the seventeenth century. Young trees, the 
early authors inform us, were procured from the natural forests and copses, where they 
were self-sown ; but about the beginning of the seventeenth century, public nursery- 
gardens were formed, originally for fruit-trees ; but towards the end, nurserymen, as we 
learn from Switzer and Cooke, began to raise forest- trees and hedge-plants from seeds. 
The first nursery we hear of was that of Corbett, at Twickenham, mentioned by Ben 
Jonson, and the next of consequence that of London and Wise, at Brompton Park, 
already mentioned, and still continued as a nursery. 

422. During the eighteenth century, especially in the latter part, planting proceeded 
rapidly. The Society of Arts, &c. established in 1753, have greatly contributed, by 
their honorary and pecuniary rewards, to restore the spirit for planting. The republi- 
cation of Evelyn's Sylva, in a splendid manner, by Dr. Hunter, and subsequently of 


different works by Kennedy, Young, the Bishop of Llandaff, Marshall, Fontey, and 
others, has doubtless contributed to that desirable end ; and the result is, that many 
thousand acres of waste lands have been planted with timber-trees, independently of 
demesne-plantations, and such as have been made for shelter or effect. 

423. The nineteenth century has commenced with a much more scientific mode of 
planting and managing trees than formerly existed. Excellent modes of pruning have 
been pointed out and practised by Pontey, which will render future plantations much 
more valuable than where this operation and thinning have been so generally neglected 
as hitherto. 

424. At what time hedges were introduced into England is uncertain. They would proba- 
bly be first exhibited in the gardens of the Roman governors, and afterwards re-appear in 
those of the monks. From these examples, from the Roman authors on husbandry, or more 
probably from the suggestion of travellers who had seen them abroad, they would be in- 
troduced in rural economy. Marshal conjectures, that clearing out patches in the woods 
for aration, and leaving strips of bushes between them, may have given the first idea of 
a hedge, and this supposition is rendered more plausible, from the circumstance of some of 
the oldest hedges occupying so much space, and consisting of a variety of plants. However 
originated, they did not come into general use in laying out farms till after the Flemish 
husbandry was introduced in Norfolk about the end of the seventeenth century. (Kent's 
Hints, &c.) So rapidly have they increased since that period, that at the end of the 
eighteenth century they had entirely changed the face of the country. In the time of 
George I. almost every tract of country in England might have been said to consist 
of four distinct parts or kinds of scenery : 1. The houses of the proprietors, and their 
parks and gardens, and the adjoining village, containing their farmers and labourers ; 
2. The common field or intercommonable lands in aration ; 3. The common pasture, 
or waste untouched by the plough; and, 4, The scattered or circumscribing forest 
containing a mass of timber or copse. But at present these fundamental features are 
mixed and variously grouped, and the general face of the country presents one continual 
scene of garden-like woodiness, interspersed with buildings and cultivated fields, un- 
equalled in the world. 

The oldest enclosures in England are in Kent and Essex, and seem to have been formed of hawthorn, 
sloe, crab, hazel, dogwood, &c. taken from the copses, and planted promiscuously ; but now almost all 
field or fence-hedges are formed of single or double rows of hawthorn, with or without trees, planted 
at regular distances to shoot up for timber. 

SUBSECT. 2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and 


425. Scotland in ancient times was clothed with extensive tracts of wood. (Graham, 
in Gen. Re]), of Scot. vol. ii.) By various operations carried on by the hand of Nature 
and of man, this clothing has been in a great measure destroyed. The attempts to re- 
store it by planting timber, however, appear to be of recent origin. Dr. Walker seems to 
be of opinion, that the elder (Sambucus nigra] was the first barren tree planted in Scotland ; 
and that the plane or sycamore was the next. The wood of the former was in much re- 
quest for making arrows. " A few chestnuts and beeches," he adds, " were first planted 
in gardens, not long before the middle of the seventeenth century, some of which have 
remained to our times. " Notwithstanding this high authority, however, there seems to be 
good reason to conclude, that some trees which still exist were planted before the Re- 
formation ; they appear to have been introduced by the monks, being found for the most 
part in ecclesiastical establishments. Such are the Spanish chestnuts, the most of which 
are still in a thriving condition in the island of Inchmahoma, in the lake of Monteith, in 
Perthshire, where there was a priory built by David I. Some of these chestnut-trees 
measure within a few inches of eighteen feet in circumference, at six feet from the ground. 
They are probably three hundred years old, or upwards. There are planted oaks at 
Buchanan, which are apparently of the same age. 

426. The father of planting in Scotland, according to Dr. Walker, was Thomas, Earl 
of Haddington, having begun to plant Binning-wood, which is now of great extent and 
value, in 1705. But it is stated on an authority almost approaching to certainty, that 
the fine timber in the lawn at Callender House, in Stirlingshire, was planted by the Earl 
of Linlithgow and Callender, who had accompanied Charles II. in his exile, upon his 
return from the continent after the Restoration. This timber is remarkable, not only 
for its size, but for its quantity. Planting for timber became very general in Scotland 
between the years 1730 and 1760, by the exertions and example of Archibald, Duke of 
Argyle, the Duke of Athol, the Earls of Bute, Loudon, Hyndford, and Panmure, Sir 
James Nasmyth, Sir Archibald Grant, Fletcher of Saltoun, and others. It is well ascer- 
tained that Sir Archibald Grant began to plant in 1719. 

427. A great stimulus to planting in Scotland was given by the Essays of Dr. Anderson, 
published in 1784, in which the value of the larch-tree and the progress it had made 
at Dunkeld, since planted there in 1741. were pointed out. The examples and 


writings of Lord Kamcs also contributed to bring this, and every description of rural 
improvement into repute ; but the high price of timber during the war produced the 
most sensible effect as to planting. 

428. The two first tree-nurseries in Scotland were established at Edinburgh, about the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, by Malcolm, at the Water Gate, and Gordon, at 
the Fountain Bridge. To these succeeded a considerable one by Anderson and 
Leslie, about 1770. Leslie contributed to render the larch popular, and was the first 
nurseryman who ventured to erect a greenhouse. Since this period, tree-nurseries are 
nearly as common in Scotland as in England. 

429. Hedges were introduced to Scotland by some officers in Cromwell's army about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. The first were planted at Inch Buckling Brae, 
in East Lothian, and at the head of Loch Tay, in Perthshire. The former hedge was 
in existence in 1 804, and then consisted of a single row of old hawthorns. They are 
now general in all the low and tolerably fertile and sheltered parts of the country ; 
contributing with the plantations to ameliorate the climate, and greatly to improve the 

SUBSECT. 3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to the planting of Timber-trees and 


430. Trees appear to have covered Ireland in former times. " Though in every part 
of Ireland, in which I have been," observes A. Young, in 1777, (Tour, vol. ii. 2d edit.) 
" one .hundred contiguous acres are not to be found without evident signs that they 
were once wood, at least very well wooded ; yet now the greatest part of the kingdom 
exhibits a naked, bleak, dreary view, for want of wood, which has been destroyed for a 
century past with the most careless prodigality, and still continues to be cut and wasted. 
The woods yet remaining are what in England would be called copses. The gentlemen 
in that country are much too apt to think they have got timber, when in fact they have 
got nothing but fine large copse-wood." Shaw Mason, in a Statistical Survey of 
Ireland, lately published, says there were natural woods in some places in James II.'s 
time ; but he produces very few instances of artificial plantations of full growth, and 
none of older date than the middle of the seventeenth century, when it appears, that 
through the instigation of Blythe and other officers in Cromwell's army, some gentlemen 
began to plant and improve. The late Lord Chief Baron Foster was the greatest 
planter when A. Young visited Ireland, and his lordship informed the tourist that 
the great spirit for this sort of improvement began about 1749 and 1750. 

431. Hedges, as fences, were probably, as in Scotland, introduced by the officers of 
Cromwell's army. 

SECT. V. British Gardening, as empirically practised. 

432. The use of gardens, is perhaps more general in England and Scotland than in 
any other country, if we except Holland. The laborious journeyman-mechanic, whose 
residence, in large cities, is often in the air, rather than on the earth, decorates his garret- 
window with a garden of pots. The debtor deprived of personal liberty, and the pauper 
in the work-house, divested of all property in external things, and without any fixed 
object on which to place their affections, sometimes resort to this symbol of territorial 
appropriation and enjoyment. So natural it is for all to fancy they have an inherent 
right in the soil ; and so necessary to happiness to exercise the affections, by having some 
object on which to place them. 

433. Almost every cottage in England has its appendant garden, larger or smaller, and 
slovenly or neatly managed, according to circumstances. In the best districts of 
England, the principal oleraceous vegetables, some salads, herbs, flowers, and fruits are 
cultivated ; and in the remote parts of Scotland, at least potatoes and borecoles are 
planted. Tradesmen and operative manufacturers, who have a permanent interest in 
their cottages, have generally the best cottage-gardens ; and many of them, especially at 
Norwich, Manchester, and Paisley, excel in the culture of florists' flowers. 

434. The gardens of farmers are larger, but seldom better managed than those of the 
common cottagers, and not often so well as those of the operative manufacturers in 
England. They are best managed in Kent and in East Lothian. 

435. The gardens and grounds of citizens, who have country-houses, may be, in size, 
from an eighth of an acre to a hundred acres or upwards. Such a latitude, it may 
easily be conceived, admits of great variety of kitchen-gardens, hot-houses, flower-gar- 
dens, and pleasure-grounds. They are, in general, the best managed gardens in Britain, 
and constitute the principal scenery, and the greatest ornament of the neighbourhood 
of every large town. Those round the Metropolis, Liverpool, and Edinburgh are 

436. The gardens of independent gentlemen of middling fortune vary considerably in 
dimension. Few of the kitchen-gardens are under an acre, the flower-garden may 
contain a fourth or a third of an acre, and the pleasure-ground from three to ten or 


twelve acres. The lawn or park varies from thirty or forty to three or four hundred 
acres. The whole is in general respectably kept up, though there are many exceptions 
arising from want of taste, of income, or engagements in other pursuits on the part of 
the proprietor ; or restricted means, slovenliness, and want of taste and skill in the 
head gardener. These gardens abound in every part of every district of Britain, in 
proportion to the agricultural population. 

437. The first-rate gardens of Britain belong chiefly to the extensive land-holders ; but 
in part also to wealthy commercial men. The kitchen-gardens of this class may 
include from three to twelve acres, the flower-garden from two to ten acres, the pleasure- 
ground from twenty to one hundred acres, and the park from five hundred, to five 
thousand acres. Excepting in the cases of minority, absence of the family, or pecu- 
niary embarrassments, these gardens are kept up in good style. Thev are managed 
by intelligent head gardeners, with assistants for the different departments", and appren- 
tices and journeymen as operatives. A few of such residences are to be found in 
almost every county of England, in most of those in Scotland, and occasionally in 

488. The royal gardens of England cannot be greatly commended ; they are in no 
respect adequate to the dignity of the kingly office. That at Kew has been already 
mentioned as containing a good collection of plants ; but neither this nor any of the 
other royal gardens are at all kept in order as they ought to be, not on account of want 
of skill in the royal gardeners, but for want of support from their employers. 

439. Gardens for public recreation are not very common in Britain ; but of late a con- 
siderable specimen has been formed at London in the Regent's Park, an extensive 
equestrian promenade, and one at Edinburgh on the Calton Hill, of singular 
variety of prospect. There are also squares and other walks, and equestrian promenades, 
in the metropolis, and other large towns ; but in respect to this class of gardens, they 
are much less in use in Britain than on the continent, for Britons are comparatively 
domestic and solitary animals. 

440. Of gardens for public instruction, there are botanic gardens attached to the princi- 
pal universities and experimental gardens belonging to the London and Edinburgh hor- 
ticultural societies. 

441. Commercial gardens. are very numerous in Britain, arising from the number, 
magnitude, and wealth of her cities being much greater in proportion to the territorial 
extent of the country than in any other kingdom. In general, they have been origi- 
nated by head gardeners, who have given up private servitude. 

442. Market-gardens and orchards are numerous, especially round the metropolis, and 
their productions are unequalled, or at least not surpassed by any gardens in the 
world, public or private. Forcing is carried on extensively in these gardens, and the 
pine cultivated in abundance, and to great perfection. Their produce is daily exposed 
in different markets and shops ; so that every citizen of London may, throughout the 
year, purchase the same luxuries as the king or as the most wealthy proprietors have 
furnished from their own gardens, and obtain for a few shillings what the wealth of 
Crresus could not procure in any other country ! a striking proof of what commerce will 
effect for the industrious. Some gardens are devoted to the raising of garden-seeds for 
the seed-merchants, and others, to the growing of herbs and flowers for the chemist or 

443. There are jlorists' gardens, where plants are forced so as to furnish roses and 
other flowers of summer in mid-winter. The tradesman's wife may thus at pleasure 
procure a drawing-room garden equal to that of her sovereign, and superior to that of 
all the kings and nobles on the rest of the globe. 

444. Of nursery-gardens for stocking and forming new gardens and plantations, and 
repairing or increasing the stock of old ones, there are a number in which a very con- 
siderable capital is embarked. These have greatly increased with the increasing spirit 
for planting, and other branches of gardening. The principal are near the metropolis ; 
but they are to be found in most districts, originated in almost every case by head gar- 
deners, whose capital consists of the savings made during their servitude. 

445. The operative part of gardening is carried on by labourers, apprentices, journey- 
men, and masters. 

The labourers are women for weeding, gathering some descriptions of crops, and other light works : and 
men for assisting in the heavier operations in extraordinary seasons. The permanent sub-operatives are 
the apprentices and journeymen ; the former are indentured generally for three years, at the expiration 
of which they become journeymen, and after a few years' practice in that capacity, in different gardens, 
they are considered qualified for being masters, or taking the charge of villa, private, or first-rate gardens 
according to their capacity, education, and assiduity, and the class of gardens in which they have studied 
and practised. Formerly there were lodges, or societies of gardeners, and a sort of mystic institution and 
pass-word kept up, like those of the German gardeners and masons; but within the last fifty years this has 
been in most places given up. The use of books, and the general progress of society, render such institu- 
tions useless in point of knowledge and hospitality, and injurious politically, or in respect to the market- 
value of labor. (Preston's History of Masonry.) 


The head gardeners of this country are universally allowed to be the most intelligent and trust-worthy 
part of the operatives of any branch of rural economy, and the most faithful and ingenious of those who 
constitute the serving establishment of a country-residence. ,Tliose of Scotland are by many preferred, 
chiefly, perhaps, from their having been better educated in their youth, and more accustomed to frugality 
and labor. Scotland, Neill observes, " has long been famous for producing professional gardeners ; per- 
haps more so than any other country, unless we except Holland, about a century ago. At present, not 
only Great Britain, but Poland and Russia are supplied from Scotland ; and the numbers of an inferior 
class to be found in every part of England and Ireland, is quite astonishing." (Gen. Rep. &c. chap, ii.) Lord 
Gardenstone ( Travelling Memorandum, 1790) says, that in every country in Europe, he found gardeners 
more sober, industrious, and intelligent than other men of a like condition in Society. 

446. The use of gardens in Ireland is of a very limited description, and the gardens 
there, of all the classes, are greatly inferior to the corresponding classes in Britain. A 
few exceptions may be made in favor of the Dublin botanic gardens, and those of one or 
two wealthy citizens and extensive proprietors ; but the cottage-gardens, in many districts, 
contain nothing besides potatoes ; and potatoes are the chief ingredients in the gardens 
of private gentlemen. Parnel, Wakefield, and Curwen, have ably shown that till wheaten 
bread and meat take place of these roots, no great improvement can be expected among 
the lower classes of Ireland. 

447. The artists or architects of gardens, in Britain, are of three classes. First, head 
gardeners who have laid out the whole, or part of a residence, under some professor, and 
who commence artist or ground workmen, as this class is generally denominated, as a 
source of independence. Such was Hitt, Brown, &c. Secondly, architects who have 
devoted themselves chiefly to country-buildings, and thus acquiring seme knowledge of 
country-matters, and the effects of scenery, combine with building, the laying out of 
grounds, depending for the execution of their ideas on the practical knowledge of the 
gardener, pro tempore. This class are commonly called ground-architects. Such was 
Kent. Thirdly, artists who have been educated and apprenticed, or otherwise brought 
up entirely, or chiefly for that profession. These are often called landscape-gardeners, 
but the term is obviously of too limited application, as it refers only to one branch of the 
art. Such was Bridgeman, Eames, &c. 

SECT. VI. British Gardening, as a Science, and as to the Authors it lias produced. 

448. Those superstitious observances attendant on a rude state of society, retained their 
ground in British gardening till the end of the seventeenth century. Meager, Mascal, 
Worlidge, and the authors who preceded them, regulate the performance of horticultural 
operations by the age of the moon. Turnips or onions, according to these authors, sown 
when the moon is full, will not bulb but send up flower-stalks ; and fruit-trees, planted 
or grafted at that season, will have their period of bearing greatly retarded. A weak tree 
is to be pruned in the increase, and a strong tree in the wane of the moon. Quintinye 
seems to have been the first to oppose this doctrine in France, and through Evelyn's 
translation of his Complete Gardener, he seems to have overturned it also in England. 
" I solemnly declare," he says, " that after a diligent observation of the moon's changes 
for thirty years together, and an enquiry whether they had any influence in gardening, 
the affirmative of which has been so long established among us, I perceived that it was 
no weightier than old wives' tales, and that it had been advanced by unexperienced gar- 
deners. I have, therefore, followed what appeared most reasonable, and rejected what 
was otherwise ; in short, graft in what time of the moon you please, if your graft be good, 
and grafted on a proper stock, provided you do it like an artist, you will be sure to suc- 
ceed. In the same manner sow what sorts of grain you please, and plant as you please, 
in any quarter of the moon, I'll answer for your success, the first and last day of the 
moon being equally favorable." 

Quintinye not only removed ancient prejudices, but introduced more rational principles of pruning than 
had before been offered. Switzer says, he first made it known that a transplanted tree could not grow till 
it made fresh fibres, and that therefore the old ones, when dried up, might be cut off. 

449. The influence of Bacon's writings produced the decline and fall of astrology, in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. A different mode of studying the sciences was 
adopted. Vegetable physiology and chemistry, the first a new science, and the latter 
degraded under the name of alchemy, began to be studied, and the influence of this 
dawn of intellectual day was felt even in agriculture and gardening. 

450. The practice of forcing fruits and flowers, which became general about the middle 
of the century, led gardeners to reflect on the science of their art, by bringing more 
effectually into notice the specific influence of light, heat, air, water, and other agents of 
vegetation. The elementary botanical works published about the same time, by dif- 
fusing the doctrines of Linnaeus, co-operated ; as did the various horticultural writers of 
this century, especially Miller, Bradley, and Hill, and subsequently Home, Anderson, 
and others. 

451. The increasing culture of exotics, Doctor Pulteney observes, " from the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century, and the greater diffusion of taste for the elegancies and 
luxuries of the stove and green-house, naturally tended to raise up a spirit of improve- 


ment and real science in the art of culture. To preserve far-fetched varieties, it became 
necessary to scrutinise into the true principles of the art, which ultimately must depend 
on the knowledge of the climate of such plant, and the soil in which it flourishes in that 
climate. Under the influence of such men as Sloane, the Sherrards, and other great en- 
couragers of science, gardeners acquired botanical knowledge, and were excited to 
greater exertion in their art." 

452. The increased zeal for planting, and more careful attendance to the pruning of 
trees, tended to throw light on the subject of vegetable wounds, and their analogy with 
those of animals, as to the modes of healing, though the French laugh at our ignorance 
on this subject (Cours d'Agr. art. Plaie,} at the close of the eighteenth century. 

453. But the science of horticulture received its greatest improvement from Jfnight, 
the enlightened president of the Horticultural Society. The first of this philosopher's 
writings will be found in the Philosophical Transactions for 1795, entitled Observations on 
the Grafting of Trees. In the same Transactions for 1801 and 1803, are contained his 
ingenious papers on the fecundation of fruits, and on the sap of trees. Subsequent 
volumes contain other important papers ; and a great number in which science and art 
are combined, in a manner tending directly to enlighten and instruct the practical gar- 
dener, will be found in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society. Through the 
influence of this author and that society, over which he is so worthy to preside, we see 
commenced an important sera in the horticulture of this country, an a?ra rendered pecu- 
liarly valuable, as transferring the discoveries of science immediately to art, and rendering 
them available by practitioners. How great may be its influence, on the comforts and 
luxuries of the table, it is impossible to foresee. The introduction and distribution of 
better sorts of the common hardy fruits and culinary plants, will tend immediately to the 
benefit of the humbler classes of society ; and by increasing a little the size, and encou- 
raging the culture, both ornamental and useful, of cottage-gardens, the attachment of 
this class to their homes, and consequently their interest in the country, will be increased. 
Even agriculture will derive advantages, of which, as an example, may be adduced the 
result of pinching off the blossoms of the potatoe, which, by leaving more nourishment for 
the root, will increase the produce (according to Knight's estimate) at least one ton per 
acre. (Hort. Tr. i. 190. Treatise on the Apple and Pear.} 

454. Gardening, as an art of design and taste, may be said to have been conducted 
mechanically, and copied from precedents, like civil architecture, till the middle of the 
eighteenth century ; but at this time the writings of Addison, Pope, Shenstone, and 
G. Mason appeared ; and in these, and especially in the Observations on Modern Gar- 
dening, by Wheatley, are laid down unalterable principles for the imitation of nature in 
the arrangement of gardening scenery. The science of this department of the art may 
therefore be considered as completely ascertained ; but it will probably be long before it 
be appropriated by gardeners, and applied in the exercise of the art as a trade. A some- 
what better education in youth, and more leisure for reading in the periods usually de- 
voted to constant bodily labor, will effect this change ; and its influence on the beauty of 
the scenery of country-residences, and on the face of the country at large, would be such 
as cannot be contemplated without a feeling of enthusiastic admiration. If this taste were 
once duly valued and paid for by those whose wealth enables them to employ first-rate 
gardeners, it would soon be produced. But the taste of our nobility does not, in gene- 
ral, take this turn, otherwise many of them would display a very different style of scenery 
around their mansions. 

455. Britain has produced more original authors on gardening than any other country. 
It may be sufficient here to mention, in the horticultural department, Justice, Miller, 
and Abercrombie. In ornamental gardening, Parkinson and Madocks ; in planting, 
Evelyn and Nicol ; and in landscape-gardening, G. Mason and Wheatley. 


Of the present State of Gardening in Ultra-European Countries. 

456. The gardens of the old continents are either original, or borrowed from modern 
Europe. With the exception of China, the gardens of every other country in Asia, 
Africa, and America, may be comprised under two heads. The aboriginal gardens 
displaying little design or culture, excepting in the gardens of rulers or chiefs ; and 
the gardens of European settlers displaying something of the design and culture of their 
respective countries. Thus the gardening of the interior of Asia, like the manners of 
the inhabitants, is the same, or nearly the same, now, that it was 3000 years ago ; that of 
North America is British ; and that of almost all the commercial cities in the world, ex- 



cepting those of China, is European, and generally either Dutch, French, or English. 
We shall notice slightly, 1st, The aboriginal gardening of modern Persia and India; 2d, 
Of China ; 3d, The state of gardening in North America ; and 4th, In the British 
colonies and other settlements abroad. 

SECT. I. Syrian) Persian, Indian, and African Gardens of modern Times. 

457. Tlie outlines (fa Jewish garden, nearly 3000 years ago, coincide with the gardens 
formed in the same countries at the present day. Maundrel in the fourteenth century, 
Russel in the seventeenth, Chardin in the eighteenth, and Morier in the nineteenth cen- 
turies, enumerate the same trees and plants mentioned by Moses, Diodorus, and Hero- 
dotus, without any additions. The same elevation of site for the palace (Jig. 33.); the same 
terraces in front of it; and the same walls and towers surrounding the whole for security, 
still prevail as in the time of Solomon and his successors. Maundrel describes the gar- 
den of the Emir Facardine, at Beroot, as a large quadrangular spot of ground divided 
into sixteen lesser squares, four in a row, with walks between them, and planted with 
citron-trees. Each of the lesser squares was bordered with stone, and in the stone-work 
were troughs, very artificially contrived for conveying the water all over the garden, 
there being little outlets cut at every tree, for the stream as it passed by to flow out and 
water it. On the east side were two terrace-walks, rising one above the other, each 
having an ascent to it of twelve steps. At the north end they led into booths and 
summer-houses, and other apartments very delightful. (Travels from Aleppo to Jeru- 
salem, p. 40.) 

458. The gardens of Damascus are described by Egmont and Heyman as perfect 
paradises, being watered with copious streams from Lebanon ; and in the Account of the 
Ruins of Balbeck, the streams are said to be derived from Lebanus and Anti-Lebanus, 
and the shades of the palms and elms are described as exquisite in that burning climate. 
The time of the singing of birds is mentioned in Solomon's Song as a season of great 
pleasure, and then as now, they no doubt constituted a material article in fine gardens. 
Russel observes, that " in Syria there are abundance of nightingales, which not only 
afford much pleasure by their songs in the gardens, but are also kept tame in the houses, 
and let out at a small rate to divert such as choose it in the spring, so that no entertain- 
ments are made in this season without a concert of these birds. " (Natural Hist, of Aleppo, 
p. 71.) 

459. The gardens of the Persians, observes Sir John Chardin, in 1732, " consist 
commonly of a grand alley or straight avenue in the centre planted with planes (the 
zinzar, or chenar of the east), which divides the garden into two parts. There is a 
basin of water in the middle, proportionate to the garden, and two other lesser ones on 
the two sides. The space between them is sown with a mixture of flowers in natural 
confusion, and planted with fruit-trees and roses, and this is the whole of the plan and 
execution. They know nothing of parterres and cabinets of verdure, labyrinths, ter- 
races, and such other ornaments of our gardens. The reason of which is, that the 
Persians do not walk in their gardens as we do, but content themselves with having 
the view of them, and breathing the fresh air. For this purpose they seat themselves 
in some part of the garden as soon as they come into it, and remain there till they go 
out." According to the same author, the most eastern part of Persia, Hyrcania, is one 
entire and continued parterre from September to the end of April. " All the country 
is covered with flowers, and this is also the best season for fruits, since in the other 
months they cannot support the heat and unhealthy state of the air. Towards Media 
and the northern frontiers of Arabia, the fields produce of themselves tulips, anemones, 
single ranunculuses of the most beautiful red, and crown imperials. In other places, as 
around Ispahan, jonquils are wild and flower all the winter. In the season of narcissus, 



seven or eight sorts spring up among lilies (LUium), lily of the valley, violets of all 
colors, gilly-flowers, and jessamines, all of an odor and beauty far surpassing those 
of Europe. But nothing can be more beautiful than the peach-trees, so completely 
covered with flowers as to obstruct the view through their branches." Morier mentions 
the garden of Azar Gerib, in Ispahan, as extending a mile in length, and being formed 
on a declivity divided into twelve terraces, supported by walls, each terrace divided into 
a great number of squares. This garden is devoted to the culture of the most esteemed 
Persian fruits. The neighbourhood of Bushire was formerly famous for its gardens ; 
but Morier informs us, " that in the whole territory of Bushire at this day, there are only 
a few cotton-bushes (Acacia Julibrissin) ; here and there date-trees ; now and then a 
konar-tree (a palm), with water-melons, beringauts (gourds), and cucumbers." These 
date-trees, the towers, and the presence of camel-drivers, gave this town, when Morier 
saw it, a truly Persian appearance. (Fig. 32.) 

460. The gardens of Kerim Khan are thus described by Morier : " An immense wall 
of the neatest construction encloses a square tract of land, which is laid out into walks 
shaded by cypress and chenar (Platanus), and watered by a variety of marble canals, 
and small artificial cascades. Over the entrance, which is a lofty and arched passage, is 
built a pleasure-house. In the centre of the garden is another of the principal pleasure- 
houses. There is a basin in the middle of the principal room, where a fountain plays 
and refreshes the air, &c. The whole soil of this garden is artificial, having been exca- 
vated from the area below, and raised into a high terrace. The garden is now falling 
into decay ; but those who saw it in the reign of Kerim Khan, delight to describe its 
splendor, and do not cease to give the most ravishing pictures of the beauty of all the 
environs of his capital." (Journey to Persia, 1812, p. 206. Johnson's Journey from 
India, 1817, chap, v.) 

461. The gardens of the chiefs of India, now or lately existing, are of the same general 
character as those of Persia. " In the gardens belonging to the Mahomedan princes, 
which in some parts of India were made at a very great expense, a separate piece of 
ground was usually allotted for each kind of plant, the whole being divided into square 
plots, separated by walks. Thus one plot was filled with rose-trees, another with pome- 
granates, &c. The gardens of this sort, most celebrated in India, were those of Ben- 
galore and Delhi. The former, belonging to Tippoo, were made by him and his father, 
Hyder Ali. As Bengalore is very much elevated above the sea, it enjoys a temperate 
climate ; and in the royal gardens there were seen not only the trees of the country, but 
also the cypress, vine, apple, pear, and peach ; both the latter produced fruit. Straw- 
berries were likewise raised, and oaks and pine-trees, brought from the Cape of Good 
Hope, flourished. Some magnificent palaces and walled gardens (Jig. 33.) are mentioned 
by Morier and other oriental travellers ; but all agree in representing their interior in 
a state of neglect. 


462. The gardens of JTalimar, near Delhi, which were made in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century by the Emperor Shaw Jehan, are said to have cost 1,000,000^. 
sterling, and were about a mile in circumference. They were surrounded by a high 
brick wall ; but the whole are now in ruins." (Edin. Encyc. art. India, p. 87.) 

463. Of the royal gardens of Shaw Leemar, near Lahore, a city of Hindostan, some 
account is given in the Journal of the Royal Institution for July, 1820. They 
differ," says the writer, " from the indigenous royal gardens generally found in India, in 
belonging to the class of hanging-gardens." Their length is about 500 yards, and their 
breadth about 140. They consist of three terraces watered by a stream brought upwards 
of sixty miles, and irrigating the country through which it passes. The only thing 
worthy of notice is the use of this water in cascades for cooling the air. There are large 
trees, including the apple, pear, and mango, a border and island of flowers, among 

H 2 




which the narcissus abounds. Captain Benj. Blake, who describes these gardens, in, 
making excursions in the neighbourhood, " stumbled, as it were, upon a most magnifi- 
cent mausoleum, round which was a walled garden of orange and pomegranate trees." 

464. The gardens of the islands of Japan .partake of the same general character as those 
of Persia and Hindostan. According to Keempfer, they display little of taste in design, 
but are full of the finest flowers and fruits. " Such," he says, " is the beauty of the 
flowers which ornament the hills, the fields, and the forests, that the country may even 
dispute the preference in this point with Persia. They transplant the most beautiful of 
their wild flowers into the gardens, where they improve them by culture. Colors are the 
grand beauties desired both in plants and trees. Chestnut-trees, lemons, oranges, citrons 
and peaches, apricots and plums, abound. The sloe, or wild plum, is cultivated on 
account of its flowers, which by culture acquire the size of a double rose, and are so 
abundant that they cover the whole tree with a snowy surface speckled with blood. 
These trees are the finest of their ornaments, they are planted in preference around their 
temples : and they are also cultivated in pots or boxes for private houses, as oranges are 
in Europe. They plant the summits of the mountains, and both sides of the public 
roads, with long rows of fir-trees and cypress, which are common in the country. They 
even ornament sandy places and deserts by plantations ; and there exists a law in this 
island, that no one can cut down a tree without permission of the magistrate of the place, 
and even when he obtains permission, must replace it immediately by another." 

465. The gardens of the different African seaports on the Mediterranean) such as 
Tangier, Algier, Tunis, Tripoli, &c. have the same general character as those of Persia ; 
but inferior in proportion to the degraded state of society in these comparatively barba- 
rous places. The author of a Ten Years' residence in Tripoli confirms the remarks 
of Chardin and Kaempfer, as to the carelessness with which art lends her aid to nature. 
" In their gardens the Moors form no walks ; only an irregular path is left, whidi 
you trace by the side of white marble channels for irrigation. Their form is gene- 
rally square, and they are enclosed by a wall, within which is planted a corresponding 
line of palm-trees. The whole is a mixture of beauty and desolation." (Narrative, &c. 
p. 52.) 

466. The aboriginal horticulture of these countries consists chiefly in the culture of th< 
native fruits, the variety of which is greater than that indigenous to any other country, 
The peach, the mango, all the palm tribe, and, in short, every fruit-tree cultivated ir 
Persia and India by the natives, is raised from seed, the art of grafting or laying being 
unknown. Water is the grand desideratum of every description of culture in this coun- 
try. Without it nothing can be done either in agri- 
culture or gardening. It is brought from immense 

distances at great expense, and by very curious con- 
trivances. One mode practised in Persia consists in 
forming subterraneous channels at a considerable depth 
from the surface, by means of circular openings at cer- 
tain distances, through which the excavated material is 
drawn up (jig. 34.) ; and the channels so formed, are 
known only to those who are acquainted with the country. These conduits are describee 
by Polybius, a Greek author, who wrote in the second century before Christ ; and Moriei 
{Journey to Persia) found the description perfectly applicable in 1814. Doves' dung i: 
in great request in Persia and Syria, for the culture of melons. Large pigeon-house 
(Jig. 35.) are built in many places, expressly to collect it. The melon is now, as it wai 

2500 years ago, one of the necessaries of life, and when the prophet Isaiah mean 
to convey an idea of the miseries of a famine, he foretold that a cab of doves' dunj 
would be sold for a shekel of silver. The whole province of Syria was formerly famou: 
for its horticultural productions, of which the bunch of grapes brought to Moses by hii 

BOOK.. GARDEJNiiNo UN oniiNA. 101 

spies (Numb. xiii. 23.) is a proof; but it has been in a constant state of neglect since it 
came into the hands of the Turks, " who, of all nations," as Montesquieu observes, "are 
the most proper to enjoy large tracts of land with insignificance." 

467. Trees and bushes appear to have been held in superstitious veneration in these 
countries as early as the time of Moses, of which the story of the burning bush may be 
adduced as a proof. There are many other instances mentioned in the Jewish writings, 
of attachment to trees, and especially to the oak and plane. Morier, Johnson, and Sir 
William Ouseley (Embassy, &c. vol. i.), describe the Persians as often worshipping under 
old trees in preference to their religious buildings. The chenar, or plane, is greatly pre- 
ferred. On these trees the devotees sacrifice their old clothes by hanging them to their 
branches, and the trunks of favorite trees are commonly found studded with rusty nails 
and tatters. (Sir William Ousley, App. 1819.) Groves of trees are equally revered in 
India, and are commonly found near the native temples and burial-places of the 

SECT. II. Chinese Gardening. 

468. We know little of the gardening of China, notwithstanding all that has been written 
and asserted on the subject. It does not appear perfectly clear to us, that the difference 
between the gardens of Persia and India, and those of China, is so great as has been very 
generally asserted and believed. It is evident, that the Chinese study irregularity and 
imitate nature, in attempting to form rocks ; but whether this imitation is carried to 
that extent in wood, water, and ground, and conducted on principles so refined as 
those given as Chinese by Sir William Chambers, appears very doubtful. With all this, 
it must be confessed, there is a distinctive difference between the Chinese style and 
every other, though to trace the line of demarcation does not appear practicable in the 
present state of our information on the subject. 

469. One of the earliest accounts of Chinese gardens was given by Pere le Comte, who, 
as well as Du Halde, had resided in the country as a missionary. " The Chinese," 
observes Le Comte (Lettre vi.), " appear still more to neglect their gardens than their 
houses. They would consider it as a want of sense to occupy their grounds only in 
parterres, in cultivating flowers, and in forming alleys and thickets. The Chinese, who 
value order so little in their gardens, still consider them as sources of pleasure, and 
bestow some expense in their formation. They form grottoes, raise* little hills, procure 
pieces of rocks, which they join together with the intention of imitating nature. If they 
can, besides these things, find enough of water to water their cabbages and legumes, 
they consider, that as to that material they have nothing more to desire, and content 
themselves with a well or a pond." Olof Toreen, a Swede, who visited China early in 
the eighteenth century, and has published an account of his travels, states, " that in the 
Chinese gardens are neither seen trees artificially cultivated, nor alleys, nor figured par- 
terres of flowers ; but a general confusion of the productions of verdant nature." ( Voyage 
to Osbek, the East Indies and China, 8vo. 1761.) 

470. The imperial gardens of China are described in the Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses, 
&c. in a letter dated Pekin, 1743. It was translated by Spence, under the fictitious title 
of Sir Harry Beaumont, whom Lord Walpole describes as having " both taste and zeal 
for the present style ;" and was published in Dodsley's collection in 1761. These gar- 
dens are described to be of vast extent, containing 200 palaces, besides garden-buildings, 
mock towns, villages, all painted and varnished, artificial hills, valleys, lakes, and canals ; 
serpentine bridges, covered by colonnades and resting-places, with a farm and fields, 
where his imperial majesty is accustomed to patronise rural industry, by putting his hand 
to the plough, or, as it has been otherwise expressed, " by playing at agriculture once a- 
year." Views of these gardens, taken by native artists for the Chinese missionaries, were 
sent to Paris about the middle of the eighteenth century, and engravings from them were 
published by permission of the court in 1788, in a work entitled Recueils des Plans des 
Jardins Chinois. We have examined the plan of the imperial gardens (Jig. 36.) with the 
utmost care, but confess we can see nothing but a mass of buildings generally forming 
squares or courts, backed by peaked hills, and interspersed with pieces of water, sometimes 
evidently artificial, and at other times seemingly natural. The first jet-d'eau ever seen 
in China was formed in the imperial gardens by Pere Benoit, who went to Pekin as 
astronomer. The emperor was transported with it, and instead of astronomer, made the 
reverend father the fountaineer. 

471. But the national taste of the Chinese in gardening must have had something 
characteristic in it, even to general observers ; and this character seems to have been 
obscurely known in Europe from the verbal accounts of Chinese merchants or travellers, 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century. A proof of this is to be found in Sir 
William Temple's Essay, written about the middle of the seventeenth century. He 
informs us, that though he recommends regularity in gardens, yet, for any thing he 

H 3 




r up 

knows, there may be more beauty in such as are wholly irregular. " Something of this 
sort," he says, " I have seen in some places, but heard more of it from others, who have 
lived much among the Chinese." Referring to their studied irregularity, he adds, 
" When they find this sort of beauty in perfection, so as to hit the eye, they say it is 
skarawadgi, an expression signifying fine or admirable." It appears from this passage, 
that the Chinese style had not only been known, but imitated in England, nearly a cen- 
tury previous to the publication of the Jesuit's Letters, and, at least, sixty years 
before Kent's time. Sir William Temple retired to East Sheen in 1680, and died in 
the year 1700. 

472. Sir William Chambers's account of the Chinese style has given rise to much dis- 
cussion. This author, afterwards surveyor-general, resided some time at Canton, and 
after returning to England, gave a detailed account of Chinese gardening ; first in the 
appendix to his Designs of Chinese Buildings, &c. in 1757, and subsequently at greater 
length in his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, in 1772, and commended, as G. Mason 
observes, by so good a judge as Gray. Sir William Chambers avows that his 
information is not derived entirely from personal examination, but chiefly from the con- 
versation of a Chinese painter ; and it has been very reasonably conjectured, that he has 
drawn, in some cases, on his own imagination, in order to enhance the reader's opinion 
of Chinese taste, with the laudable end of improving that of his own country. In his 
essay of 1757, which was published in French as well as English, and was soon trans- 
lated, as Hirschfield informs us, into German, he says, " the Chinese taste in laying out 
gardens is good, and what we have for some time past been aiming at in England." 
With the exception of their formal and continual display of garden-buildings, and their 
attempts of raising characters, not only picturesque and pleasing, but also of horror, 
surprise, and enchantment, Sir William's directions, especially in his second work, will 
apply to the most improved conceptions of planting, and forming pieces of water, in the 
modern style ; or, in other words, for creating scenery such as will always resemble, and 
often might be mistaken for that of nature. But whatever may be the merits of the 
Chinese in this art, it may reasonably be conjectured, that their taste for picturesque 
beauty is not so exactly conformable to European ideas on that subject as Sir William 
would lead us to believe. Their decorative scenes are carried to such an extreme, so 
encumbered with deceptions, and what we would not hesitate to consider puerilities, and 
there appears throughout so little reference to utility, that the more mature and chastened 
taste of Europeans cannot sympathise with them. Chinese taste is, indeed, altogether 
peculiar; it is undoubtedly perfectly natural to that people, and therefore not to be 
subjected to European criticism. 

473. Lord Walpole's opinion of the Chinese gardens is that they " are as whimsically 
irregular as European gardens were formerly uniform and unvaried ; nature in them is 
as much avoided as in those of our ancestors." In allusion to those of the emperor's 
palace, described in the Lettres EcUfiantes, he says, " this pretty gaudy scene is the work 




of caprice and whim ; and when we reflect on their buildings, presents no image but 
that of unsubstantial tawdriness." 

474. Lord Macartney 's remarks on these gardens show, that at least picturesque 
scenes are seen from them. " The view," he says, " from one of the imperial gardens 
might be compared to that from the terrace at Lowther Castle." This view is 
altogether wild and romantic, and bounded by high uncultivated mountains, with no 
other buildings than one or two native cottages. In what degree of estimation such a 
view is there held does not, however, appear ; it would be too much to conclude that,- 
because it existed in that situation, it had been created or left on purpose, or was con- 
sidered as eminently beautiful or desirable. " It is our excellence," observes his 
lordship, " to improve nature ; that of a Chinese gardener to conquer her : his aim is to 
change every thing from what he found it. A waste he adorns with trees ; a desert he 
waters with a river or a lake ; and on a smooth flat are raised hills, hollowed out valleys, 
and placed all sorts of buildings." 

475. The description of the gardens of Woo-yuen in Ellis's Journal of the late 
Embassy to China, 1818, is as follows : " We stopped opposite the gardens of Woo-yuen, 
which, after a little hesitation on the part of the mandarins, we were allowed to visit. 
Although now much neglected, they were interesting as a specimen of Chinese garden- 
ing. The Chinese are certainly good imitators of nature, and their piles of rocks are 
not liable to the same ridicule as some modern Gothic ruins in England ; indeed they 
are works of art on so great a scale, that they may well bear a rivalship with the original : 
the buildings are spread over the ground without any attention to effect being produced 
by their exterior, unconnected with the scenery ; the object seems to be to furnish pre- 
texts for excursions within the enclosure, which is so disposed as to appear more 
extensive than it really is. Much labor has been expended upon the walks, which, in 
places, resemble mosaic work. These gardens were a favorite resort of Kien-long, 
whose dining-room and study were shown to us ; in the latter was a black marble slab, 
with a poem inscribed upon it, composed by his majesty, in praise of the garden. The 
characters were particularly well executed. The trees in the garden were chiefly the 
olea fragrans and some planes." 0? 

(Vol. i. p. 433.) 

476. The villa oj 'Puanke-qua, belonging 
to ofte of the principal hong merchants 
of Canton, is interesting as a specimen 
of Chinese taste in laying out grounds ; 
the great object is to producers much 
variety as possible within " a small 
space." (Vol. ii. p. 186.) 

477. The Fatee gardens at Canton, be- 
longing to rich individuals, and the resort 
of the fashionables, " consist of straight 
walks lined with flower-pots, contain- 
ing the curious and beautiful plants of 
the country." (Vol. ii. p. 186.) 

478. A plan of a Chinese gar- 
den and dwelling, executed at 
forty-five leagues from the city 
of Pekin, was taken by Storn- 
berg, a gardener, who was se- 
veral years in that country, and 
is given by Kraft in his Plans, 
(Plans, &c., partie 2. pi. 95.) 
If this plan (Jig. 37.) is really 
correct, it seems to counte- 
nance the idea of the modern 
style being taken from that of 
the Chinese. The bouse of the 
mandarin, its proprietor, con- 
tains an entrance under a tri- 
umphal arch (a), barracks or 
offices (b), fountains (c), en- 
trance-gate for dignified persons 
(d), vases of odors (e), officers' 
dwellings (/), residences of those 
in waiting (g), fountains (A), 
residence of the proprietor (i), 
apartments for mandarin ladies 
(&), triumphal arch (/), bagnio 
and room for sports (m), a pa- 




vilion on a rock (n), building for the practice of archery (o), green-house (p), pleasure- 
house (y), and a rock under which the river passes and forms a waterfall (r). (Kraft, 
p. 70.) 

479. Horticulture in China is generally considered to be in an advanced state ; but 
we have no evidence that the Chinese are acquainted with its scientific principles, and 
especially with the physiology of plants. The climate and soil of so immense a 
tract as China, are necessarily various ; and equally so, in consequence, the vegetable pro- 
ductions. Besides the fruits peculiar to the country, many of which are unknown to the 
rest of the world, it produces the greater part of those of Europe ; but, excepting the 
oranges and pomegranates, they are much inferior. The orange was introduced to Eu- 
rope from China, and the pine-apple to China from South America, by the Portuguese in 
the sixteenth century. 

The Chinese are supposed to have a number of culinary vegetables peculiar to themselves. They are said 
to cultivate edible plants, even in the beds of their rivers and lakes, and among others, the pi-tsi or water 
chestnut (Scirpus tuberosus, Rox.), which yields tubers of a farinaceous quality and agreeable taste. The 
convolvulus reptans (Lour.} grown in ditches, amaranthus polygamus, and tristis, Sinapis Pekinensis, and 
some others used as pot-herbs. They have also a particular variety of brassica, used both as a salad and 
in a boiled state. (Abel's Journal.} Le Comte, Du Halde, Eckeberg, and others, praise the manner in 
which the Chinese cultivate culinary vegetables, which, they say, are abundant in their gardens, and form 
the chief part of the nourishment of the lower orders. They add, however, that the greater part of their 
fruits do not equal ours ; either because the Chinese are ignorant of the art of improving them, or because 
they do not give themselves the trouble. Their grand object is to cultivate corn and rice ; and they are 
ignorant of botany. One of the authors of these remarks, Captain Eckeberg, has published, in the 
transactions of the academy of sciences of Stockholm, a treatise on the rural economy of this people j and 
Count Lasteyrie has collected what is known on the same subject. The British works, published after 
different embassies, contain accounts of their modes of propagation, by inarching and local radication ; 
of their dwarfing forest-trees, producing double-flowers, monstrous unions, and various other exertions, 
in the way of conquering nature. It is a singular fact, that with all this practical skill, the Chinese do 
not appear to be acquainted with the art of grafting, otherwise than by approach, nor with inoculation. 
John Livingston, a corresponding member of the horticultural society at Macao, considers the Chinese 
as entirely ignorant of the science both of horticulture and agriculture. They make no attempts to im- 
prove on old practices, or spread newly introduced plants, proofs of which are given by referring to the 
Pekin Gazette, " an official publication in which all notices relative to any variation or change in 
their practices are made public," and to the circumstance of " potatoes and cabbages having been 
cultivated in the neighbourhood of Macao for upwards of half a century, and although highly profitable 
and productive, yet the method of growing them has not reached Canton, perhaps has not even ex- 
tended five miles." It is impossible, this writer observes, to establish any distinction between the 
agriculture and horticulture of the Chinese merely from the plan of cultivation, the same ground being 
alternately cropped with grain and culinary esculents. 

The culture* of flowers and plants of ornament seems very general in China. The beautiful varieties 
of camellia, azalea, rosa, chrysanthemum, and of various other genera, are well known natives of that 

480. Hot-houses are not unknown in China. Wathen (Journal of a voyage to China, &c. 
1B14.) describes the villa (Jig. 38.) of Pon-qua-qua, a retired merchant and mandarin, 
as containing a green-house (a), an aviary (6), a banquetting room open on one side ; a 

garden with the walks bordered with porcelain pots of orange-trees and camellias ; and 
an immense Banyan-tree (Ficus Benghalensis}. 


Gardening in Anglo-North America, or tlie United States and British 

481. The use of gardens in North America is very general, though chiefly confined to 
horticultural or useful productions. B. M'Mahon, in his American Kalendar, says, 
America has not yet made that rapid progress in gardening, ornamental planting, and 
fanciful rural designs, which might naturally be expected from an intelligent, happy, and 
independent people, possessed so universally of landed property, unoppressed by taxation 
or tithes, and blest with consequent comfort and affluence." (Pref.) 

M'Mahpn is a seedsman in Philadelphia, and " has connected with the seed-trade a botanical, agricul- 
tural, and horticultural book-store." His work is the first of the kind which has appeared in America, 
and includes every department to be found in our kalendars. Ample instructions are given for growing 
the pine, vine, melon, and other delicate fruits, and also for the forcing departments both of the flower 
and kitchen gardens ; but we cannot gather from the work any thing as to the extent of American prac- 
tice m these particulars. 1 rom this, and the few other American books on gardening, we submit what we 
ave been able to glean, as to the state of horticulture, botanic gardening, and timber-trees 


482. Horticulture. William Coxe of Burlington in New Jersey, in his View of the 
Cultivation of Fruit-trees (Philad. 1817), is of opinion, " that the numerous varieties of 
American apples have proceeded from seeds brought there by their European ancestors ; 
and that none of the Indian orchards which have been discovered in America, are more 
ancient than the first settlement of the Europeans on this continent." 

The middle states of America, he says, " possess a climate eminently favorable to the production of the 
finer liquor and table apples ; and the limits of that district of country which produces apples of the due 
degree of richness and flavor for both purposes are the Mohawk river in New York, and the James river in 
Virginia. Apples grow well in other places, but that exquisite flavor for which the Newton pippin and 
Esopus Spitzenberg are so much admired, and which has given such high reputation to the cyder from the 
Hewe's crab, the white crab, the grey-house, winesop, and Harrison, can only be found within the limits 
here described. Cold and heat, are equally necessary to the production of a fine apple, and neither must 
predominate in too great a degree. Some European cyder fruits have recovered their reputation by being 
transplanted to the more genial climate of America, where the growth of trees compared with Europe is as 
five to three." 

The peach is a native of South America ; in North America, Coxe says, it is subject to a malady, which 
no remedy can cure, nor cultivation avert. This is a worm which destroys the roots and trunk of the tree 
The only palliative is fresh soil. (Preface, p. 1 1.) 

Plums and cherries are natives of the United States, and wood-cuts are given in Coxe's work of the prin- 
cipal sorts of these fruits commonly cultivated, and which are chiefly those well known in Britain. 

The vine, Dr. Dean observes (New England Gcorgical Dictionary, in loco Massachusetts, 1797), " may, 
without doubt, be cultivated in every latitude of the North American states. They are wild in the neigh- 
bourhood of Boston." He has known a good wine made from the juice of wild purple grapes ; and seen 
excellent eating grapes produced in the American gardens, without any extraordinary culture. 

The melon grows to a large size in the southern states, and ripens even in New England in the common 
way of planting, but is not so large nor so early as when raised on dung. 

Culinary vegetables, Kingdom states (America, &c. 1820), grow in the same perfection as in England, ex- 
cepting the cauliflower and some species of beans. Water-melons, musk-melons, squashes, sweet potatoes, 
cucumbers, &c. arrive at great perfection. 

Those who wish to grow sugar must go south of 29| j cotton, south of 36 j and for corn the best latitude is 
from 36 to 41. 

The first work after a settlement is to plant a peach and apple orchard, placing the trees alternately. The 
peach, being short-lived, is soon removed, and its place covered by the branches of the apple-trees. (King- 
dom, 5.) The seeds of pumpkins are scattered in the field, when planting the corn, and no further trouble is 
necessary than throwing them into the waggon when ripe. They weigh from thirty to forty pounds each ; 
and cattle and hogs are fond of them. In Maryland, Virginia, and the neighbouring provinces of the United 
States, peaches are propagated invariably from the stone. The fruit is used for feeding hogs, and distilled for 
brandy. In Virginia, the prickly pear abounds in the woods, and is reckoned a cooling, grateful fruit 
(Braddick in Hort. Trans, vol. ii.) 

In Lower Canada, the fruit is neither remarkable for goodness nor cheapness, except strawberries and 
raspberries, which are very abundant. Apples and pears are sent from Montreal to Quebec, and sell for 
about the same price as in England. Oranges and lemons are imported from England, and are sometimes 
very scarce. Gooseberries, plums, and melons are plentiful ; but currants, cherries, walnuts, and filberts 
are scarce. (Kingdom, 97.). 

Upper Canada is very fertile. At Montreal are extensive orchards. Here the sugar-maple is abundant, 
and pierced for sugar when the sap begins to rise. A tree twenty inches in diameter will yield five pounds 
of sugar annually, sometimes for thirty years. Pot and pearl ashes are made from the felled trees. Beech 
yields at the rate of 2191bs. for lOOOlbs. of ashes, and most other trees less. Sun-flowers are abundant, but 
oil is not extracted from them as in the United States. (Kingdom, 92.) A great variety of fruit-trees may be 
had at the nursery-gardens at Montreal. The apples from thence are considered superior to any other. The 
peach-trees are introduced into the orchards from York to Amherstburgh. Cherries, walnuts, chestnuts, 
hickery, hazel, and filbert nuts grow wild ; as do gooseberries, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, and 
black currants. 

483. Botanic gardening. America is rich in botany, especially in trees. Dr. Hosack, 
in the preface to his Hortus Elginensis, observes, " that, although much has been done by 
die governments of Great Britain, France, Spain, Sweden, and Germany, in the investi- 
gation of the vegetable productions of America ; although much has been accomplished 
by the labors of Catesby, Kalm, Wangenheim, Schoepf, Walter, and the Michaux ; 
and by our countrymen, Clayton, the Bartrams, Calden, Muhlenburg, Marshall, Cutler, 
.and the learned P. Barton of Pennsylvania, much yet remains to be done in this western 
part of the globe." There were in America, at an early period, men who recommended 
the necessity of instituting botanic gardens, as Lieutenant- Governor Calden and Dr. 
Middleton of New York, in 1769; and, upon the revival of the medical school in 
Columbia college, in 1792, a professor of botany was appointed, and Dr. Mitchel was 
appointed professor. Dr. Hosack succeeded Dr. Mitchel, and the result was, h'rst, the 
latter professor's establishing a botanical garden at his own expense, and afterwards 
government purchasing it of him for the benefit of the medical schools of New York, and 
it is now known as the New York Botanic Garden. 

484. The botanic garden of New York contains twenty acres ; the first catalogue was 
published in 1806, and the second, in 1811, containing nearly 4000 species. (Statement 
&c. as to the Elgin Botanical Garden, by Dr. Hosack, New York, 1811.) 

485. The first American Flora appeared in 1816, by F. Pursh, a German botanist, 
who spent nearly twelve years beyond the Atlantic in botanic travel, and in the manage- 
ment of two botanic gardens, the last that of Elgin. From the preface to this work we 
are enabled to give the names of the principal botanic gardens in the United States. In 
British America there are none. The first gardens Pursh saw were the old established 
gardens of M. Marshall, author of a small treatise on the forest-trees of North America. 
These were rather on the decline. The botanic garden of J. and W. Bartram on the 
banks of the Delaware, near Philadelphia, was founded by their father under the patron- 
age of Dr. Fothergill. W. Bartram is author of travels in North and South Carolina, 


and of an introduction to botany. The garden of W. Hamilton, Esq. of Woodlands, is 
one of the best in America ; that of Elgin has been already mentioned. 

486. Forest-trees- Michaux's work on the trees of America is the fruit of two voyages, 
in 1802 and 1806. The number of trees which in America grow above thirty feet high, 
which he has seen and describes, is one hundred and thirty -seven, of which eighty-five 
are employed in the arts. In France there are only thirty-seven which rise to that height, 
of which eighteen serve to form timber-plantations, and of these seven only are employed 
in civil and marine constructions. Michaux acknowledges his obligations to W. Hamil- 
ton, " an enlightened amateur of the sciences and arts," who pleases himself in uniting 
at his magnificent residence at Woodlands, near Philadelphia, not only all the useful 
vegetables of the United States, but those of every country of the world, which may offer 
any interest in the arts or in medicine. (Introduction, 10.) From the Transactions of 
the Society of Agriculture of New York, we learn, that hawthorn hedges and other live 
fences are generally adopted in the cultivated districts ; but the time is not yet arrived 
for forming timber-plantations. 

SECT. IV. Gardening in Spanish North America, or Mexico* 

487. Tlie gardening of the Mexicans is described by the Abb Clavigero, in his History of 
Mexico. According to this author, when the Mexicans were brought into subjection to the 
Calhuan and Tepanecan nations, and confined to the miserable little islands on the lake, 
they ceased for some years to cultivate the land, because they had none until necessity and 
industry together taught them to form moveable fields and gardens, which floated on the 
waters of the lake. The mode of forming these of wicker-work, water-plants, and mud, 
may be easily conceived. The boat or basis is commonly eight perches long by three 
broad. They first cultivated the maize and useful plants only, but afterwards " there 
were among them gardens of flowers and odoriferous plants, which were employed in 
the worship of the gods, and served for the recreation of the nobles." At present they 
cultivate flowers, and every sort of garden-herbs upon them, all of which thrive sur- 
prisingly. In the largest gardens there is commonly a little tree, and even a little hut 
to shelter the cultivator, and defend him from rain or the sun. When the owner of a 
garden wishes to change his situation, to remove from a disagreeable neighbour, or come 
nearer to his own family, he gets into his little vessel, and by his own strength alone, if 
the garden is small, or with aid, if it be large, he tows it after him, and conducts it where 
he pleases with the little tree and hut on it. That part of the lake where the gardens 
are, is a place of infinite recreation, where the senses receive the highest possible grati- 
fication. The Mexicans were extremely well skilled in the cultivation of kitchen and 
other gardens, in which they planted, with great regularity and taste, fruit-trees, and 
medicinal plants and flowers. The last of these were much in demand, bunches of 
flowers being presented to persons of rank, kings, lords, and ambassadors, and also used 
in temples and private oratories. 

488. The royal gardens of Mexico and Tezcuco, and those of the Lords of Iztapalapan and 
Hu an tepee, have been much celebrated. One, belonging to the Lord of Iztapalapan was 
laid out in four squares, and planted with great variety of trees, through which a number 
of roads and paths led, some formed by fruit-bearing trees, and others by espaliers of 
flowering shrubs and aromatic plants. It was watered by canals, and had in the centre 
a fish-pond four hundred yards in diameter, where innumerable water-fowl resorted. 
Hernandez says, this garden contained many foreign trees. The garden of Huantepec 
was six miles in circumference, watered by a river, planted with numerous species of trees 
and plants beautifully disposed, along with pleasure-houses. Many foreign plants were 
cultivated, and every kind of medicinal plant belonging to that clime, for the use of the 
hospital which they founded there. Cortez, in a letter to Charles V. in 1522, told him 
that this garden was the most extensive, the most beautiful, and most delightful which 
had ever been beheld. Bernard Dias and other authors concur in the same opinion. 
The Mexicans paid great attention to the preservation of woods, which supplied them 
with timber and fuel. (History of Mexico, i. 379.) 

489. A conventual garden at Mexico is described by Humboldt ( Voyage, &c. liv. iii. 
chap. 8.), in 1803, as one of the finest he had ever seen. The convent was a very pic- 
turesque building, and in the garden were immense groves of orange-trees, peaches, 
apples, cherries, and other fruit-trees of Europe. 

490. The royal botanic garden, in the promenade (cours) of the vice-king's palace, Hum- 
boldt describes as small, but extremely rich in vegetables, rare, or interesting for industry 
and commerce. 

491. The floating gardens, or chinamjxts, mentioned by the Abb Clavigero, he says still 
exist. They are of two sorts ; the one mobile and blown here and there by the winds, and 
the others fixed and united to the shore. The former alone merit the appellation of floating, 
and they are diminishing day by day. He assigns to them the same origin as the Abbe 
Clavigero ; but thinks it probable that nature also may have suggested the first idea, 


and gives instances of small pieces of surface netted with roots and covered with plants being 
detached from the marshy shores of other American lakes, and floating about in the water. 
The bean, pea, apple, artichoke, cauliflowers, and a great variety of other culinary plants 
are cultivated on them. In the ninth chapter of Humboldt's work will be found an 
ample account of the useful plants of Mexico. It is singular, that the potatoe, which 
one would have imagined should have been introduced from the southern continent to 
Mexico, should have been first carried there from Old Spain. It is not, Humboldt 
says, a native of Peru, nor to be found between latitudes 12 and 50. In Chili it has 
been cultivated for a long series of ages, where there is a wild sort with bitter roots. 

SECT. V. Gardening in South America. 

492. Gardening appears to be little known in South America, excepting in the Euro- 
pean colonies. It is the country, however, of some of our most valuable culinary pro- 
ductions, as the potatoe ; of the most exquisite fruits, as the pine-apple and Cheremoya ; 
and of many of our most beautiful flowers, as the dahlia. There is a species of Chili 
pine (Araucaria), which is considered the largest tree in the world : it has an erect stem, 
and the seeds are a farinaceous food, and as large as chestnuts. This tree, it is thought, 
may yet be acclimated, and clothe our northern mountains. The whole of South 
America is rich in vegetable productions, many of which are unknown in Europe ; but 
there are now a number of collectors in that country, for the purposes of botany and 

SECT. VI. Gardening in the British Colonies, and in other Foreign Settlements of 
European Nations* 

493. Gardening cannot be displayed to much advantage in distant and precarious ter~ 
ritorial appendages, where the object is most frequently to acquire the means of return- 
ing to garden at home. In permanent settlements, however, such as the Cape of Good 
Hope, Van Diemen's Land, &c. gardening will be resorted to as an art of necessity. 

494. The gardening of any colony will always resemble that of the parent country. It 
is evident, that wherever a people establish themselves, they will also establish, in part, 
their arts or manners. All colonists carry with them the seeds of the useful vegetables, 
which they have been accustomed to cultivate ; and subsequently they attempt to intro- 
duce the more delicate or luxurious fruits and flowers. 

495. The European governments have established colonial botanic gardens wherever their 
utility has been made apparent ; and in this, as well as in the ornamental part of garden- 
ing, it is but fair to state, that the French and Dutch have been before England in point of 
time, as well as in point of excellence. The Dutch had a fine government garden at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and another at Batavia in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
The French had a garden in Cayenne, in 1630. The first colonial botanic garden esta- 
blished by the English, was that of Jamaica, about 1780. It must also be confessed, 
that our botanic gardens have hitherto been less useful to horticulture than the govern- 
ment or residence-gardens, and the botanical gardens of the Dutch ; because in these 
last, useful plants are the principal objects ; whereas in ours, number of species is, or 
seems to be, most attended to. Horticulture, in civilised countries, may be deemed suf- 
ficiently protected and encouraged by its own immediate contributions to the wants and 
desires of mankind ; but in barbarous countries every art requires protection at the first 
establishment of a colony. Perhaps there is no way in which man in a civilised state 
can promote the progress of rude society more, than by introducing new and useful fruits 
and herbs. The numerous vegetables now used in the domestic economy of civilised 
society have been collected from various and opposite parts of the globe. Where would 
be the enjoyments of a European table, if they depended on our native herbs and fruits ? 
Europe in this respect is under great obligations to Persia and Egypt ; and these coun- 
tries, and many others of Asia, Africa, and America, are now in their turn receiving 
great benefits from the colonies of Europeans who settle on them. 

496. As examples of the use of gardening in colonisation, we may refer to the Cape of 
Good Hope, which possesses at present all the best culinary productions and fruits of 
Europe and Asia. Till 1660, that the Dutch established a colony there, it had no 
other fruits than the chestnut, a nut like the wild almond, and what is called the wild plum ; 
and no culinary plants but a sort of vetch. The first shipment of convicts was landed 
at Sidney Cove in 1789, and since that period, every horticultural product of Britain has 
been introduced there, and cultivated with one or two exceptions, in the greatest per- 

497. The influence of gardening comforts, together with instruction, on uncivilised coun- 
tries, both as to society and climate, and finally on the whole globe itself, cannot be foreseen. 
The now trackless deserts of arid sand in Africa, may be destined at some future age to 
be watered and cultivated by the superfluous population of the other quarters of the 
world. The evaporation and coolness produced by a surface cultivated chiefly by irri- 


gallon, iny cuecc a material change in the climate, and millions 01 .iuman beings may 
live and exert their energies where civilised man at present scarcely dares to tread. 

498. Examples of British, Dutch, and French gardening, in different colonies, will be 
found in the West Indies, East Indies, Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope, New South 
Wales, Van Diemen's Land, Cayenne, and Malta. 

499. West India Islands- The native products of these islands are various andex- 
cellent, and they have been greatly increased by fruits and spices, introduced from the 
East Indies and other places. Among these it may be sufficient to mention the pine- 
apple, bread-fruit, mangostan, durion and cinnamon. There is a large botanic garden 
at St. Vincents, and others at Trinidad and Martinique, supported by their respective go- 
vernments. There was formerly one of seventy acres in Jamaica, of which some particulars 
deserve here to be recorded. " The botanic garden of Jamaica was originally begun by 
J. Hinton, Esq., and afterwards bought by government, and enlarged so as to contain 
seventy acres. One of the objects of its establishment was to preserve, without artificial 
means, the production of various climates. Such a project could only be executed in a 
tropical latitude, where the various elevations of the ground would regulate the required 
temperature. The site chosen for this purpose is about seven miles from Kingston, 
on the side of the Liguanea mountain, the summit of which is 3600 feet above the level 
of the sea. Here, ascending from the base, are found the productions of the various 
countries of the earth ; every change of situation represents a change of latitude, and the 
whole surface of the mountain may be clothed with the appropriate vegetations of every 
climate, from the pole to the equator. By means of this noble and useful establishment, 
the vegetable productions of various climes have been naturalised to the soil, and the 
plantations of Jamaica have been enriched with many valuable trees, shrubs, and plants, 
which were heretofore unknown in the island ; of these may be mentioned cinnamon, 
mangostan, mangoes, sago, bread-fruit, star-apple, camphor, gum-arabic, sassafras, &c. 
introduced from a French ship captured in 1782." (Edwards's Jamaica, 188.) In the 
year 1812, the whole was sold by the House of Assembly, for the small sum of 
4000/. to an apothecary in Kingston. It is impossible to avoid regretting such a cir- 
cumstance. Some account of the garden of St. Vincents will be found in the Trans- 
actions of the Society of Arts. Pine-apple plants, and also ripe fruits, are frequently sent 
from the West Indies to Europe, and arrive commonly in a fit state for planting and the 

500. East Indies. Bengal, the province longest under British subjection, resembles 
Egypt, in consisting of one immense plain of fertile soil, watered by the Ganges, which 
overflows it annually. Calcutta, the capital, has been subject to the English since 
1765, but it does not appear that much has been yet done by the East India Company, 
in the way of gardening. 

~ In the park at Barrackpoor, about sixteen miles from the capital, are the unfinished arches of a house 
begun by the Marquis of Wellesley, but discontinued by the frugality of the. Court of Directors. There is 
also a menagerie, and not far distant the botanic garden. Very picturesque villas and cottages have 
been formed by the British in most of the East Indian settlements. We may cite, as an example, Dr. 
M'Kinnon's cottage (fig. 39.), in the neighbourhood go 

of Madras. It is thatched with palm-leaves. 
Town-houses and large country-houses are com- 
monly flat-roofed; and the roof shaded by an 
awning, serves as a banquetting-place. 

The botanic garden of Calcutta was founded in 
1790, it is beautifully situated on the west bank of 
the river, and gives to one of its bendings, the 
name of Garden-reach. Above the garden there 
is an extensive plantation of teak, a tree not a 
native of this part of India, but which thrives well 
here. This garden was under the direction of Dr. 
Roxburgh, well known as the author of a work on 
the plants of CoromandeL Maria Graham (Let- 
ters from India) describes it as rich in palms, mi- 
mosas, and parasitic plants, and as neatly kept. 
Seeds from this garden are sent annually to Kew 
and other European gardens ; as well as to various 
British settlements in the East, as Ceylon, &c. 

The orchard of Bengal is what chiefly contributes 
to attach the peasant to his native soil. He feels a 
superstitious veneration for the trees planted by his ancestors, and derives comfort and profit from their 
fruit Orchards of mango-trees diversify every part of this immense country ; the palmira abounds in 
Bahar. The cocoa-nut thrives in those parts which are not remote from the tropic. The date-tree 
grows every where, but especially in Bahar. Plantations of the areca, or Betfel-palm, are common in the 
central parts of the country. 

The culinary vegetables of Europe have all been introduced into India. Potatoes grown there are deemed 
equal in quality to those of England. Asparagus, cauliflower, pease, and other esculent plants, are raised, 
but they are comparatively tasteless. 

The dessert of Europeans in Calcutta, is distinguished by a vast profusion of most beautiful fruits, pro- 
cured at a very moderate expense, such as pine-apples, plantains, mangoes, pomeloes or shadocks, melons 
of all sorts, oranges, custard-apples, guavas, peaches, and an endless variety of other orchard-fruits. 

Forest-trees do not naturally abound in Bengal ; the teak-tree (Tectona grandis) is the oak of the East, 
and grows in abundance in the hilly kingdoms of Birman and Begum, whence Calcutta is supplied for 
the purposes of naval architecture. Whether it shall be found worth while to cultivate this tree in 
Bengal, appears very doubtful. The bamboo is the timber used in the general economy of the country. 

Hedges of native armed~plants'are occasionally used round gardens, orchards, and smatf enclosures. 


501. Ceylon. All the productions of Hindostan are said to thrive here. General 
Macdowal, with the assistance of Dr. Roxburgh of Calcutta, made a valuable collec- 
tion of exotics, which he left at Columbo in 1804. He introduced peaches, grafted 
and trained on espaliers, which bore at three years old. Gardeners, in hot climates, 
Cordiner observes (Account of Ceylon, vol. ii. p. 387.), are much perplexed by the trees 
which are deciduous in Europe, retaining their leaves all the year. Apples and aspara- 
gus succeeded well in this climate. The country is rich in botany, and abounds in 
palm-trees and plantains. Cordiner describes the cinnamon-groves as delightful. 
" Nothing can exceed the luxury of riding through them in the cool hours of the morn- 
ing, when the air is cool and the sweetness of the spring blended with the glow of 
summer. Every plant in the garden is at all times clothed with fresh and lively green, 
and when the cinnamon laurels put forth their flame-colored leaves and delicate blossoms 
the scenery is exquisitely beautiful. The fragrance, however, is not so powerful as 
strangers are apt to imagine. The cinnamon-bark affords no scent when the trees are 
growing in tranquillity, and it is only in a few places that the air is perfumed with the 
delicious odor of other shrubs, the greater proportion of the flowers and blossoms of 
India being entirely destitute of that quality. Gentle undulations in the ground, and 
clumps of majestic trees, add to the picturesque appearance of the scene ; and a person 
cannot move twenty yards into a grove without meeting a hundred species of beautiful 
plants and flowers springing up spontaneously. Several roads for carriages make wind- 
ing circuits in the woods, and numerous intersecting foot-paths penetrate the deepest 
thickets. In sauntering amidst these groves, a botanist or a simple lover of nature may 
experience the most supreme delight which the vegetable creation is capable of affording, 
and the zoologist will not be less gratified by the variety, the number, and the strange- 
ness of many of the animal kingdom." The Cingalese, as we have noticed (5.), lay 
claim to the situation of paradise, and one of the animals peculiar to the country, the 
Loris Ceylonicus, Fischeri (Jig. 40.), has been con- 40 

sidered by some philosophers as aboriginal man. 
(Gardiner's Ceylon, vol. ii. p. 421.) The agricul- 
ture and gardening of the native Cingalese may be 
considered as one art, the objects of culture being 
edible roots, as the yam and grains, and spices, as 
the rice and pepper. Ample details are given by 
Dr. Davy in his Account, fyc. of Ceylon. 

502. Cape of Good Hope. A very fine garden 
was formed here by the Dutch about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, which is described in 
Lachmans Travels of the Jesuits (vol. i. let. 37.), 
and thus noticed by Sir William Temple. " It 
contained nineteen acres, was of an oblong figure, 
very large extent, and divided into four quarters, by 
long and cross walks, ranged with all sorts of 
orange-trees, lemons, limes, and citrons ; each of 
these four quarters is planted with the trees, fruits, 

flowers, and plants, that are native and proper to each of the four parts of the world ; 
so as in this one inclosure are to be found the several gardens of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and America. There could not be, in my mind, a greater thought of a gardener, nor a 
nobler idea of a garden, nor better suited or chosen for the climate." Father de Premare 
says, " it is one of the most beautiful spectacles in the world ;" and indeed it is not easy 
for a mere European traveller to conceive the magnificence of palm-trees and plantains 
in their native climates. Whether this garden still exists, we have not been able to learn, 
but as it doubtless contributed to introduce the horticultural productions of Europe to 
this part of the globe, it deserves to be remembered with gratitude to its founders. 

The only indigenous fruits of the Cape, as already observed (496.), are the chestnut, and two stone fruits. 
Those that have been introduced into the colony are the grape, apple, cherry, plum, peach, nectarine, 
apricot, fig, orange, lemon, citron, pomegranate, almond, mulberry, guava, melon, and in short a", the 
fruits esteemed by Europeans. No grapes of Europe are considered preferable to those ot this colony. 
The colony of Capetown consists chiefly of vine-growers. They are of French extraction, possess farms 
of about 120 English acres, and the culture of the grape, with an elegant garden, generally occupies the 
whole. The lands are surrounded and divided by oak and quince hedges ; and the vines, cultivated as in 
France and Germany, have the appearance of plantations of raspberries. The Cape-market is richly 
supplied from these gardens. Between Table Bay and False Bay, are the two farms producing the Con- 
stantia wine. Here most of the above fruits thrive ; but gooseberries, currants, plums, and cherries do 
not succeed at all. 

The ornamental plants of the Cape are well known ; to them we are indebted for almost all our heaths, 
ixias, diosmas, pelargonums, and many other genera. (Kingdom's British Colonies, p. 81.) 

503. New South Wales. There are two colonies established in this extensive territory 
and its adjoining islands; the one at Sidney, in 1788, and the other at Van Diemen's 
Land some years afterwards. The botanical riches of New South Wales, and the singu- 

.v *;. i..,,Hi ,.. ,,.^n i,.,.-,^ Tjere are gardeners and botanists esta- 


blished in and near Sidney, who collect seeds for England, and other parts of Europe ; 
and it is in contemplation to establish a government botanic garden there, which will 
doubtless be of essential service in collecting and preserving native plants. The climate 
and soil of both settlements are favorable for horticulture. Potatoes, cabbages, carrots, 
parsnips, turnips, and every species of vegetable known in England, are produced 
in this colony. The cauliflower and broccoli, and the pea, arrive to greater perfection 
than in Europe ; but the bean and potatoe degenerate. The climate is too hot for the 
bean, and the potatoe is only grown to advantage on new lands. 

New South Wales is famed for the goodness and variety of its fruits ; peaches, apricots, nectarines, 
oranges, grapes, pears, plums, figs, pomegranates, raspberries, strawberries, and melons of all sorts, attain 
the highest degree of maturity in the open air; and even the pine-apple may be produced merely by the 
aid of the common glass frame. The climate of Port Jackson, however, is not altogether congenial to the 
growth of the apple, currant, and gooseberry, although the whole of these fruits are produced there, and 
the apple in particular in very great abundance ; but it is decidedly inferior to the apple of Britain. In 
Van Diemen's Land these fruits arrive at the greatest perfection ; and as the climate of the country to 
the westward of the Blue Mountains is equally cold, they will, without doubt, attain there an equal 
degree of excellence. Of all the fruits which are thus enumerated, as being produced in the colony, the 
peach is the most abundant and the most useful. The different varieties which have been already intro. 
duced succeed one another in uninterrupted succession from the middle of November to the latter end of 
March, thus filling up an interval of more than four months, and affording a wholesome and nutritious 
article of food during one-third of the year. The tree thrives in all soils and situations, and its growth is 
so rapid, that if you plant a stone, it will, in three years afterwards, bear an abundant crop. The fruit is 
the food of hogs, and when thrown into heaps, and allowed to undergo a proper degree of fermentation, 
is found to fatten them very rapidly. Cyder is also made from it; and the lees also fatten hogs. 
(Kingdom's British Colonies, p. 264.) 

504. Van Diemens Land. This settlement does not contain either such a variety or 
abundance of fruit as the parent colony. The greater coldness of the climate 
sufficiently accounts for the former deficiency, and the recency of its establishment 
for the latter. The orange, citron, guava, loquat, pomegranate, and other fruits, which 
attain the greatest perfection at Port Jackson, cannot be produced here without having 
recourse to artifical means ; while others, as the peach, nectarine, grape, &c. only arrive 
at a very inferior degree of maturity. On the other hand, the apple, currant, and goose- 
berry, and indeed all those fruits for which the climate of New South Wales is too 
warm, are raised here without difficulty. (Jftngdom's British Colonies, p. 300. } 

505. Cayenne. The French have a botanic garden, and several fine private gardens in 
the fertile colony of Cayenne. A very interesting account of this colony and its pro- 
ductions, natural and artificial, will be found in the Maison Rustique de Cayenne, 
published by Prefontaine in 1763. 

506. Malta. There is a small botanic garden on this island, supported by the govern- 
ment; and a late governor, Sir A. Balls, is said (Letters from Malta, 1817) to have 
established public gardens at every village for the employment of the poor, and the 
dissemination of useful seeds and plants among the farmers. No success attended this 
measure, from mismanagement, as it is said, in the curators. Great part of Malta was 
originally little better than a bare limestone-rock ; but this rock is full of cracks or 
vertical fissures, which are filled with calcareous soil washed down from the surface. 
This is dug up by the inhabitants, and re-spread over the surface ; and by means of 
irrigation and careful culture, the cotton-plant is grown as an article of general economy. 
In the more fertile part of the island, the orange-tribe are grown, and the Maltese, or 
red-fleshed orange, being a variety in much esteem, there is some demand for young 
trees as articles of foreign commerce. These trees are more scientifically trained and 
inoculated than those of Genoa. 



507. Every art must be affected by the government under which it is exercised, either 
directly by its law* and institutions, or indirectly by the state of society as modified by 
their influence. Gardening and agriculture differ from other arts in being still more 
affected by climates than by governments ; the influence of the latter is temporary or 
accidental, while that of the former is absolute and unchangeable. 


Gardening as affected by different Forms of Government, Religions, and States of Society. 

508. All governments may be reduced to two classes; the primitive, or those where the 
people are governed by the will or laws of one or a few persons independently of the 


people ; and the rational, or those where they are governed by laws formed by a congre- 
gated assemblage of their own body. The former are calculated for rude and ignorant 
ages, when man, in a state of infancy, is governed by a king, as children are ruled by 
their parents; the latter, for more enlightened times, when a people, like children 
arrived at manhood, are capable of thinking for themselves and acting in concert. 

509. Society is either Jived or free. In a fixed state, property is hereditary, and one 
part of the people are perfectly independent, and the other dependent; in a free state, 
men may belong to either class, according to their talents and the chances of life. In 
the former case, a man's condition in society depends on chance; in the latter on chance 
and skill combined. 

SECT. I. Gardening as affected by different Forms of Government and Religion. 

510. Gardening as an art furnishing a part of the necessaries of life, may be practised 
under any form of government ; and wherever there is some liberty and security of 
property, its productions of necessity and comfort will ensure its use. Wherever 
civilised man has a house, he will always have an accompanying spot for roots and 
legumes; and wherever he enjoys a farm, he will desire orchards or vineyards for 
fruits or wine, and copse-woods and forest-trees for fuel and timber: shelter, shade, 
and ornament will follow in due time. Under paternal forms of government, the taste 
of the monarch will generally be indiscriminately followed by such of his subjects as 
can indulge in it ; and thus fashion will assume the province of reason. Such a 
government must be favorable or unfavorable to the arts, according to the taste of its 
chief. Monarchs generally love splendor more than elegance or use ; and in gardening 
are less likely to render its useful productions common among their subjects, than to 
increase the luxurious enjoyments of a few wealthy courtiers. This was exemplified in 
Louis XIV., who set the fashion not only in France but in Europe ; but never, in all 
probability, added a foot of ground to the garden of a single cottager, or placed an 
additional cabbage or potatoe on his table. Under republican governments, the first 
tendency of public feeling is to economy, and consequently to discourage those arts, or 
branches of arts, which minister to luxury. Gardening, under such circumstances, 
will be practised as a useful art, rather than one of design and taste ; and more for its 
substantial benefits and scientific objects, than for its extraordinary productions and 
peculiar gratifications. In the beginning of the French revolution, we find the com- 
pilers of the Encyclopaedia (see the vol. sur VAratoire et Jardinage) holding light the 
productions of forcing-houses, and the taste for double flowers. In America, the same 
simplicity of taste prevails, and also in Switzerland. 

511. Gardening in all its branches will be most advantageously displayed where the 
people are free. The final tendency of every free government or society is to conglome- 
rate property in irregular masses, as nature has distributed all her properties ; and this 
irregularity is the most favorable for gardening both as a necessary, convenient, and 
elegant art. A republican or representative government and a commercial people may 
be reckoned a case highly favorable to the arts, of which Holland, Genoa, and Venice, 
formerly, and this country, at present, may be adduced as examples. Under mixed 
governments, where there is a representative body, and a first or executive magistrate, his 
taste will naturally have considerable influence on that of the people, as in Charles the 
Second's time in England ; unless, as sometimes happens, the king or executive officer's 
taste is behind that of the people, in which case if the people be free and enlightened, the 
arts of design and taste will, as they ought, become a republic, governed by its own 
laws, This last state has in some degree taken place in England since the accession of 
the Brunswick line, a fine illustration of which is given by Eustace (Tour, i. 608.), in 
comparing the taste exhibited in the royal palaces built or altered by this race, with that 
displayed in the residences of private English gentlemen since the revolution. 

512. The religion of a people is calculated to have some effect on their gardening. Those 
religions whose offices are accompanied by splendor and show, and which have numerous 
fetes and spectacles, will be favorable to the culture of flowers and plants of ornament ; 
and those which forbid, at certain seasons, the use of animal food, will in some degree 
encourage the production of fruits and culinary vegetables. Where those alternating 
days of rest, of such antiquity in society and so conducive to the comfort of the 
laboring classes, (Graham's Sabbath, Pref.} are to be spent wholly or partly in recreative 
enjoyments, encouragement will be given to public gardens of different kinds ; but 
where they are to be spent in a devotion founded in fear, and consequently gloomy and 
austere in its offices, such a religion cannot be said to encourage gardening. The 
religions of Italy and Scotland afford examples of each of these cases. 

SECT. II. Gardening as affected by different States of Society. 

513. In mixed states of society, where property is in few hands, and the population 
consists chiefly of lords of the soil and of slaves, the immensely rich may accomplish 


great designs, which shall astonish by their magnificence ; but taste among such a people 
is not likely to be refined ; works of art are only prized as marks of wealth ; their merit 
is not understood, and therefore, declining in interest after the first burst of surprise, they 
are soon viewed with indifference, and afterwards neglected or destroyed. Gardening, 
in such circumstances, is not likely to be improved in any of its branches, nor the use of 
gardens rendered general among any part of the population. Russia and Poland may 
be referred to as examples. 

514. In free states of society, where commerce is a leading pursuit, and property is irregu- 
larly distributed among all classes ; where -there are wealthy, rich, and thriving citizens, 
and where the comforts of life are known and relished by every class, gardening is likely 
to prosper in all its branches. The first-rate gardens of the wealthy will be an example 
to the rich, act as a premium to operative gardeners and artists, and encourage commer- 
cial gardens. The fine gardens displayed by the wealthy commercialist will act as a 
stimulus to the independent gentleman, too apt to be stationary in his improvements. 
The retiring tradesman will aspire to the same excellence as the merchant, and stimulate 
him in his turn. Cottage-gardens will be found real ornaments to the country, and 
supply useful food and agreeable fruits to the laboring class of society, who, as they 
become more enlightened, will prefer employing their leisure hours in this way, rather 
than in grosser pleasures or habits. This was formerly the state of Holland, and is, in 
some degree, at present, that of Britain. 

515. In free states of society, where agriculture is chiefly followed, where property con- 
tinues much divided, and mankind, as will always be the case under such circumstances, 
are sober and rational, the useful branches of gardening will be generally practised 
and much improved. Wholesome culinary vegetables will be enjoyed by all classes, 
and agreeable fruits by most of the inhabitants. Switzerland may be referred to as an 

516. Times of peace and commercial prosperity, under any government or state of society, 
will be more favorable than their opposites. The long and flourishing peace of the two first 
empires, Sir W. Temple observes, gave earlier rise and growth to learning and civilisation, 
and all the consequences of them, in magnificence and elegancy of building and gardening ; 
whereas Greece and Rome were almost perpetually engaged in quarrels and wars, either 
abroad or at home, and so were busy in actions done under the sun, rather than those under 
the shade. 

517. In mixed states of society, where a part of the population are privileged orders or 
hereditary proprietors, and the rest partly free and partly dependent, gardening is likely 
to be encouraged, more especially as an art of design. The proprietor of an entailed 
territory may be said to enjoy a sort of tangible immortality ; for by establishing in his 
person and estate a sort of local and corporeal connection between his ancestry and pos- 
terity, he sees neither beginning nor ending to his life and property. Such a being is 
anxious to distinguish his little reign by some permanent improvement ; and those which 
are most likely to answer his purpose will be building or gardening. However distant 
the expected benefits of his efforts, they are sure to be enjoyed ; and even if he exceeds 
his income, and contracts debts which he cannot pay, he knows that the labor and pro- 
perty of others, which he has embodied on his estate, will remain for its benefit, and that 
posterity will give him credit for zeal and ambition. But partial rights of this sort are 
much more injurious than beneficial to society, by giving the privileged party a legal 
title to contract debts which he is not able to pay. They are remains of those feudal 
or primitive institutions which, as mankind become enlightened, will be swept away, 
with various other antiquated customs and absurdities, till man at last, whatever may be 
the circumstances of fortune or family under which he may be ushered into society, will 
be left to sink or rise in wealth and respect, according to his personal merits. Though 
the nobility of Britain have fewer exclusive privileges than those on the continent, yet 
there are not wanting instances of these privileges being abused ; and as an example of 
a man creating sumptuous gardens and forming fine collections of plants, without being 
able to pay for them, or liable to be put to personal inconvenience on that account, we 
may refer to George, the third duke of Marlborough. 


Gardening as affected by different Climates, Habits of Life, and Manners. 

518. Att gardening is relative to climate and purjwse. It is obvious that gardening, in 
so far as respects the culture of plants, must differ in different climates, some of which 
will be found favorable for fruits, others for flowers, for culinary vegetables, and for 
timber-trees. Considered as au art of design, and as furnishing agreeable views, and 


scenes for exercise or recreation, it will be found to vary, not only with the climate, but 
with the surface of the country, and the habits and manners of society. 

SECT. I. Influence of Climate, in respect to Fruits, culinary Plants, Flowers, Timber-trees, 
and horticultural Slrill. 

519. The gardening of every country must vary according to the climate; and the 
practice of the art in one country cannot be applied to any other, unless that other greatly 
resemble the former in climate. " Useful hints," Neill observes, " may no doubt be 
occasionally drawn from observing the modes in other countries. But it is scarcely 
necessary to remark, that in warm climates the practice must differ very widely from that 
which obtains in the temperate or the cold. In the former, the plants which require to 
be fostered in our stoves, either grow spontaneously, or are cultivated in the open fields, 
while the greater part of our common pot-herbs refuse to flourish in sultry regions. 
Again, the far northern countries of Europe, Sweden, Norway, and Russia, possess 
peculiarities of climate : snow covers the soil throughout the winter, and the summers are 
uninterruptedly bright and warm. Even in Britain, such is the difference of climate 
between the favored countries of the south-west of England, and that part of the island 
which lies to the north of the Cheviot Hills, that the same rules cannot be applied to both, 
without very considerable modification. The horticulture of the north of France, of 
Belgium, Holland, and Denmark, may, in general, be considered as approaching to 
that of South Britain ; and these countries may frequently afford mutual lessons to each 
other, each availing itself of the other's discoveries, and adopting its improvements." 

520. The finest climate for fruits, according to Sir William Temple, is that of Assyria, 
Media, and Persia. " Those noble fruits, the citron, the orange, and the lemon, are 
the native product of those" noble regions, and though they have been from thence trans- 
planted and propagated in many parts of Europe, yet they have not arrived at such per- 
fection in beauty, taste, or virtue, as in their native soil and climate." " The reason of 
it can be no other than that of an excellent and proper soil being there extended under 
the best climate for the production of all sorts of the best fruits ; which seems to be from 
about twenty-five to about thirty-five degrees of latitude. Now the regions under this 
climate in the present Persian empire (which comprehends most of the other two, called 
anciently Assyria and Media,) are composed of many provinces, full of great and fertile 
plains, bounded by high mountains, especially to the north ; watered naturally with many 
rivers, and those, by art and labor, divided into many more and smaller streams, which 
all conspire to form a country, in all circumstances, the most proper and agreeable for 
the production of the best and noblest fruits. Whereas, if we survey the regions of the 
western world, lying in the same latitude, between twenty-five and thirty-five degrees, 
we shall find them extend either over the Mediterranean sea, the ocean, or the sandy 
barren countries of Africa ; and that no part of the continent of Europe lies so southward 
as thirty-five degrees ; which may serve to discover the true reason why the fruits of the 
east have been always observed, and agreed to transcend those of the west." " Persia," 
Chardin observes, " is the first country of the world for beautiful and superb flowers, 
properly so called." The same observation will apply to the whole of India ; but it is to 
be observed, that the flowers of these and other hot and dry countries are less odoriferous 
than in such as are temperate, and have a comparatively moist atmosphere. Moisture is 
favorable for conveying all odors, or, at least, for strengthening their impression on the 

-olfactory nerves. 

521. The most suitable climate for culinary or herbaceous vegetables is one temperate and 
moist ; and in this respect Holland, England, and the more temperate parts of France 
and Flanders are before the rest of Europe. Sir William Temple, who lived much in 
Holland and the adjoining countries, says gardening, in his time, was there in the greatest 
perfection. The second country in Europe for culinary gardening and flowers, appears 
to us to be Lombardy ; and considering that it is highly favorable for fruits, it may, as 
already observed, be considered the most propitious country in Europe for horticulture 
and ornamental gardening. There appear to be also corresponding situations in America, 
China, and New Holland, especially in the latter country which may one day become a 
second America. Wherever the fruit of the gooseberry and strawberry, and the bulb of 
the turnip and the head of the cabbage attain a good size, there the climate may be con- 
sidered highly favorable to the growth of kitchen-crops, most kernel-fruits of Europe, 
and florists' flowers ; but a wanner and drier climate is required for the richer stone- 
fruits, and most of those of the torrid zone. 

522. The most suitable climate for timber-trees, when durability is an object, is a dry 
and rather elevated region. The resinous tribe produces the best timber in cold moun- 
tainous regions in every part of the globe. The oak, the chestnut, and the mahogany, 
delight in strong soils and moderate temperatures, such as skirt the bottoms of mountains. 
In general, no species of timber is found to be durable which has been produced in low, 

- warm situations. 


523. Climates highly faiwrable for the productions of gardening, are often unfavorable 
to the progress of the art. In Persia and some parts of America, where the finest peaches 
are produced, the art of grafting is unknown or not practised ; and, in general, in the 
hot countries, where melons, gourds, and other rapid-growing annuals so readily produce 
their fruit, the culture of culinary leaves and legumes is neglected. In the West India 
islands and great part of America, the gourd serves the purposes of the cabbage, turnip, 
lettuce, and spinach, and with garlic, onions, and yams, constitutes their principal culi- 
nary crops. Chardin, after enumerating the natural products of Persia, says, " we are 
not to conclude from thence that they have the finest gardens in the world ; on the 
contrary, by a very general rule, there, where nature has been most abundant and liberal 
in her productions, art is proportionably rude and unknown ; for, nature having gardened 
so well, almost nothing is left for art." 

524. Climates and soils comparatively unfavorable for fruits and plants, are naturally 
conducive to skill in gardening. A very variable and unsettled climate, Neill observes 
(Gen. Report of Scotland, ch. ix.), tends to call into action all the powers of the mind, 
and to produce habits of increasing attention ; and where a gardener is able to raise 
tolerable crops, both of the more tender fruits and vegetables, in climates and situations 
adverse to the production of either, he has doubtless more real merit in accomplishing 
his object, even though the articles should be somewhat inferior in quality, than he who, 
in a propitious soil and climate, raises them to the utmost perfection. Yet the merits of 
such a gardener are often overlooked, and the master, through ignorance or indifference, 
or a niggardly penuriousness of approbation, receives that as an effort of mechanical 
routine, which is due to a rare union of science, skill, and indefatigable attention. 

525. The climate and country of England, Sir W. Temple considers as highly favor- 
able for gardening. " Perhaps few countries," he says, " are before us in the number 
of our plants, and I believe none equals us in a variety of fruits, which may be justly 
called good, and from the earliest cherry and strawberry to the last apples and pears, 
may furnish every day of the circling year. For the taste and perfection of what we 
esteem the best, I may truly say that the French, who have eaten my peaches and grapes 
at Shene, in no very ill year, have generally concluded, that the last are as good as any 
they have eaten in France on this side Fontainbleau : and the first as good as any they 
have ate in Gascony ; I mean those which come from the stone, and are properly called 
peaches, not those which are hard, and are termed pavies ; for these cannot grow in too 
warm a climate, nor ever be good in a cold, and are better at Madrid than in Gascony 
itself. Italians have agreed, my white figs to be as good as any of that sort in Italy, 
which is the earlier kind of white fig there ; for in the latter kind and the blue, we cannot 
come near the warm climates, no more than in the Frontignan or Muscat grape. My 
orange-trees are as large as any I saw when I was young in France, except those of 
Fontainbleau, or what I have since seen in the Low Countries, except some very old 
ones of the Prince of Orange's ; as laden with flowers as can well be, as full of fruit as 
I suffer or desire them, and as well tasted as are commonly brought over, except the 
l>est sorts of Seville and Portugal. And thus much I could not but say in defence of 
our climate, which is so much and so generally decried abroad. The truth is, our 
climate wants no heat to produce excellent fruits ; and the default of it is only the short 
season of our heats and summers, by which many of the latter are left behind, and im- 
perfect with us. But all such as are ripe before the end of August are, for aught I know, 
as good with us as any where else. This makes me esteem the true regions of gardens 
in England to be the compass of ten miles about London ; where the incidental warmth 
of air, from the fires and steams of so vast a town, makes fruits, as well as corn, a great 
deal forwarder than in Hampshire or Wiltshire, though more southward by a full degree." 

SECT. II. Influence of Climate and Manners on Gardening, as an Art of Design and Taste. 

526. Taste in gardening depends jointly on the state of society, and on climate. Since 
the introduction of the modern or natural style of gardening into Britain, it has been a 
common practice to condemn indiscriminately every other taste as unnatural and 
absurd. If by unnatural, an allusion is made to the verdant scenery of uncultivated 
nature, we allow that this is the case ; but we would ask, if for that reason, it follows 
that ancient gardens were not as natural and reasonable in their day, as any of the man- 
ners and customs of those times? Gardening, as a liberal art, is destined to create 
scenes, in which both beauty and use are combined ; admitting, therefore, that both 
styles are alike convenient, to say that the modern only is beautiful, is to say that there 
is only one sort of beauty adapted to gardening ; or that there is no beauty but that of 
the picturesque ; or that all former ages, and every country, excepting Britain, is in a 
state of barbarism with respect to this art. If we take the term natural in a more exten- 
sive sense, and apply it to the climate, situation, condition, and manners of a people ; 
and if we allow these to be natural, why may not their gardening be natural, as well as 
their particular customs and dress ? The gardening we now condemn so unreservedly, 


has subsisted, as we have seen, from the earliest ages in warm climates; and still pre- 
vails there, as well as in more temperate countries, whose inhabitants are not altogether 
ignorant of the modern style. It may, therefore, be said to have grown up with man- 
kind, and at all events must be perfectly suited to the wants and wishes of the inhabit- 
ants of such countries. 

527. The fitness and beauty of any style must depend on the purposes to which it is 
applied, and the kind of rural beauty already prevalent in the country of its adoption. 

The gardens of the cast, we have every reason to believe, were used more as arbors or conservatories 
are in tnis country, than as places of exercise and active enjoyment. The object was repose, indolent re- 
creation, sedentary or luxurious enjoyment. To breathe the fresh air, shaded from a tropical sun ; to 
inhale the odor of flowers ; to listen to the murmur of breezes or fountains ; to the singing of birds ; or to 
observe the minute beauties of the surrounding foliage, were, and still continue to be, the ordinary class 
of beauties desired in an eastern garden. A higher and more voluptuous kind, consisted in using it as a 
banqueting-place, bath, or seraglio, as is still the case in Turkey and Persia ; in feasting the eyes with the 
sight of dancing beauties ; in ravishing the ears with concerts of vocal or instrumental music, and in firing 
every sense with wine. Exercise was incompatible with that languor of body, which is attendant on a 
warm climate and a distant prospect ; inconsistent with security from wild beasts, and that privacy which 
selfishness or jealousy might dictate. " The Persians," Chardin observes, " do not walk in gardens o 
much as we do, but content themselves with a bare prospect, and breathing the fresh air. For this reason, 
they set themselves down in some part of the garden at their first coming in, and never move from their 
seats till they are going out of it." (Travels, ch. vi.) " Nothing surprises the people of the East Indies so 
much as to see Europeans take pleasure in exercise. They are astonished to see people walk who might 
sit still." (Kinderley 's Letters from the East Indies, p. 182.) Add to this, that the natural surface of warm 
countries is generally so parched with heat, as to be far less agreeable to look on than the verdure of a 
limited space, kept luxuriant by water. " Before the end of May," Russel remarks, " the whole country 
round Aleppo putfc on so parched and barren an aspect, that one would scarcely think it capable of produc- 
ing any thing but the very few plants which still have vigour enough to resist the extreme heats." 
(Russers Aleppo, p. 13.) If to these we subjoin the use of fruit, and, what is common to every exertion of 
man, a desire of obtaining applause for the employment of wealth and skill, we shall include every object 
sought in an eastern garden. An eastern garden, therefore, appears to have been a collection of all those 
beauties found scattered about in general nature, in order to adapt them to the use and enjoyment of 

528. The plan of an eastern garden was well calculated to attain the ends in view. 
Moderate extent and immediate connection with the house, are necessary and obvious 
ingredients in their design. The square form was adapted for the enclosure as the sim- 
plest ; the trees ranged in rows, to afford continuity of shade ; and the walks laid out 
parallel between them, to admit uninterrupted progress ; that walk parallel to, and close 
under the house, as a raised platform or terrace, to give elevation and dignity to the 
house, to give the master a commanding view of the garden, and to serve as a connecting 
link between art and comparative nature. By leaving open plots or squares of turf in 
the areas, formed by intersecting rows of trees, a free circulation of air would be faci- 
litated ; and the same object, as Pliny informs us, is promoted by the quincunx, which 
admits the breeze from every quarter of the compass more readily than any other dis- 
position. A picturesque or natural arrangement, would have stagnated the air, and 
defeated one of the grand purposes in view. The same reasons would guide them in 
their choice of spreading broad-leaved trees; and to thicken their boughs, or deprive 
them of such branches as were too low, or tended to destroy the balance of the tree, the 
pruning-knife would be occasionally applied. Water in every form suggests the idea 
of coolness ; but agitated in cascades, fountains, or jets-d'eau, it is used to the best ad- 
vantage, and the heat of the atmosphere is moderated in proportion to the evaporation 
which takes place. In still ponds or basins it lias another property, that of reflecting the 
objects around it. Buildings, as arbors, aviaries, covered seats, banqueting-houses, baths, 
and grottoes, would become requisite for their respective uses, and would abound in pro- 
portion to the wealth or rank of the owner. Fruit-trees would be introduced in ap- 
propriate situations for the sake of their fruit, and a choice of odoriferous flowers and 
shrubs would fringe the margin of the walks, to admit of a more easy inspection of their 
beauties, and nearer contact of their odors with the olfactory nerves ; they would also 
be disposed in greater profusion, in curious knots or parterres near to the house, or in 
front of the resting-places or banqueting-rooms. In time, even artificial objects of 
value, as dials, statues, vases, and urns, would be added, in order to create as much 
variety and interest in a small spot as was consistent with its utility. Such we have 
found to be the general arrangement of eastern gardens ; and as there seems no more 
obvious way of attaining the wants of those to whom they belonged, we may pronounce 
it to be perfectly reasonable and natural. 

529. As to the more extensive paradises or parks in which wild beasts were admitted, and 
even whole regiments exercised, we have but few authentic particulars respecting them. 
Those of Assyria must be regarded as royal extravagancies, calculated to excite astonish- 
ment and admiration at their magnitude, and the art and expense employed in their 
construction ; and if any reliance is to be placed in the account given by ancient authors 
of the hanging gardens of Babylon, their design will be found singularly to unite this 
object with the minor beauties of the confined garden ; to combine the splendor of mag- 
nificence with the delights of the justest feelings of nature. They were situated over, 
or according to some, adjoining to Kin<j Nebuchadnezzar's palace, or on a platform raised 

I 2 


by lofty pillars, on the banks of the Euphrates, in the middle of the city of Babylon. 
They are said to have contained groves, fountains, and, in short, every object which we 
have mentioned, as appertaining to the more ordinary description of eastern gardens. 
Their object was to gratify his Median queen, by that sort of verdant scenery and distant 
prospect, to which she had been accustomed in the more romantic country of her birth. 
The height, then, would give that commanding prospect of the water and shipping of 
the Euphrates, and the city, as well as the gardens within and without its walls, which 
she particularly desired. The air in that elevated region would be more cool than below ; 
the noise and bustle of the city would cease to be offensive ; the whole would be more 
exposed to breezes and winds ; and the mind, deriving so much enjoyment in so singu- 
lar and elevated a situation, must have experienced emotions at once sublime and roman- 
tic. But a faint idea of these gardens will be excited, by imagining the quadrangle of 
Somerset House crowned with a portion of Kensington gardens ; or of the summer 
garden of Petersburgh placed over the Kremlin in Moscow. 

,530. How and with what propriety the eastern style came afterwards to be adopted 
in Greece, Italy, France, and finally in England, is our next enquiry. The principle or 
instinct of imitation, would be the first cause why the more distant nations, whether 
colonies from the east, or returning travellers or conquerors, adopted this parent style. 
This is so obvious, as to require no comment beyond what will be furnished by individual 
enquiry into our earliest tastes, habits, and predilections in dress, amusements, furniture, 
and other matters of common life. The next principle is that of use or fitness, which 
would vary in application, proportionably to the distance and different circumstances of 
the imitating country. Thus it would not exactly apply in Greece or Italy, where the 
climate was more temperate, active exercise more congenial, and the habits of the 
wealthy, for a long time at least, comparatively frugal. Add to this, that verdant land- 
scapes, shade, breezes, rills, waterfalls, and lakes, with their accompaniments of odors, 
murmurs, singing birds, reflections of objects, were more liberally distributed over the 
face of general nature. The more active character of man in such countries would, in 
time, also appropriate to their use from this natural abundance, a greater variety of 
fruits and legumes, 

531. The eastern style assumed a variation in its character under the Romans. The 
necessarily different culture required for perfecting fruits and culinary vegetables in a 
different climate, would give rise to the orchard and kitchen-garden. This would 
simplify the objects of the ornamental garden, which would thus exhibit less a collection 
of natural beauties, than the display of art, the convenience of taking exercise, here a 
pleasure rather than a fatigue, and the gratifications of shade, cool breezes, and aromatic 
odors. A prospect of the surrounding country was desired, because it was beautiful ; 
and where, from various circumstances, it was interrupted by the garden or its boundary 
fence, mounds or hills of earth were raised, and, in time, prospect- towers appended to 
the houses. Greater extent would be required for more athletic recreations, and would 
be indulged in also by the wealth and pride of the owner for obvious reasons. Abridg- 
ment of lalx)r would suggest the use of the sheers, rather than the more tardy pruning 
knife in thickening a row of trees. A row of low trees so thickened, would suggest the 
idea of a row of dipt shrubs. Hence at first hedges ; and subsequently, when art and 
expense had exhausted every beauty, and when the taste had become tired of repetition, 
verdant sculpture would be invented, as affording novel, curious, and fantastic beauty, 
bordering, as do all extremes, upon absurdity. A more extended and absolute appropri- 
ation of territory, than what we may suppose to have taken place in the comparatively 
rude countries of the east, would lead to agricultural pursuits, and these again would 
give rise to the various arrangements of a Roman country-residence which we know to 
have existed, and which it would be superfluous to describe. Various other circumstances 
might be added ; but enough has been stated to show that the gardening of the Romans 
was perfectly natural to them, under the circumstances in which they were placed ; it 
suited their wants, and produced scenes which they found to be beautiful, and was there- 
fore in the justest taste. To have imitated the scenery of nature, or studied picturesque 
beauty in a garden, would have been merely adding a drop to the ocean of beauties 
which surrounded them. Expense incurred for this purpose could never have pro- 
cured applause to the owner, since the more like nature the production, the less would 
it excite notice. All that was left for man to do, therefore, was to create those beauties 
of art, convenience, and magnificence, which mark out his dwelling-place, and gratify 
his pride and taste by their contrast with surrounding nature. 

532. The gardening of the Romans ivas copied in France and Britain, with little vari- 
ation beyond those dictated by necessity and the difference of climate. It was found to be 

"perfectly beautiful and agreeable ; and would have continued to prevail, had Britain con- 
tinued in similar circumstances to those in which she was at the time of its introduction. 
But such has been the progress of improvement in this country, that the general face of 
nature became as it were an ancient garden, and every estate was laid out, bounded, and 




subdivided, by stripes of wood, rows of trees, canals, ponds, walls, and hedges. The 
credit or distinction to be obtained here, by continuing to employ the ancient style, could 
be no greater than what the Romans would have obtained by imitating nature. In their 
case all the country was one scene of uncultivated, in ours it was one scene of cultivated, 
beauty. In this state of things the modern style was adopted, not solely from a wish to 
imitate the gardening of the Chinese, or a high degree of refinement in taste, but from 
the steady operation of the same motives which produced and continued the ancient style, 
a desire of distinction. 

533. The modern style of gardening is unsuitable to countries not generally under cul- 
tivation. The English style cannot long please in such countries as Sweden, Poland, 
and America, otherwise than from its novelty, or as giving rise to certain associations 
with the people, whose name it bears. What delight or distinction can be produced by 
the English style in Poland, for example, where the whole country is one forest, and 
the cultivated spots only so many open glades, with the most irregular and picturesque 
sylvan boundaries ? But let a proprietor there dispose of the scenery around his resi- 
dence in the Roman or French manner ; let him display a fruit or kitchen garden 
bounded by high stone walls ; a farm subdivided by clipped hedges and ditches ; and a 
pleasure-ground of avenues, stars, circles, fountains, statues, temples, and prospect- 
towers, and he will gratify every spectator. The view of so- much art, industry, and 
magnificence, amid so much wild and rude scenery, awake so many social ideas of com- 
fort and happiness, and so much admiration at the wealth and skill employed, that a 
mind of the greatest refinement and the justest taste would feel the highest sensation of 
pleasure, and approve as much of such a country -residence in the wilds of Poland or 
America, as he would of the most natural and picturesque residence of England, amid 
its highly artificial scenery. Such is the dreariness of the public roads in Poland, 
Sweden, and Lapland, that the stran- 41 

ger-traveller hails as marks of civili- 
sation (Jig. 41.) what in cultivated 
countries would fill his mind with 

534. The modern, style is not an 
improvement on the ancient manner, 
but the substitute of one style for 
another. Part of the prevailing an- 
tipathy to the ancient style proceeds 
from a generally entertained idea, 
that the modern is an improvement 

on it, in the same way as a modern plough is an improvement on the clumsy implements 
of our ancestors ; but the truth is, the two styles are as essentially and entirely different 
in principle, as painting and architecture, the one being an imitative, and the other an 
inventive art. The more the ancient style is improved and perfected, the more it will 
differ from the modern style ; and neither improvement nor neglect of the modern style 
will ever bring it a step nearer the ancient manner. 

Landscape-gardening agrees with ancient gardening in no other circumstance than as employing the same 
materials. It is an imitative art, like painting or poetry, and is governed by the same laws. The ancient 
style is an inventive and mixed art, like architecture, and governed by the same principles. The beauties 
which architecture and geometric gardening aimed at, were those of art and utility, in which art was every 
where avowed. The modern style of gardening, and the arts of poetry and painting, imitate nature ; and, 
in doing so, the art employed is studiously concealed. Those arts, therefore, can never be compared, 
whose means are so different ; and to say that landscape-gardening is an improvement on geometric 
gardening, is a similar misapplication of language, as to say that a lawn is an improvement of a corn-field, 
because it is substituted in its place. It is absurd, therefore, to despise the ancient style, because it has 
not the same beauties as the modern, to which it never aspired. It has beauties of a different kind, equally 
perfect in their manner as those of the modern style, and equally desirable under certain circumstances. The 
question therefore is not, whether we shall admit occasional specimens of obsolete gardening, for the sake 
of antiquity, but whether we shall admit specimens of a different style, from that in general use, but equally 
perfect in its kind. (Ed. Encyc. art. Landscape Gardening.} 

535. An enlightened mind will derive pleasure from every style. " When I perceive a 
man," observes Sir W. Bridges, " incapable of deriving pleasure from more than one 
style of composition, and dogmatising on its exclusive merit, I pity his weakness and de- 
spise his presumption. When he narrows his curiosity, either to what is old or what is new ; 
when he confines his praise, either to the dead or to the living, though in both cases he is 
ridiculous, perhaps his folly is more evinced in the last." (Censitra l.itcraria, vol. viii. 
p. 214.) It is the privilege of the man, who has opened to his mind by observation and 
study all the springs of pleasant association, to delight by turns in the rudeness of solitary 
woods, in the cheerfulness of spreading plains, in the decorations of refined art, in the 
magnificence of luxuriant wealth, in the activity of crowded ports, the industry of cities, 
the pomp of spectacles, the pageantry of festivals. (Ed. Rev. 1806.) 

536. We may therefore conclude that gardening, as an art of design, must be considered 
relatively to the climate and situation of the country, and habits and manners of the 

I 3 


by lofty pillars, on the banks of the Euphrates, in the middle of the city of Babylon. 
They are said to have contained groves, fountains, and, in short, every object which we 
have mentioned, as appertaining to the more ordinary description of eastern gardens. 
Their object was to gratify his Median queen, by that sort of verdant scenery and distant 
prospect, to which she had been accustomed in the more romantic country of her birth. 
The height, then, would give that commanding prospect of the water and shipping of 
the Euphrates, and die city, as well as the gardens within and without its walls, which 
she particularly desired. The air in that elevated region would be more cool than below ; 
the noise and bustle of the city would cease to be offensive ; the whole would be more 
exposed to breezes and winds ; and the mind, deriving so much enjoyment in so singu- 
lar and elevated a situation, must have experienced emotions at once sublime and roman- 
tic. But a faint idea of these gardens will be excited, by imagining the quadrangle of 
Somerset House crowned with a portion of Kensington gardens ; or of the summer 
garden of Petersburgh placed over the Kremlin in Moscow. 

,530. How and with what propriety the eastern style came afterwards to be adopted 
in Greece, Italy, France, and finally in England, is our next enquiry. The principle or 
instinct of imitation, would be the first cause why the more distant nations, whether 
colonies from the east, or returning travellers or conquerors, adopted this parent style. 
This is so obvious, as to require no comment beyond what will be furnished by individual 
enquiry into our earliest tastes, habits, and predilections in dress, amusements, furniture, 
and other matters of common life. The next principle is that of use or fitness, which 
would vary in application, proportionably to the distance and different circumstances of 
the imitating country. Thus it would not exactly apply in Greece or Italy, where the 
climate was more temperate, active exercise more congenial, and the habits of the 
wealthy, for a long time at least, comparatively frugal. Add to this, that verdant land- 
scapes, shade, breezes, rills, waterfalls, and lakes, with their accompaniments of odors, 
murmurs, singing birds, reflections of objects, were more liberally distributed over the 
face of general nature. The more active character of man in such countries would, in 
time, also appropriate to their use from this natural abundance, a greater variety of 
fruits and legumes, 

531. The eastern style assumed a variation in its character under the Romans. The 
necessarily different culture required for perfecting fruits and culinary vegetables in a 
different climate, would give rise to the orchard and kitchen- garden. This would 
simplify the objects of the ornamental garden, which would thus exhibit less a collection 
of natural beauties, than the display of art, the convenience of taking exercise, here a 
pleasure rather than a fatigue, and the gratifications of shade, cool breezes, and aromatic 
odors. A prospect of the surrounding country was desired, because it was beautiful ; 
and where, from various circumstances, it was interrupted by the garden or its boundary 
fence, mounds or hills of earth were raised, and, in time, prospect-towers appended to 
the houses. Greater extent would be required for more athletic recreations, and would 
be indulged in also by the wealth and pride of the owner for obvious reasons. Abridg- 
ment of labor would suggest the use of the sheers, rather than the more tardy pruning 
knife in thickening a row of trees. A row of low trees so thickened, would suggest the 
idea of a row of clipt shrubs. Hence at first hedges ; and subsequently, when art and 
expense had exhausted every beauty, and when the taste had become tired of repetition, 
verdant sculpture would be invented, as affording novel, curious, and fantastic beauty, 
bordering, as do all extremes, upon absurdity. A more extended and absolute appropri- 
ation of territory, than what we may suppose to have taken place in the comparatively 
rude countries of the east, would lead to agricultural pursuits, and these again would 
give rise to the various arrangements of a Roman country-residence which we know to 
have existed, and which it would be superfluous to describe. Various other circumstances 
might be added ; but enough has been stated to show that the gardening of the Romans 
was perfectly natural to them, under the circumstances in which they were placed ; it 
suited their wants, and produced scenes which they found to be beautiful, and was there- 
fore in the justest taste. To have imitated the scenery of nature, or studied picturesque 
beauty in a garden, would have been merely adding a drop to the ocean of beauties 
which surrounded them. Expense incurred for this purpose could never have pro- 
cured applause to the owner, since the more like nature the production, the less would 
it excite notice. All that was left for man to do, therefore, was to create those beauties 
of art, convenience, and magnificence, which mark out his dwelling-place, and gratify 
his pride and taste by their contrast with surrounding nature. 

532. The gardening of the Romans was copied in France and Britain, with little vari- 
ation beyond those dictated by necessity and the difference of climate. It was found to be 

"perfectly beautiful and agreeable ; and would have continued to prevail, had Britain con- 
tinued in similar circumstances to those in which she was at the time of its introduction. 
But such has been the progress of improvement in this country, that the general face of 
nature became as it were an ancient garden, and every estate was laid out, bounded, and 




subdivided, by stripes of wood, rows of trees, canals, ponds, walls, and hedges. The 
credit or distinction to be obtained here, by continuing to employ the ancient style, could 
be no greater than what the Romans would have obtained by imitating nature. In their 
case all the country was one scene of uncultivated, in ours it was one scene of cultivated, 
beauty. In this state of things the modern style was adopted, not solely from a wish to 
imitate the gardening of the Chinese, or a high degree of refinement in taste, but from 
the steady operation of the same motives which produced and continued the ancient style, 
a desire of distinction. 

533. The modern style of gardening is unsuitable to countries not generally under cul- 
tivation. The English style cannot long please in such countries as Sweden, Poland, 
and America, otherwise than from its novelty, or as giving rise to certain associations 
with the people, whose name it bears. What delight or distinction can be produced by 
(he English style in Poland, for example, where the whole country is one forest, and 
the cultivated spots only so many open glades, with the most irregular and picturesque 
sylvan boundaries ? But let a proprietor there dispose of the scenery around his resi- 
dence in the Roman or French manner ; let him display a fruit or kitchen garden 
bounded by high stone walls ; a farm subdivided by clipped hedges and ditches ; and a 
pleasure-ground of avenues, stars, circles, fountains, statues, temples, and prospect- 
towers, and he will gratify every spectator. The view of scr much art, industry, and 
magnificence, amid so much wild and rude scenery, awake so many social ideas of com- 
fort and happiness, and so much admiration at the wealth and skill employed, that a 
mind of the greatest refinement and the justest taste would feel the highest sensation of 
pleasure, and approve as much of such a country -residence in the wilds of Poland or 
America, as he would of the most natural and picturesque residence of England, amid 
its highly artificial scenery. Such is the dreariness of the public roads in Poland, 
Sweden, and Lapland, that the stran- 41 

ger-traveller hails as marks of civili- 
sation (Jig. 41.) what in cultivated 
countries would fill his mind with 

534. The modern style is not an 
improvement on the ancient manner, 
but the substitute of one style for 
another. Part of the prevailing an- 
tipathy to the ancient style proceeds 
from a generally entertained idea, 
that the modern is an improvement 

on it, in the same way as a modern plough is an improvement on the clumsy implements 
of our ancestors ; but the truth is, the two styles are as essentially and entirely different 
in principle, as painting and architecture, the one being an imitative, and the other an 
inventive art. The more the ancient style is improved and perfected, the more it will 
differ from the modern style ; and neither improvement nor neglect of the modern style 
will ever bring it a step nearer the ancient manner. 

Landscape-gardening agrees with ancient gardening in no other circumstance than as employing the same 
materials. It is an imitative art, like painting or poetry, and is governed by the same laws. The ancient 
style is an inventive <md mixed art, like architecture, and governed by the same principles. The beauties 
which architecture and geometric gardening aimed at, were those of art and utility, in .which art was every 
where avowed. The modern style of gardening, and the arts of poetry and painting, imitate nature ; and, 
in doing so, the art employed is studiously concealed. Those arts, therefore, can never be compared, 
whose means are so different ; and to say that landscape-gardening is an improvement on geometric 
gardening, is a similar misapplication of language, as to say that a lawn is an improvement of a corn-field, 
because it is substituted in its place. It is absurd, therefore, to despise the ancient style, because it has 
not the same beauties as the modern, to which it never aspired. It has beauties of a different kind, equally 
perfect in their manner as those of the modern style, and equally desirable under certain circumstances. The 
question therefore is not, whether we shall admit occasional specimens of obsolete gardening, for the sake 
of antiquity, but whether we shall admit specimens of a different style, from that in general use, but equally 
perfect in its kind. (Ed. Encyc. art. Landscape Gardening.} 

535. An enlightened mind will derive pleasure from every style. " When I perceive a 
man," observes Sir W. Bridges, " incapable of deriving pleasure from more than one 
style of composition, and dogmatising on its exclusive merit, I pity his weakness and de- 
spise his presumption. When he narrows his curiosity, either to what is old or what is new ; 
when he confines his praise, either to the dead or to the living, though in both cases he is 
ridiculous, perhaps his folly is more evinced in the last." (Censura l.iteruria, vol. viii. 
p. 214.) It is the privilege of the man, who has opened to his mind by observation and 
study all the springs of pleasant association, to delight by turns in the rudeness of solitary 
woods, in the cheerfulness of spreading plains, in the decorations of refined art, in the 
magnificence of luxuriant wealth, in the activity of crowded ports, the industry of cities, 
the pomp of spectacles, the pageantry of festivals. (Ed. Rev, 1806.) 

536. We may therefore conclude that gardening, as an art of design, must be considered 
relatively to the climate and situation of the country, and habits and manners of the 

I 3 


the former is designated zoology ; that of the latter, botany or phytology. In the latter 
science, modern botanists have introduced the following subdivisions : 1. Systematic 
botany ; in which plants are studied apart, as distinct beings, and considered in respect 
to their resemblances, differences, nomenclature, and classification. 2. Vegetable ana- 
tomy and physiology ; or the study of plants as living beings, in which is considered 
the form of their organs, and their mode of nourishment and of multiplying themselves. 
8. Botanical geography ; in which plants are considered relatively to climate, surface, 
soil, country, habitation, &c. 4. Applied botany; in which vegetables are considered 
with respect to the wants of man and other animals ; and which includes the study 
of the medical and economical properties of plants ; the means by which man procures 
such as he wants, either by searching for them in a wild state or by cultivation. 
This last department of the science may be considered as including agriculture and 
gardening ; but these are parts of it so vast and important as to form separate branches 
of study. Conformably to this view of the subject, we have here considered the study of 
plants as to history, glossology, phytography, taxonomy, organology, anatomy, chemis- 
try, physiology, pathology, geography, and culture. 


Origin, Progress, and present State of the Study of Plants. 

547. The study of plants may be regarded as coeval with the creation of man, because they 
are in a great measure indispensable to the support of animal life. The first stage in the 
progress of this study would be that in which the attention of the human mind was di- 
rected to the discrimination of spontaneous vegetables, as fit for food. A second stage, 
that in which men began to direct their attention to useful vegetables, as capable of 
furnishing, by means of cultivation, an increased supply proportioned to the wants of 
population. Then it was that agriculture, in the proper sense of the word, would com- 
mence in society. A third stage was that in which plants began to be regarded as fur- 
nishing not only necessaries, but comforts ; and from this period, whenever it happened, 
may be dated the origin of horticulture. A fourth stage was that in which plants began 
to be considered as furnishing, not merely comforts, but luxuries. Odors and beautiful 
flowers would be prized ; and hence the origin of floriculture. 

In taking a rapid view of the progress of the study of plants among the ancients and moderns, we pass 
over the fabulous history of the Greeks, and commence with Solomon, who appears to have written a trea- 
tise on vegetables somewhere about the year B. C. 1004. This work is lost ; and the next name in order is 
Thales, in B. C. 604. To him succeeded the celebrated Pythagoras, about B. C. 550, who is believed to 
have prohibited his disciples the use of beans, on account of a supposed identity of origin between beans and 
human flesh. He is also said to have written a treatise on onions. Anaxagoras, another Greek philoso- 
pher of this period, maintained that the seeds of all vegetables are lodged in the atmosphere ; from whence 
they descend, along with the rain and dews into the earth, where they mingle with the soil, and spring up 
into plants. Empedocles is said to have attributed sexes, desires, and passions to plants ; and Democritus 
wrote a treatise on their smells. Hippocrates, about the year B. C. 409, introduced a new and enlightened 
system of medical study, a subject intimately connected with that of plants ; and his contemporary, 
Crategas, wrote a book on botany, of which some fragments lately existed in the imperial library at 
Vienna. Aristotle, about B. C. 350, wrote a scientific work on plants, which, though also lost, is quoted 
by contemporaries, and has thus obtained for its author the title of father of natural history, as well as 
prince of metaphysicians. His disciple, Theophrastus, about B. C. 300, wrote on plants ; he described 500 
species, and endeavours to account for the phenomena of vegetation. 

Soon after Theophrastus, the Greek empire began to decline, and 
with the other arts and sciences, migrated to Italy, in which it made some progress, as we may see by the 

Soon after Theophrastus, the Greek empire began to decline, and with it the study of plants. Botany, 
ith the other arts and sciences, migrated to Italy, in which it made some progress, as we may see by the 
writings of Pliny, Virgil, and other georgical authors of the Augustan age. Those Roman writers, how- 
ever, that can be considered strictly botanical, are only Dioscorides and Pliny. The work of the former, 
is a body of materia medica ; that of the latter, Rousseau considers as a body of receipts. Nothing is 
known of the state of botany during the dark ages. 

On the revival of the arts in the beginning of the fifteenth century, one of the first fruits it produced was 
the introduction of figures from wooden cuts, by Brunsfelsius of Mayence, in Germany. His Histona 
Plantarum, published in the beginning of the sixteenth century, excited the emulation of other botanists ; 
and soon after followed his countrymen, Bock, Cordus, Fuschius, Dodonseus, and Clusius. Matthiolus 
was the first Italian, Delachamp and Bauhin the first Frenchmen, and Turner and Gerarde the first 
Englishmen who caught the flame. 

But though prints had been introduced, method was wanting, without which all study of natural history 
must be of the most imperfect and limited kind. Gesner, a native of Zurich, in Switzerland, made the 
first attempt at arranging plants into classes, orders, and genera, about the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Csesalpinus, a native of Tuscany, presented a similar arrangement at the same time, without know- 
ing any thing of that of Gesner : a common occurrence in the history of inventions, and a proof that the 
general state of botanical science rendered such an invention necessary. After this period the study of 
botany proceeded with rapid strides ; and herbariums and copper-plates of plants were invented by 
Columna of Naples. 

Botanic gardens were established about the middle of the sixteenth century, first in Italy (90.), in 
1533, and afterwards in France (183.), Germany: (21G.), and England (372.), before the completion of the 
sixteenth century. This circumstance contributed, in an astonishing degree, to the progress of the study 
of plants, and procured the patronage of the wealthy. 

Botany declined or was stationary, for the greatest part of the sixteenth century ; but revived, owing, as 
it is thought, to a new direction given to the spirit of philosophical enquiry, by the illustrious Bacon. This 
wonderful philosopher explored and developed the true foundations of human knowledge, with a sagacity 
and penetration unparalleled in the history of mankind. He dared to disengage himself from the fetters 
of academical authority, condemned the visionary speculations of the schools, and recommended the sub- 
stitution of analytical and inductive investigation, proclaiming truth to be but the image of nature. 


The structure qf plants, and the phenomena of vegetable life, began to attract attention in the seventeenth 
century, 2090 years after it had been first attempted by Thcophrastus. Malpighi, an Italian, and Grew, 
an Englishman, carried on this study at the same time, unknown to each other; the result of their inves- 
tigatioru were communicated to the scientific world, towards the end of the seventeenth century, remov- 
ing in great part the veil which had hitherto enveloped the phenomena of vegetation. The plan which 
these philosophers pursued, was that of experiment recommended by Bacon ; the result may be men- 
tioned as the first fruits of his philosophy. 

548. About the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century, different 
methods or systems for arranging and naming plants were produced by Herman and 
Boerhaave, of Leyden ; Rivinus and others, in Germany ; Tournefort and Magnol, in 
France ; and Morrison and Ray, in England. Of these systems and nomenclatures, 
that of Tournefort was the most generally followed, of which we may giva, as an instance, 
the first six editions of Miller's Gardener's and Botanist's Dictionary. Tournefort's 
system depended chiefly on the corolla ; but when the plants of America began to be 
introduced, to them it was found impracticable in its application. All the other methods 
were in different degrees defective, and it was not till the appearance of Linnaeus that 
this perplexity was removed. 

549. Linnaeus founded what is called the sexual system, deducing his rules of method 
from incontrovertible principles ; establishing, in his Philosophica Botanica, laws of 
generic and specific distinction, and rules of legitimate definition. This simplicity of 
system, perspicuity of arrangement, and precision of language, has elevated botany to 
the high rank it now holds in the scale of human science ; allured to the study of plants 
men of the most distinguished abilities; and excited that ardor for botanical investigation 
which characterises the present age. This new system, as founded on the sexes of plants, 
naturally led Linnaeus to the study of the structure and phenomena of vegetables, and 
this effected at last a close and intimate union between systematic and physiological 
botany. The propriety and advantage of this union are evident, since a thorough know- 
ledge of plants involves both studies. The doctrines of Linnaeus soon procured fol- 
lowers in every country ; but the most distinguished of his immediate disciples, were 
Kalm, Hasselquist, Laefling, and Kcsnig, all of whom travelled in pursuit of new plants, 
under the auspices of their great master. Of his more remote disciples, may be named 
as most distinguished, Gmelin, Oeder, Hedwig, Goertner, Lamarck, and Sir James 
Edward Smith, the founder and president of the Linnaean Society of London, and pro- 
prietor of the whole of the Linnaean Herbarium ; from whose meritorious labors, botany 
has derived and is still deriving important advantages. 

The study of physiological botany, however, was less attended to than that of methodical arrangement 
by Linnajus and his immediate disciples ; and indeed, it would have been too much to have expected an 
equal progress in both, by him who had made so astonishing an improvement in the one department. To 
the names of Grew and Malpighi, in physiological botany, may be added, in addition to that of Linnaeus, 
Hales, Bonnet, Du Hamel, Hedwig, Spallanzani, and especially Priestley. This philosopher first brought 
the aid of pneumatic chemistry to this study, which, under the direction pi such men as Ingenhouse, 
Senebier, and Sassure, has done more to illustrate the phenomena of vegetation, than all the other means 
of investigation put together. If we add to these the ingenious hints and speculations of Darwin, in his 
Satanic Garden, and in P/iytologia ; the masterly experiments of Knight, given in the Philosophical 
Transactions ; the vegetable physiology of Mirbel and Keyser ; with the systematic view of the whole sub- 
ject by Keith, in his Introduction to Vegetable Physiology ; we may assert with the latter writer, 
" that our knowledge of the physiology of vegetables, may now be regarded as resting upon the foundation 
of a body of the most incontrovertible facts, and assuming a degree of importance inferior only to that of 
the physiology of animals." Such may be considered the present state of physiological botany. 

550. The chief improvement which has been made in the systematic department since the 
days of Linnaeus, consists in the approximations that have been made to a method of ar- 
rangement, founded on a more extended view of the relations of plants than is taken 
in the Linnaean, or artificial system. By this system, which is designated natural, as 
founded on the whole of the natural properties of the plant, the vegetable kingdom is thrown 
into groups, and whoever knows any one plant in that group, will have some general idea 
of the appearance and qualities of the whole. The use of such a classification for such as" 
already know plants individually, is therefore obviously great, though for discovering the 
names of particular species, it is in its present state less convenient than the Linna?an sys- 
tem, for owing to the small number of plants which are yet known to botanists, the groups 
or classes of the natural method are far from being perfect. 

551. The first scheme for a natural method of arranging plants was communicated to the 
public by Linnaeus in his fragments of a Natural Method, published in 1738. The next 
person who successfully traced the affinities of plants, was B. Jussieu, of Paris. In 1759, 
he displayed his method in the arrangement of the plants in the royal gardens of Trianon, 
near Paris. Afterwards, Michael Adanson, a pupil of Jussieu, who had travelled through 
part of Africa, examined all the published systems, and paid the greatest attention to the 
natural affinities of vegetables, published a very learned and useful work, Families des 
Plantes, in 1763. But it is to A. L. Jussieu, of the National Institute, nephew of the 
elder Jussieu, that the science of natural affinities owes most ; and his Genera Plantarum, 
published in 1789, is considered " the most learned botanical work that has appeared since 
the Species Plantarum of Linnasus, and the most useful to those who study the philosophy 


of botanical arrangement." Ventenat has lately published a commentary on the writings 
of A. L. Jussieu j and this author himself is now publishing a Species Plantarum, arranged 
according to his method. Professor Decandolle, of Geneva, considered one of the first 
French botanists, is also a follower of this system, in which he has made some improve- 
ments (T/ieorie de la Botaniquc, 1817), and he also is occupied with a Species Plantarum, 
arranged according to his own improvements. 

552. Botanical geography, or the knowledge of the places where plants grow (habita- 
tiones plantarum"), and the causes which influence their distribution over the globe, was 
totally neglected by the ancients. Clusius is the only botanist who before the eighteenth 
century took any pains to indicate the native countries of plants. Bauhin and Tournefort 
often neglected it. Linnseus is the first who gave the idea of indicating it in general 
works on botany, and his Floras of Sweden and Lapland are models of their kind in this 
respect. Since this period many excellent Floras have appeared, among which the Flora 
Britannica, by Sir J. E. Smith, and the Flora Fran^aise, by Professor Decandolle, may 
be mentioned as examples. The first grand effort at generalising the subject, was made 
by Humboldt, in his JEssai sur la Geographic des Plants, &c. 1811. This essay is rich in 
facts, and filled, like all the works of this philosopher, with new and ingenious views of 
nature. In a subsequent work, De Distributione Plantarum, 1815, he has more especially 
examined the influence of elevation of surface on vegetation. Professor Decandolle, has 
also given some views relatively to the subject, in his Flora Franqaise, and R. Brown, 
one of the first botanists in this country, in Remarks on the Botany of Terra Australia, and 
on tfie Plants of Congo. On the whole, however, this branch of botany, the most import- 
ant for agriculture and gardening, and without some knowledge of which, naturalisation, 
and even culture, must go on by mere hazard, may be regarded as still in its infancy. 

553. With respect to applied botany, its history would involve that of medicine, agricul- 
ture, gardening, and other mixed and mechanical arts. Plants, it may be observed, have in 
every age but the present, formed the chief articles of the materia medica of all countries. 
At present the mineral kingdom is chiefly resorted to by the practitioners of the healing 
art in Europe ; but plants retain their ground in other countries ; and fashion, which en- 
ters into every thing, may change, after exercising a certain degree of influence. The 
universal use of the vegetable kingdom in the dietetics of every country ; in the arts of 
clothing, architecture, and, in short, in almost every branch of industry, need not be en- 
larged on. 

554. Fossil botany, as studied from the impressions of plants found in the secondary 
strata of the earth, has only lately begun to attract attention ; but the essays of Schlot- 
theim, Knor, Martin, Faujas de St. Fond, and Parkinson's Essay on Organic Remains, 
deserve to be mentioned. 

Glossology, or the Names of tlie Parts of Plants. 

555. All the arts and sciences require to express, with brevity and perspicuity, a crowd of 
ideas unused in common language, and unknown to the greater part of men. Whence that 
multitude of terms, or technical turns, given to ordinary words which the public turn 
often into ridicule, because they do not feel the use of them, but which all those are 
obliged to make use of, who apply themselves to any study whatever. Botany having to 
describe an immense number of beings, and each of these beings having a great variety of 
organs, requires a great variety of terms. Nearly all botanists are agreed as to these 
terms ; and in order that they may be universally understood and remain unchanged in 
meaning, they are taken from a dead or fixed language. 

556. A plant injlower, surveyed externally, may be perceived to be composed of a variety 
of obvious parts, such as the root, the stem, the branch, the leaf, the flower, the fruit, and 
perhaps the seed ; and other parts less obvious, as buds, prickles, tendrils, hairs, glands, 
&c. These, with their modifications, and all the relative circumstances which enter into 
the botanical description of a plant, form the subject of glossology, the details of which, 
involving the definition of some hundreds of terms, are here omitted ; because to those 
conversant with them it would be of little use, and those who have them still to learn will 
find it more convenient to have recourse to some elementary work, where most of them 
are illustrated by figures. (See Smith's Introduction to Botany, Grammar of Botany, 
and similar works.) 



Phytography, or the Nomenclature and Description of Plants. 

557. The whole vegetable kingdom is divided into classes, orders, genera, species, and 
varieties. A class is distinguished by some character which is common to many plants ; 
an order is distinguished by having some character limited to a few plants belonging to a 
class ; a still more limited coincidence constitutes a genus ; and each individual of a 
genus, which continues unchanged when raised from seed, is called a species. A variety 
is formed by an accidental deviation from the specific character, and easily returns by seed 
to the particular species from which it arose. 

558. Before botany became a regular science, plants were named as individual beings, 
without regard to any relation which they had to one another. But from the great num- 
ber of names to be retained on the memory, and the obvious affinities existing among 
certain individuals or natural families, some method was soon found necessary, and it 
was then deemed requisite to give such composite names as might recall to mind some- 
thing of the individuals to which they were applied. Thus we have Anagalis flore cteruleo. 
Mespilus aculeata pyrifolia, &c. But in the end the length of these phrases became in- 
convenient ; and Linnaeus, struck with this inconvenience, proposed that the names of 
plants should henceforth consist of two words only, the one the generic or family name, 
and the other the specific or individual name. 

559. The names if classes and orders were originally primitive, or without meaning, as 
the Grasses of Tragus, Poppies of Bauhin, &c. ; and afterwards so compounded as to be 
long and complex, as the Polloplostemonopetalcp, Eleutheromacrastemones, &c. of Wachen- 
dorf. Linnaeus decided, that the names of classes and orders should consist of a single 
word, and that word not simple or primitive, but expressive of a certain character or 
characters, found in all the plants which compose it. 

560. In applying the names to plants, three rules are laid down by botanists : 1st, That the 
languages chosen should be fixed and universal, as the Greek and Latin ; 2d, That these 
languages should be used according to the general laws of grammar, and compound 
words always composed from the same language, and not of entire words, &c. ; 3d, That 
the first who discovers a being, and enregisters it in the catalogue of nature, has the right 
of giving it a name ; and that that name ought to be received and admitted by naturalists, 
unless it belong to a being already existing, or transgress the rules of nomenclature. 
Every one that discovers a new plant may not be able to enregister it according to these 
laws, and in that case has no right to give it his name ; but the botanist who enregisters 
it, and who is in truth the discoverer, may give it the name of the finder, if he chooses. 
We shall notice this subject in the order of names of classes and orders, of genera, of 
species, of varieties and subvarieties, descriptions of plants, dried plants or herbariums, 
and methods of study. 

SECT. I. Names of Classes and Orders. 

56 1 . The names of the classes and orders of Linnesus and Jussieu, being exclusively 
used at the present time, we shall pass over those of the earlier botanists. 

562. The names of the Linntsan classes and orders are, as far as practicable, expressive 
of some common character belonging to all the plants which compose them, and consist 
only of one word for the class, and another for the order, both compounded from the 
Greek. There are exceptions, however, to the first rule in several of the classes 
of the sexual system, as in Icosandria, Monoscia, Dicecia, which contain plants that 
have not the circumstances expressed in the title. Richard (Nouv. Elem. de Hot. 
1819) has given some new names, which he proposes to substitute for the least perfect of 
those fixed on by Linnaeus, but they are not likely to be generally received, at least in 
this country. 

563. The names of natural orders may be taken from such genera as may serve to re- 
call the general relations of each tribe or order. The name of the order and generic 
name, however, are at no time to be precisely the same ; from the manifest impropriety 
and confusion of arranging a thing under itself. Thus in the natural method of Linnaeus, 
the order Palmae has no genus of that name. In the method of Jussieu, the name of an 
order is composed from the name of one of the most characteristic genera of that order, 
as Rosaceae, a natural order of dicotyledonous plants, containing the well known genus 
Rosa, &c. ; and while the name of an order is terminated by two syllables, that of a sub- 
order is terminated by one only ; as Rosacece, Rosee ; Ranunculacece, Ranunculte. 

SECT. II. Names of Genera. 

564. Names from the Greek or Latin are exclusively admitted by modern botanists, all 
others being esteemed barbarous. Without this rule we should be overwhelmed, not only 


with a torrent of uncouth and unmanageable words, but we should be puzzled where to 
fix our choice, as the same plant may have fifty different original denominations in differ- 
ent parts of the world, and we might happen to choose one by which it is least known. 
There are however some exceptions, such as Acacia, Alisma, which are of Celtic origin, 
and JEruo, Alehemilla, derived from the Arabic. 

565. Such names as indicate some striking peculiarity in the genus are to be preferred : 
as Glycyrrhiza, a sweet root, for the liquorice ; Amaranthus, without decay, for an ever- 
lasting flower ; Helianthus, a sun-flower ; Lithospermum, a stony seed ; Eriocalia, a 
flower with a singularly woolly base or cup ; Origanum, an ornamental mountain plant ; 
If enter oca II is, beauty of a day ; Arenaria, a plant that inhabits sandy places ; and Gypso- 
phila, one that loves a chalky soil. Such as mark the botanical character of the genus, 
when they can be obtained for a nondescript plant, are peculiarly desirable ; as Cerato- 
petalum, from the branched horn-like petals ; Lasiopetalum, from the very singularly 
woolly corolla; Calceolaria, from the shoe- like figure of the same part; Conchium, from 
the exact resemblance of its fruit to a bivalve shell. 

566. To dedicate certain plants to the honor of distinguished persons has been customary 
in all ages. Thus Euphorbia commemorates the physician of Juba a Moorish prince, 
and Gentiana immortalises a king of Illyria. The scientific botanists of modern times 
have adopted the same movie of preserving the memory of benefactors to their science ; 
and though the honor may have been sometimes extended too far, that is no argument 
for its total abrogation. Some uncouth names thus unavoidably deform our botanical 
books ; but this is often effaced by the merits of their owners, and it is allowable to model 
them into grace as much as possible. Thus the elegant Tournefort made Gundelia, from 
Gundelscheimer ; which induced Sir J. E. Smith to choose Goodenia, for his friend Dr. 
Goodenough, though it has, when too late, been suggested that Goodenovia might have 
been preferable. Some difficulty has arisen respecting Frencli botanists on account of 
the additional names by which their grandeur, or at least their vanity, was displayed 
during the existence of the monarchy. Hence Pittonia was applied to the plant conse- 
crated to Pitton de Tournefort; but Linnaeus preferred the name by which alone he was 
known out of his country, or in learned language, and called the same genus Tourne- 


567. A fanciful analogy between botanists and the plants named after them has been 
made by Linnasus in the Critica Botanica. Thus Baiihinia, after the two distinguished 
brothers John and Gaspard Bauhin, has a two-lobed or twin leaf. Scheuchzeria, a grassy 
alpine plant, commemorates the two Scheuchzers, one of whom excelled in the knowledge 
of alpine productions, the other in that of grasses. Dorstenia, with its obsolete flowers, 
devoid of all beauty, alludes to the antiquated and uncouth book- of Dorstenius. Her- 
7iandia, an American plant, the most beautiful of all trees in its foliage, but furnished 
with trifling blossoms, bears the name of a botanist highly favored by fortune, and al- 
lowed an ample salary for the purpose of investigating the natural history of the Western 
world, but whose labors have not answered the expense. On the contrary, Magnolia, 
with its noble leaves and flowers, and Dilenia, with its beautiful blossoms and fruit, 
serve to immortalise two of the most meritorious among botanists. Linncea, a de- 
pressed abject Lapland plant, long overlooked, flowering at an early age, was named by 
Gronovius after its prototype Linnaeus. 

SECT. III. Names of Species. 

568. Specific names should be formed on similar principles to the generic ones ; but some 
exceptions are allowed, not only without inconvenience, but with great advantage. 
Such as express the essential specific character are unexceptionable, as Banksia serrata, 
integrifolia, dentata, &c. ; but perhaps those which express something equally certain, 
but not comprehended in that character, are still more useful, as conveying additional 
information, like Ixora alba and coccinea, Sderanthus annuus and perennis, Aletris fra- 
grans, Saxifraga cernua, &c. ; for which reason it is often useful, that vernacular names 
should not be mee translations of the Latin ones. Comparative appellations are very 
good, as Banksia ericifolia, Andromeda salicifolia, Saxifraga bryoidcs, l\fU'uim ciniicininn, 
Elymus Hystru, Pedicularis Sceptrum. Names which express the local situations of 
different species are excellent, such as Melampyrum arvense, pratense, nemorositm and 
sylvalicum, Carex arenaria, uliginosa and sylvatica, as well as aquatica, maritinia, 
rupestris, dlpina, nivalts, used for many plants. But names derived from particular 
countries or districts are liable to much exception, few plants being sufficiently local to 
justify their use. Thus Ligusticum cornubiense is found not only in Cornwall, but in 
Portugal, Italy, and Greece ; Schivenkia americana grows in Guinea as well as in 
South America. Such therefore, though suffered to remain on the authority of 
Linnaeus, will seldom or never be imitated by any judicious writer, unless Trollius 
eurojxzus and asiaticus may justify our naming the third species of that genus, lately 
brought from America, americanus. The use of a plant is often commodiously ex- 


pressed in its specific name, as Brassica oleracca, Papaver somnjferum, Inocarjrus cdttlis , 
so is likewise its time of flowering, as Primula veris, Leucojum vernum, a-stivum, and 
autumnale, and Helleborus hyemalis. 

569. When a plant has been erroneously made a distinct genus, the name so applied to it 
may be retained for a specific appellation, as Lathrcea Phelypasa, and Bartsia Gymnan- 
dra ; which may also be practised when a plant has been celebrated, either in botanical, 
medical, or any other history, by a particular name, as Origanum Dictamnns, Artemisia. 
Drucunculus, Laurus Cmnamomum, Selinum Carvifolia, Carica Papaya. In either case 
the specific name stands as a substantive, retaining its own gender and termination, and 
must begin with a capital letter. 

570. A specific name is occasionally adapted to some historical fact belonging to the plants 
or to the person whose name it bears, as Linncea borealis, from the great botanist of 
the north ; Murrfca exotica, after one of his favorite pupils, a foreigner ; Browallia 
demissa and elata, from a botanist of humble origin and character, who afterwards became 
a lofty bishop. In like manner Bujfonia tenuifolia, is well known to be a satire on the 
slender botanical pretensions of the great French zoologist. 

571. Names sanctioned by general use are for the most part held sacred among botanists. 
The study of natural history is, from the multitude of objects with which it is conver- 
sant, necessarily so encumbered with names, that students require every possible assist- 
ance to facilitate the attainment of those names, and have a just right to complain of 
every needless impediment. The names established throughout the works of Linnaeus, 
are become current coin, nor can they be altered without great inconvenience. Those 
who alter names, often for the worse, according to arbitrary rules of their own, or in 
order to aim at consequence, which they cannot otherwise attain, are best treated with 
silent neglect. When, however, solid discoveries and improvements are made in the 
science ; when species or genera have been confounded by Linnasus himself, and new 
ones require to be separated from them, the latter must necessarily receive appropriate 
appellations; as also when a totally wrong and absurd name has by mistake been given, 
as Begonia capensis. In such cases names must give place to things, and alterations 
proceeding from such causes must be submitted to. (Smith's Introduction, ch. 22.) 

SECT. IV. Names of Varieties and Subvarieties. 

572. The names which botanists give to varieties are of the simplest description ; they 
always convey an idea of the variation which has taken place, and are used in addition 
to the specific name. Thus we have Caltha j)alustris, the species, and palustiis Jlore 
pleno, the double-flowered caltha, &c. As a series of species are commonly numbered 
1, 2, 3, &c. so the varieties of a species, are generally, for distinction sake, designated 
by the letters of the Greek alphabet, thus : Brassica oleracea, the species ; a. Capitata, 
the first species; fi. liubra, the second species; 7. Sabauda , 5. Sabellica, &c. 

573. Subvarieties of plants are accidental modifications of varieties of a very temporary 
and fluctuating nature. They are generally produced by culture, and are more espe- 
cially known in garden-fruits, culinary vegetables, and what are called florists' flowers. 
The differences among subvarieties are generally so slight, or so difficult to define, as 
not to admit of the application of scientific names. Botanists, therefore, pay no 
attention to them ; but gardeners, to whom they are of considerable importance, have 
found it necessary in some way or other to distinguish them, and they generally apply 
the name of the person or place, by whom or where, they were originated. Tims Pyrus 
malus is the crab or apple, P. malus var. domestica, the cultivated apple. Pyrus 
malus var. domestica subvar. Downton pippin, apple raised from seed at Downton. 
P. m. v. d. subvar. Kirk's fame, &c. Brassica oleracea var. capitata, common white 
cabbage. B. o. var. c. subvar. Battersea early common cabbage, an early variety 
raised at Battersea. Dianthus caryophyllus is the clove pink. D. c. var. florc pleno 
is the carnation. Dian. cary. var. fl. pi. subvar. Hogg's seedling, a variety of carnation 
raised by Hogg. D. c. fl. pi. subvar. Lady Jane Grey, a variety of carnation named 
after Lady Jane Grey. A refinement on this sort of nomenclature consists in adding 
the name of the person who originated the subvariety, to the name of the person or 
place after whom or which it was named ; thus, Hogg's Lady Jane Grey, Duncan's 
Cheshire hero, &c. " To raise a fine new variety of any florist's flower, to name it after 
some great personage, and with that name to couple your own, is the greatest honor, 
says Kmmerton (Treatise on the Auricula") , which a florist can aspire to." 

574. Names of subvarieties which indicate something of their properties are to be preferred, 
as Black July-grape, June-eating-apple, &c. ; or such as indicate the place or time where 
or when they were originated or abound, as Deptford onion, Claremont nuptials primrose, 
or the Afflicted queen carnation. Such names convey ideas which may prove useful 
as to the qualities of the variety : thus the first and second names convey some idea of 
the time of ripening ; the third* some idea of the soil and climate in which the plant 
thrives ; the fourth and fifth, the date, and consequently the age of the variety. 




Deciduous tret. 
Evergreen tree. 
Deciduous spiry-topt tree, 
Erergr. spiry-toyl tree. 

Deciduous shrub. 
Evergreen shrub 
Twining shrub. 

Climbing shrub. 
Trailing shrub. 
Creeping shrub. 

_3L Twining perennial. 

-j^R. Climbing perennial. 

SOU Trailing perennial. 

^yvflt Creeping perennial. 

JL. Bulbous perennial. 

3w Tuberou* perennial. 

"i> Fusiform perennial. 

_v. Annual. 


^ BtVnma/. 

Annual grass. 

fSciiaminoHS plant. 

vP^* Aquatic. 

/{* Parasite. 

\& Succulent. 

LJ Bark-store. 

I Dry-stoie. 

LJ Gretn-hctise. 

1 Frame. 

|^j BarAr time deciduous tree. 

i^? Dry-ttove deciduous shrub. 

CCK Green-Aotae aquatic. 

LfiL frame <AruA. 


SECT. V. Descriptions of Plants. 

515. Plants are described by the use of language alone, or 
by language and figures, models, or dried plants conjoined. The 
description of plants may be either abridged or complete. The 
shortest mode of abridgment is that employed in botanical 
catalogues, as in those of Donn or of Sweet. A complete 
description, according to Decandolle, ought to proceed in the 
following order : 

1. The admitted name. 

!i. The characteristic phrase. 

3. The synonyms. 

4. The docr'iption, comprehending the 
nrgans, beginning with the root. 

j. The history, that is, the country, du- 

ration, station, habitual time of foliation and 
exfoliation, of flowering, and of ripening the 

6. Application, which includes the cul- 
ture ana uses. 

7. Critical or incidental observations. 

576. Descriptions are, in general, written in Latin, the names 
in the nominative, and followed by epithets which mark their 
modifications, and which are not united by a verb, unless that 
becomes necessary to explain any circumstance which is not 
provided for in the ordinary form of the terms. Doubts as 
to the received ideas on the plant described, or any other mis- 
cellaneous matters, are to be placed under the last article. 

577. Collections of botanical descriptions may be of different 
sorts, as 

Monographs, or descriptions of 
s, tribe, or class, as Lmdley's I 

genus, triEe, ' or 'class, as Landley's Mono- 
graphia Rosarum. 

2. Floras, or an enumeration of the plants 
of any one district or country, as Smith's 
Flora Briiannica. 

3. Gardens, or an enumeration, descrip- 
tive or nominal, of the plants cultivated 
in any one garden, as Alton's Hortut 

4. General marks, in which all known 

plants are described^ as Willdenow's Species 
Plantarum, and Fersoon's Synovtit Specie! 

All these classes of books may be with or 
without plates or figures ; and these again, 
may be of part or of the whole plant, and 
colored or plain, itc. Some botanists have 
substituted dried specimens for figures, which 
is approved of in cases of difficult tribes or 
genera ; as in the grasses, ferns, geraniums, 
ericas, c. 

578. Collections of descriptions of plants in what are called 
gardens or catalogues, form one of the most useful kinds of 
botanical books for the practical gardener. The most complete 
of these hitherto published is the Hortus Suburbanus Londhiensis 
of R. Sweet ; but this, as well as all other works of the kind, 
admit of being rendered much more descriptive by a more ex- 
tensive use of abbreviated terms, and even by the use of picto- 
rial signs, (fig. 42.) Sweet's Hortus gives the Linnaan and 
natural class and order, systematic and English name, authority, 
habitation in the garden, time of flowering, year of introduction, 
and reference to engraved figures ; but there might be added 
on the same page, the height of the plant, color of the flower, 
time of ripening the seed or fruit, soil, mode of propagation, 
and the natural habitation of such as are natives. Instead 
of the usual mark ( ^ ) for a ligneous plant, pictorial types 
might be introduced to indicate whether it was a tree or shrub, 
deciduous or ever-green, spiry topt, a palm, climbing, twining 
or trailing, &c. ; and instead of the common sign for a per- 
ennial (2|), biennial (<?), or annual (Q), something of 
the natural character of the plant might be similarly indi- 
cated. A single line of a catalogue formed on this principle 
would expand into a long paragraph of ideas in the mind of the 
botanist or gardener, and might easily be rendered a Species 
Plantarum, by introducing short specific characters in single 
lines on the page opposite the catalogue lines, as in Galpine's 
Compendium of the British Flora. It might farther, by sub- 
joining notes to all the useful or remarkable species at the 
bottom of every page, be rendered a history of plants, includ- 
ing their uses in the arts and manufactures, and their culture 
in agriculture or gardening. Such an Encyclopaedia of Plants, 
with other improvements, we, with competent assistance, have 
sometime since, commenced, and hope soon to submit to the 


SECT. VI. Of forming and preserving Herbariums. 

579. Dried plants far surjiass either draivings or descriptions in giving complete ideas of 
their appearance. When plants are well dried, the original forms and positions of even 
their minutest parts, though not their colors, may at any time be restored by immersion 
in hot water. By this means the productions of the most distant and various countries, 
such as no garden could possibly supply, are brought together at once under our eyes, 
at any season of the year. 

580. The mode or state in which plants 'are pi-eservcd, is generally desiccation, accom- 
panied by pressing. Some persons, Sir J. E. Smith observes, recommend the preservation 
of specimens in weak spirits of wine, and this mode is by far the most eligible for such as 
are very juicy ; but it totally destroys their colors, and often renders their parts less fit 
for examination, than by the process of drying. It is, besides, incommodious for frequent 
study, and a very expensive and bulky way of making an herbarium. 

581. The greater part of plants dry with facility between the leaves of books, or other paper, 
the smoother the better. If there be plenty of paper, they often dry best without 
shifting ; but if the specimens are crowded, they must be taken out frequently, and the 
paper dried before they are replaced. The great point to be attended to is, that the 
process should meet with no check. Several vegetables are so tenacious of their vital 
principle, that they will grow between papers ; the consequence of which is, a destruc- 
tion of their proper habit and colors. It is necessary to destroy the life of such, either 
by immersion in boiling water, or by the application of a hot iron, such as is used for 
linen, after which they are easily dried. The practice of applying such an iron, as some 
persons do, with great labor and perseverance, till the plants are quite dry, and all 
their parts incorporated into a smooth flat mass is not approved of. This renders them 
unfit for subsequent examination, and destroys their natural habit, the most important 
thing to be preserved. Even in spreading plants between papers, we should refrain 
from that precise and artificial disposition of their branches, leaves, and other parts, 
which takes away from their natural aspect, except for the purpose of displaying the 
internal parts of some one or two of their flowers, for ready observation. The most 
approved method of pressing is by a box or frame, with a bottom of cloth or leather, 
like a square sieve. In this, coarse sand or small shot may be placed, in any quantity. 
Very little pressing is required in drying specimens ; what is found necessary should 
be applied equally to every part of the bundle under the operation, and this can only be 
done by the use of an equalising press of granulated matter, of compressed air, or of a 
bag of water. 

Dried specimens are kept in herbariums in various ways : sometimes loose between leaves of paper ; at 
other times wholly gummed or glued to paper, but most generally attached by one or more transverse slips 
of paper, glued on one end and pinned at the other, so that such specimens can readily be taken out, 
examined, and replaced. On account of the aptitude of the leaves and other parts of dried plants to drop 
off, many glue them entirely, and such seems to be the method adopted by Linnaeus, and recommended 
by Sir J. E. Smith. " Dried specimens," the professor observes, " are best preserved by being fastened, 
with weak carpenter's glue, to paper, so that they may be turned over without damage. Thick and heavy 
stalks require the additional support of a few transverse strips of paper, to bind them more firmly down. 
A half sheet, of a convenient folio size, should be allotted to each species, and all the species of a genus 
may be placed in one or more whole sheets or folios. On the outside of the latter should be written the 
name of the genus, while the name of every species, with its place of growth, time of gathering, the finder's 
name, or any other concise piece of information, may be inscribed on its appropriate paper. This is the 
plan of the Linnasan herbarium." 

In arranging dried specimens, the most simple and obvious guide is that of the order of their flowering, 
or that in which they are gathered, and this may be adopted during the summer season ; but afterwards 
they ought to be put into some scientific method, either natural or artificial. They may be kept in a 
cabinet, consisting of a collection of drawers for each order ; and the relative as well as absolute size of 
these drawers, will depend on the proposed extent of the collection, as whether of British plants only, of 
hardy plants only, or of all plants introduced to this country. In the chapter on vegetable geography will 
be found data for the size of the drawers under every case. 

The fungi cannot in general be dried so as to retain the habit and character of the vegetating plant ; 
but this defect is supplied by models, of which excellent collections are prepared for sale by the Sowerby 
family, well known for their botanical works. 

The perfect preservation of an herbarium is much impeded from the attacks of insects. A little beetle, 
called Ptinusfur, is more especially the pest of collectors, laying its eggs in the germens or receptacles of 
flowers, as well as on the more solid parts, which are speedily devoured by the maggots when hatched, and 
by their devastations, paper and plants are alike involved in ruin. The most bitter and acrid tribes, as 
euphorbia, gentiana, primus, the syngenesious class, and especially willows, are preferred by these vermin. 
The last-mentioned family can scarcely be thoroughly dried before it is devoured. Ferns are scarcely ever 
attacked, and grasses but seldom. To remedy this inconvenience, a solution of corrosive sublimate of 
mercury in rectified spirits of wine, about two drams to a pint, with a little camphor, will be found per- 
fectly efficacious. It is easily applied with a camel-hair pencil when the specimens are perfectly dry, not 
before ; and if they are not too tender, it is best done before they are pasted, as the spirit extracts a yellow 
dye from many plants, and stains the paper. A few drops of this solution should be mixed with the glue 
used for pasting. This application not only destroys or keeps off' all vermin, but it greatly revives the colors 
of most plants, giving the collection a most pleasing air of freshness and neatness. After several years' 
experience, no inconvenience has been found from it whatever, nor can any dried plants be long preserved 
without it. 

The herbarium is best kept in a dry room without a constant fire. Linnaeus had a stone building for his 
museum, remote from his dwelling-house, into which neither fire nor candle was ever admitted, yet 
nothing was more free than his collection from the injuries of dampness, or other causes of decay. 
(Smith's Introduction, ch. 24.) 


SECT. VII. Of Methods of Study. 

582. There are two methods of acquiring botanical knoivledge, analogous to those by which 
languages are acquired. The first is the natural method, which begins with the great and 
obvious classes of vegetables, and distinguishes trees, grasses, &c. ; next individuals among 
these ; and afterwards their parts or organs. This knowledge is acquired insensibly, as 
one acquires 1 is mother-tongue. The second is the artificial method, and begins with 
the parts of plants, as the leaves, roots, &c., ascending to nomenclature and classification, 
and is acquired by particular study, aided by books or instructors, as one acquires a dead 
or foreign language. This method is the fittest for such as wish to attain a thorough 
knowledge of plants, so as to be able to describe them ; the other mode is easier, and the 
best suited for cultivators, whose object does not go beyond that of understanding their 
descriptions, and studying their physiology, history, and application. 

An easy and expeditious mode for gardeners to know plants and study the vegetable kingdom is as 
follows : 

Begin by acquiring the names of a great number of individuals. Supposing the plants growing in a 
named collection, or that you have any person to tell you their names : then take any old book, and begin 
at any point (in preference the beginning) of the collection, border, or field, and taking a leaf from the 
plant whose name you wish to know, put it between the two first leaves of the book, writing the name 
witli a pencil, if you are gathering from a named collection, or if not, merely write a number, and get the 
name inserted by your instructor afterwards. * Gather, say a dozen the first clay, carry the book in your 
pocket, and fix these names in your memory, associated with the form and color of the leaves, by 
repeatedly turning to them during the moments of leisure of one dav. Then, the second day, proceed to 
the plants, and endeavour to apply the names to the entire plant. To assist you, take them in the order 
in which you gathered them, and refer to the book when your memory fails. To aid hi recollecting the 
botanic names, endeavour, after you have gathered the leaves, either by books or your instructor, to learn 
the etymology of the name, and something of the history of the plant, &c. Attach the leaves by two 
transverse cuts in the paper, or by any simple process, so as the first set may not fall out' when you are 
collecting a second. Having fixed the first fasciculus in your memory, form a second, which you may in- 
crease according to your capacity of remembering. Proceed as before during the second day; and the 
beginning of the third day, begin at your first station, and recall to memory the names acquired during 
both the first and second day. In this way go on till you have acquired the names of the great majority 
of the plants in the garden or neighbourhood where you are situated. Nothing is more easily remembered 
than a word when it is associated with some visible object, such as a leaf or a plant ; and the more names 
of plants we know, the more easy does it become to add to our stock of them. A person who knows only 
ten plants will require a greater effort of memory to recollect two more, than one who knows a thousand 
will to remember an additional two hundred. That gardener must have little desire to learn who cannot, 
in two or three weeks, acquire the names of a thousand plants, if already arranged. If to be collected in 
the fields, it is not easy getting a thousand leaves or specimens together ; but, in general, every gardener 
requires to charge his memory with the names and ideas or images, of between five hundred and one 
thousand plants ; as being those in general cultivation as agricultural plants, forest-trees, and field-shrubs, 
horticultural plants, plants of ornament, and those requiring eradication as weeds. 

To acquire the glossology, cut a leaf or other part from the plants indicated in any elementary work 
on botany which you may possess, as affording examples of each term. You will not be able to get at all 
the examples ; but if you get at one tenth of them, it will prepare you for the next step, which is 

To acquire a knowledge of the classes and orders. This is easily done by selecting the blossoms of 
plants, whose class, &c. is designated in a catalogue. Begin with class 1, order 1. On looking at any pro- 
per catalogue, such as Sweet's or Donn's, you will find that there are but few plants in this class, and only 
one British example which flowers in May. Unless you take that month, therefore, or enjoy the advan- 
tages of inspecting hot-house plants, you can do nothing with this class. Proceed to the next order, and so 
on, examining as many flowers as possible in each class and order, in connection with the descriptions, as 
given in your elementary guide, in order that you may be perfectly familiarised with all the classes, and 
the whole or the greater number of the orders. 

Study the descriptions of plants, with the plants before you. For this purpose, procure any good Species 
Plantarum or Flora, in Latin, if you know a little of that language, as the Hortus Kcwensis, Smith's Flora 
Britannica ; or in English, as Withering's Arrangement of British Plants, Murray's British Flora, or 
Miller's Dictionary, in which last are short descriptions both in English and Latin. Persevere in this 
practice, collecting an herbarium, and writing the complete description of each specimen under it, till all 
the parts of plants are familiar to you. When that is the case, you will be able, on a plant's being presented 
to you which you never saw before, to discover (that is, if it be in flower) first its class and order, and next, 
by the aid of proper books, its generic and specific name j and this, as far as respects the names of plants, 
is to attain the object in view. 

But to k?iow the name of an object is not to know its nature ; therefore having stored up a great many 
names in your memory, and become familiarised with the plants by which you are surrounded, and with 
the art of discovering'the names of such as may be brought to you, by the Linnzean method ; the next 
thing is to study plants according to their natural affinities, by referring them to their natural orders, and 
observing the properties common to each order. Then proceed to study their anatomy, chemistry, and 
physiology ; and lastly, their history and application. For these purposes Smith's Introduction to Botany, 
Keith's Vegetable Physiology, and Willdenow's Specks Plantarum, may be reckoned standard works. 
Books of figures, such as Sowerby's Exotic and English Botany, or Curtis's Magazine, are eminently useful 
for the first department, but they can only come into the hands of a few. Those who understand French 
will find the elementary works of Decandolle, Richard, and Girardin, of a superior description. The 
Elements of Decandolle and Sprengel, lately translated, is also a valuable work. 


Taxonomy, or the Classification cf Plants. 

583. Without some arrangement, the mind of man would be unequal to the task of ac- 
quiring even an imperfect knowledge of the various objects of nature. Accordingly, in 
every science, attempts have been made to classify the different objects that it embraces, 
and these attempts have been founded on various principles. Some have adopted arti- 




ficial characters ; others have endeavoured to detect the natural relations of the beings 
to be arranged, and thus to ascertain a connection by which the whole may be asso- 
ciated. In the progress of zoology and phytology, the fundamental organs on which 
to found an artificial arrangement have been finally agreed on. In both, those which 
are essential, and which discover the greatest variety, form the basis of classification. 
Animals are found to differ most from each other in the organs of nutrition, and plants, 
in the organs of reproduction. 

584. Two kinds of methods have been adopted in arranging vegetables ; the natural and 
the artificial. A natural method is that which, in its distribution, retains all the classes 
or groups obviously alike ; that is, such into which no plants enter that are not connected 
by numerous relations, or that can be disjoined without doing a manifest violence to 
nature. An artificial method is that whose classes are not natural, because they collect 
together several genera of plants which are not connected by numerous relations, although 
they agree in the characteristic mark or marks, assigned to that particular class or assem- 
blage to which they belong. An artificial method is easier than the natural, as in the 
latter it is nature, in the former the writer, who prescribes the rules and orders to be ob- 
served in distribution. Hence, likewise, as nature is ever uniform, there can be only 
one natural method : whereas artificial methods may be multiplied almost ad infinitum, 
according to the several different relations under which bodies are viewed. 

585. The object of both methods is to promote our knowledge of the vegetable kingdom : 
the natural method, by generalising facts and ideas ; and the artificial method, by faci- 
litating the knowledge of plants as individual objects. The merits of the former method 
consist in the perfection with which plants are grouped together in natural families or 
orders, and these families grouped among themselves ; the merits of the latter consist in 
the perfection with which plants are arranged according to certain marks by which their 
names may be discovered. Plants arranged according to the natural method may be com- 
pared to words arranged according to their roots or derivations ; arranged according to 
an artificial method, they may be compared to words in a dictionary. Linnaeus has given 
the most beautiful artificial system that has ever been bestowed by genius on mankind ; 
and Jussieu has, with unrivalled ability, exhibited the natural affinities of the vegetable 
kingdom. The following Tables exhibit an outline of both methods : 

586. According to the LINN JEAN Method all Vegetables are furnished with FLOWERS, which 

are either 


Ginger, turmeric. 

Jessamine, privet, olive. - 

Valerian, iris, grasses. 

Scabious, teazel, holly. . 
("Bell-flower, bind-weed, mullein, thorn. 
l_ apple. 

Snowdrop, tulip, aloe. 


Indian-cress, heath. 

Bay, rhubarb. 

Fraxinella, rue, lychnis. 

Purslane, house-leek. 

Peach, medlar, apple, rose, cinquefoH. 

("Herb-christopher, poppy, larkspur, co- 
t lumbine. 

("Savory, hyssop, ground-ivy, balm, fox- 
t glove. 

fScurvy-grass, candy-tuft, water-cress, 
{_ stock woad. 

Geranium, mallow tribe. 

Fumitory, milk- wort. 

Orange, chocolate-nut. 
(Compound flowers, as dandelion, thistle, 
t tansey. 

Orchis, ladies'-slipper, birth-wort. 

Mulberry, nettle, oak, fir. 
Willow, hop, juniper. 

White hellebore, peUitory, orach, fig. 
Ferns, mosses, mushrooms, flags. 


TStamina and pointal in the same flower, 

'Male and female organs distinct, 

Stamina not united either above o 



"Generally of equal length. 








Three, - 





Tetrandria, - 



Pentandria, - 




Seven, - - 


Heptandria, - 

- " 



Enneandria, - 







Dodecandria, - 


Many, frequently twenty,"? 
attached to the calyx, -3 
Many, generally upwards of f 
twenty, not attached tof 
. the calyx, - -3 



.Of unequal length, 
r Two long, and two short, - 


Didynamia,, - 

C Four long, and two short, - 



Stamina united, 

fby the filaments, into one body, 
into two bodies, 
s into many bodies, 
1 by the anthers or tops, into a") 
L cylinder, -3 




Monadelphia, - 
Diadelphia, - 
Polyadelphia, - 
Syngenesia, - 

Male organs (stamina) attached T 

to, and standing upon the fc- f 
L male (pistilluml, - -3 


Gynandria, - 

(.Stamina and pointalin different flower 


f on the same plant, 



1 on different plants, 
< on the same or different plants 7 
along with hermaphrodite [- 



L flowers, - - .3 

Or lie concealed from view, and cannot") 
L be distinctly described, - -3 


Cryptogamia, - 





587. According to the Method of JUSSIEU all Vegetables are furnished 

with SEEDS, which 

are either 



Pistils nume- ~] 
rous, and sta- ( 

1. - 8. 

c Ranunculaceae, 
-? Magnoliaceas, 

mens oppo- f 

C &c. 


site, - - - J 

with dis- 
tinct pe- 

Pistils solitary, 7 
or adhering > 2. - - 12. 
together, - J 

C Papaveraceas, 
I Crucifera?, &c. 

tals in- * 
serted in 

Ovary solitary, 1 
placenta cen- r 3. - 16. 

C Caryophyllea?, 
I Lineae, &c. 


the re- 

tral, - - - J 



Fruit in scat- 


tered cells, 

t" SimaroubeaD, 

the calyx- 

but joined on 

4. - 2. 

t Ochriacea?. 

Cotyledoneas ; 

and co- 

the same 

with two or 
more cotyle- 
dons, or seed- 

rolla dis- 
tinct, - 

Pistils free, 
adhering 1 
inserted in 

. base, - --. 
or more or less 
ogether, always 
the calyx, - - 

- 5. Calyciflora?, 36. 

r Terebintacea>, 
-? Leguminosae, 
I &c. 

lobes, - - 

Stamens adhering to a co-~ 
rolla, which is not attached 

- 6. Corolliflora?, 16. 

C Oleinas, Jasmi- 
I. neae, &c. 

to the calyx, 


Calyx and corolla forming only a single" 

El. Monochla- ~i -.,, 
myde*, j 16 ' 

f Plumbagineae, 
I Plantagineae, &c. 

Monocotyle- "| 

'Jtth I In which the 

is visible, 

neco - 1 In which the fructification is concealed, 

tyledon, or 
seed-lobe, - J 

8. Phanerogameaa, 18. 

9. Cryptogameae, 5. 

liaceas, &c. 

nea? ; vege- 
table beings 
composed of With leafy expansions, and known "I 1ft v n r, artiat a f Musci, Hepa- 

a cellular tis- sexes, J ll LeJB " * \ ticae. 

sue unprovi- 

sels.andof Without leafy expansions, and not of) ,, . f Lichenea?, Hypo- 

which the known sexes, - - - - - j 1L A P h yUe*> - * j xyloneae, Agan- 

embryo is c ce * A1 8 ffi - 

without coty- 

The names of the classes are of very little consequence in this method, and the number of orders is not 
to be considered as fixed. That part of a system so new and so comprehensive necessarily admits of much 
improvement by perfecting the groups, the progress to which will more frequently be attained by subdi- 
viding than by uniting. The names of the orders indicate at the same time examples of each, as 
Ranunculacea?, Ranunculus, &c. 

SECT. I. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according to the Linncean System, 

588. The plants grown in Britain, whether native or exotic, are thus arranged according 
to the lAnneean system. The genera, of which there are species natives of the country, are 
here marked (*), for the sake of those who may wish to arrange a herbarium or growing 
collection of indigenous plants according to this method. The authorities followed are, 
Sweet's Hort. Suburb. Land. 1818, and Smith's Comp. Flora Brit. 1816. 

CLASS I. Monandria. Stamen 1. Containing only two Orders. 

1. Monogynia. Style 1. Containing of the natural order of 
Jussieu, Cannece, the genera Canna, Maranta, Thalia, Phry- 
nium ; of the beautiful order Scitanrnuxe, Hedychium, Al- 
pirua, Hellenia, Zingiber, Elettaria, Costus, Ktempferia, 
Amomum, Curcuma, Globba ; of Juncta; Philydrum ; of 
Onagraiite, Lopezia ; of Nyctagiaet, Boerhaavia ; of Cheno- 
vodetf, Pollichia; *Salicomia; of Naiadet, *Hippuris. 
$OGe\i. 65 Sp. 

2. Digynia. Styles 2. Containing of Chempodea, Corisper- 
mum, Blitum ; of Naiada, * CalUtriche. 3 Gen. 5 Sp. 

CLASS II. Diandria. Stamens 2. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. This, the most natural and numerous order, 
comprehends the elegant and fragrant Jatmineir, the Jas- 
mine, Lilac, Olive, &c. ; also Veronica, and a few labiate 
flowers with naked seeds, as Saivia, Rosemary, &c. natural 
allies of the fourteenth class ; but having only two stamens, 
they are necessarily ranged here in the artificial system It 
contains of Jasnunete, Nyctanthes, Jasminium ; of Oleina, 
*Ligustrum, Olea, Notelaea, Chionanthus, Linociera, 
Ornus, Syringa ; of Bignoniaceas, Catalpa ; of Thymeleit, 
Pimelea ; of Onagrarvf, Fontanesia, * Circaea ; of Serophu- 
larina, * Veronica, Gratiola, Schwenkia, Calceolaria; 
Acanthacea, Elytraria, Justicia, Eranthemum ; of Lenti- 
bularia, * Pinguicula, * Utricularia ; of Verbenacea, Galipea ; 
Ghinia, Stachytarpheta ; of Labiate, * Lycopus, Amethystea, 
Cunila, Ziziphora, Hedeoma, Monarda, Rosmarinus, 

* Salvia, ColBnsonia ; of Diptacea, Morina ; of 
A cjena. 36 Gen. 276 Sp. 
2. Digyma, consists only of Gramineas, *Anthoxanthum, a grass 

which, having but two stamens, is separated from its natural 
family in the third class. 1 Gen. 2 Sp. 
3. Trigynia. It contains of Piperac&e, Piper. 1 Gen. 28 Sp. 

CLASS III. Triandria. Stamens 3. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. Valeriana is placed here Because most of its 
species have three stamens. Here also we find the sword- 
leaved plants, Ira, Gladialut, Ixia, &c., also Crocut, and 
numerous grass-like plants, Scluzniu, Cyvtrut, Scirpus, &c 
It contains of Dipsacett, * Valeriana, Fedia; of yyctapntir, 
s ; of Terebiniactte, Cneorum, Comocladia ; of 

gia ; of Chenopodett, Polycnemum ; of Acerina; Hij>pocratea ; 
of Iridett, *Crocus, Trichonema, Geissorhi/.a, Hesperantha, 
Sparaxis, *Ixia, Anomatheca, Tritonia, M'atsonia, Gladio- 
lus, Melasphterula, Antholyza, Babiana, Aristea, Witsenia, 
Lapeyrousia, Moraa, *Iris", Marica, Pardanthus ; of Cmn- 
melinete, Commelina, Aneilema, Callisia ; of Poniederea, 
I^eptanthus ; of Hxmodoraceie, Wachendorfia, Xjphidium, 
Dilatris, Hsemodorum ; of Rettiacece, Xyris ; of Cyperocets, 
Mariscus, Kyllinga, *Cyperus, Isolepis, *Scirpus, Kfeocharis, 
Rhynchospora, "Schosnus, Cladium, Trichophorum, *Eri- 
ophorum ; of Graminea, *N"ardus, Lygeum, Comucopiae, 
Cenchrus, *Sesleria, Ijmnetis. 56 Gen. 346 Sp. 
2. Digynia. This important order consists of the true Grasses. 
Their habit is more easily perceived than defined ; their 
value, as furnishing herbage for cattle, and ^rain for man, is 
sufficiently obvious. No poisonous plant is found among 
them, except the LoKum temulentum, said to be intoxicating 
and pernicious in bread. Their genera are not easily denned. 
Linnaeus, Jussieu, and most botanists, pay regard to the 




number of florets in each spikelet; but in Arundo this Is of 
no moment. Magnificent and valuable works on this family 
have been published in Germany by the celebrated Sclireber 
and by Dr. Host. The Ft. Grata also is rich in this depart- 
ment, to which the late Dr. Sibthorp paid great attention. 
Much is to be expected from scientific agriculturists; but 
nature so absolutely, in general, accommodates each grass to 
its own soil and station, that nothing is more difficult than 
to overcome their habits, insomuch that few grasses can be 
generally cultivated at pleasure It contains of Graminett, 
Trichodium, Sporobolus, *Agrostis, * Knappia, Perotis, 
*Polypogon, *Stipa, Trisetum, *Avena, *Bronius, *Fes- 
tuca, *Triticum, *Secale, *Hordeum, *Elymus, *Lolium, 
Koeleria, Glyceria, *Poa, Triodia, Calamagrostis, *Arundo, 
*Aira, *Melica, Echinaria, Lappago, Eleusine, Chrysurus, 
*C.vnosurus, Beckmannia, *Dactvlis, Uniola, *Briza, Cyno- 

*Phleum, Crypsis, 

don, *Milium, *Lagurus, > 

*Phalaris, Tozettia, Paspalum, Digitaria, *Panicum, ^uiu- 
pogon, Pennisetuui, Saccharum, Rotbollia, Michrochloa, 
ieersia. 50 Gen. 314 Sp. 

3. Trigynia is chiefly composed of little pink-like plants, or, 
Caryophyllea;, as Hulosleum Tilla-a muicosa has the number 
proper to this order, but the rest of the genus bears every 
part of the fructification in fours. This, in Linnaean lan- 
guage, is expressed by saying the flower of Tillasa is quadri' 
iidiu, four cleft, and'T. mutcosa excludes, or lays aside one 
fourth of the fructification It contains of Restiacea;, *Eri- 
ocaulon ; of Portulacea, *Montia ; of Potugonca-, Kotnigia ; 
ofCan,op/it/Hea:,*Holosteum, *Po!ycarpon, Mollugo, Minu- 
artia, t^ueria, Lechea. 9 Gen. 12 Sp. 

CLASS IV. Tetrandria. Stamens 4. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. A very numerous and jarious order, of which 
the Proteacea: make a conspicuous part ; Plantago, remark- 
able for its capsula circumsfissa, a membranous capsule, 
separating by a complete circular fissure into two parts, as 
in Ceittunculus, Rubia, and others of its natural order, whose 
stipulation is remarkable, and the curious Epintedittm, are 
found here. It contains of Proteacea;, Petropnila, Isopogon, 
Protea, Leucospermum, Mimetes, Serruria, Nivenia, Soro- 
cephalus, Spatalla, Persoonia, Grevillea, Hakea, Lambertia, 
Xylomelum, Telopea, Lomatia> Rhopala, Banksia, Dry- 
andra; of Globulana; Globularia, Adina; of Rubiacea;, 
Cephalanthus ; of Dipsacea;, *Dipsacus, *Scabiosa, Knautia ; 
of Nyctaginea;, Allionia, Opercularia, Cryi'tospermum ; of 


Spermacoce. *Sherardia, *Asperula, Houstonia, 
Crucianella, *Rubia, Catesbaea, Ixora, PaTetta, 

Bouvardia, Siderodendrum, Chomelia, Mitchella, Coccocyp- 
silum, Manettia, Oldenlandia ; of Rutacea;, Zieria; of tiofa- 
nacece, Witheringia ; of Jasminea, Penasa ; of ..... 
Curtisia; of Loranthticea, Ohloranthus ; of Verbenacets, 
/Egiphila, Callicarpa ; of Ericea; Blaeria ; of Scrophulariiutt, 
Buddlea, Scoparia ; of Gentianea, Exacum, Sebaea, Frasera ; 
of Plantaginete, *Plantago ; of Primulaceoe, Centunculus ; of 
Rotacea; *Sanguisorba, "Alchemilla; of Viiei, Cissus; of 
Berberides, Epimedium ; of Caprifolia;, "Cornus ; of Terebin- 
tacea, Fagara, Ptelea ; of Onagraria; Ludwigia, Isnardia ; 
of Salicarite, Ammannia; of Hydrocharidece, *Trapa; of 
Urticees, Dorstenia ; of Aroideie, Pothos; of Elosaeni, EltE- 
agnus ; of Sanialacea:, Santalum ; of Thymeiece, Stru- 
thiola ; of Clienopudea, Rivina, Camphorosma. 78 Gen. 
420 Sp. 

2. Digynia. It contains of Caryophyllea;, BufFonia ; of .... 
.... Hamamelis ; of Papaveracete, Hypecoum. 3 Gen. 
5 Sp. 

3. Tdragynia. It contains of Rhamni, Myginda, *Ilex, some- 
times furnished with a few barren flowers ; of Boraginete, 
Coldenia ; of Alismacete, *Potamogeton ; of Naiades, *Rup- 
pia ; of Caryophyllea; *Sagina, Moenchia ; of Sempervivas, 
*Tilla3a; ofLinece, *Radiofa. 9 Gen. 35 Sp. 

CLASS V. Pentandria. A very large class. Stamens 5. 
Orders 6. 

1. Monogynia. 1 Style. One of the largest and most important 
orders of the whole system. It contains of Boraginea, He- 
liotropium, *Myosotis, Lappula, *Lithospermum, Batschia, 
Onosmodium, *Anchusa, * Cynoglossum, *Pulmonaria, 
*Symphytum, Cerinthe, Onosma, *Borago, Trichodesma, 
*Asperugo, *Lycopsis, *Echium, Tournefortia, Cordia, 
Bourreria, Ehretia, Hydrophyllum, Ellisia ; Nolana ? of 
Primulacea, Aretia, Androsace, *Primula, Cortusa, Solda- 
nella, Dodecatheon, Cyclamen, *Hottonia, *Lysimachia, 
*Anagallis, *Samolus, Coris, Diapensia, Pyxidanthera ; 
of Encece, Cyrilla, Brosstea ; of Rhodoracece, *Azalea ; of 
Epacridece, Sprengelia, Andersonia, Lysinema, Epacris, Mo- 
notoca, Leucopogon, Stenanthera, Astroloma, Styphelia ; of 
Phembaginea, Plumbago; of Convoluulacece, *Convolvulus, 
Calystegia, Ipomoea, Retzia ; of Bignoniaceat, Cobcea ; of 
Poltmoniaceoe, *Polemonium, Phlox, Ipomopsis, Caldasia; 
of Buttneriacea:, Lasiopetalum ; of .......... Galax ; of 

of Thymeiece, Scopolia; of Campanulacea, Lightfootia, 
*Campanula, Roella, Phyteuma, Trachelium, Jasione, 
*Lobelia, Cyphia; of Goodenovits, Goodenia, Euthales, 
Scaevola, Dampiera; of Rubiacea;, Cinchona, Pinckneya, 
Mussaenda, Portlandia, Genipa, Gardenia, Oxyanthus, 
Randia, Webera, Erithalis, Morinda, Nauclea, Cephaelis, 
Hamellia, Rondeletia, Macrocnemum, Vanguiera, Dentella, 
Serissa, Psychotria, Coftea, Chiococca, Paederia, Plocama ; 
of Caprijiihie, *I-onicera, Symphoria, Diervilla, Triosteum, 
*Hedera; of Cambretacex, Conocarpus; of Santalacece, 
Thesium ; of tiyctaginece, Mirabilis ; of Solaneae, Ramonda, 
*Verbascum, *Datura, Brugmansia, *Hyoscyamus, Nico- 
tiana, Mandragora, *Atropa, Solandra, Physalis, Nicandra, 
holanum, Capsicum, Cestrum, Vestia, Lycium ; of Myr- 
tinea, Ardisia ; of Sapoteie, Jacquinia, Achras, Chryso- 
phyllum, Sideroxylon, Sersalisia, Bumelia ; of Verbenacea, 
Tectona; of Rhamni, Elaeodendrum, *Rhamnus, Zizyphus, 
Celastrus, Senacia, *Euonymus, Hovenia, Ceanothus, Poma- 
erns, Phylica ? ]irunia, Staavia, Plectronia ; of Diosmea, 
Adenandra, Barosma, Diosma, Agathosma; of Pittosporece, 
Calodendrum, Bursaria, Billardiera, Pittosporum, Itea; of 
MelMf Cedrela, Leea ; of Terebintacea:, Mangifera ; of 
Rosace<t, Hirtella; of Cacti, *Ribes ; of Vites, Vitis ; of 
Cucurbitacea, Gronovia; of Gerania:? *Impatiens; of Urn- 

, na: mpaens; o rn- 

bjeric, Lagoecia; of Portvlaeea, Claytonia ; of Violets, 
Viola, lonidium ; of Musacc*, Heliconia, Strelitzia ; of 
Amarartkacea, Gomphrena, Pliiloxerus, Achyranthes, Pu- 

tmlia, Deeringia, Celosia, Lestibudesia, A Iternanthera, rua, 
lllecfbrum, Paronychia, Anychia, Mollia ; of Chenopodea;, 
Chenolea ; of Salicaria; *Glaux ; of Gentianea;, *Menyan- 
thes, *Villarsia, Logania, Spigelia, Lisianthus, *(;hironia, 
Sabbatia, Erythraea, Eustonia; of Malvaceae, Buttneria, 
Ayenia; of Avoci/nnt; Strychnos, Gelseniium, HauwoKia, 
Citrissa, Arduina, Cerbera, Allamanda, *Vinca, Nerium, 
Wrightia, Echites, Ichnocarpus, Plumeria, Cameraria, Ta- 
bernsErnontana, Amsoiiia. 209 Gen. 1080 Sp. 

2. Digynia. 2 Styles. It contains of Apocynae, Apocynum, 
Melodinus; Asclcpiailea;, Periploca, Hemidesmus, Seca- 
mone, Microloma, Sarcostemma, Dasmia, Cynanchum, 
Oxystelma, Gymnema, Calotropis, Xysmalobium, Gompho- 
carpus, *Asclepias, Gonolobus, Pergularia, Marsdenia, 
Hoya, Stapelia, Piaranthus, Huemia, Caralluma ; of Ama- 
ranthacetc, Herniaria ; of Chmopodeas, *Chenopodium, *Beta, 
*Salsola, Kochia, Anabasis, Bosea; of Amentacea; *Ulmus ; 
ot Saxifraeea, Heuchera ; of Caryophyllea; Velezia ; of Gen- 
tianea:, *Swertia, *Gentiana ; of 'Com-olvulacea; Falkia. 
Dichondra, Evqlvulus, Hydrolea, *Cuscuta; of Rubiacea.; 
Phyllis; of A ralia-, Cussonia. 

Umbellifera. These are mostly herbaceous ; the qualities 
ot such as grow on dry ground are aromatic, while the aqua- 
tic species are among the most deadly poisons ; according to 
the remark of Linnaeus, who detected the cause of a dreadful 
disorder among horned cattle in Lapland, in their eating 

young leaves of Cicuta virosa, under water It contains 

*Eryngium, *Hydrocotyle, Spananthe, *Sanicula. *Astran- 
tia, *Bupleurum, *Echinophora, Hasselquistia, *Tordylium, 
*Caucalis, Artedia, Daucus, Visnaga, *Ammi, *Bunium, 
*Comum, *Selinum, *Athamanta, Peucedanum, *Crith- 
mum, Cachrys, Ferula. Laserpitium, *HeracIeum, *Ligus- 
ticum, *Angelica, *Sium, *Sison, Bubon, *Cuminum, 
*(Enanthe, *Phellandrium, *Cicuta, *^Ethusa, Meum, 
*Coriandrum, Myrrhis, * Scandii, Oliveria, Anthriscus. 
*Cha;rophyllum, *Imperatoria, Seseli, Thapsia, *Pastinaca, 
*Smyrmum, *Anethum, *Carum, *Pimpinella, *Apium, 
*-*gopodium. 93 Gen. 487 Sp. 

3. Tngynia. It contains of Terebintacea:, Rhus, Spathelia ; of 

:, *Viburnum, *Sambucus; of Rhamni, Cassine, 

Staphylea ; of Portulacea:, *Tamarix, Turners, Telephr , 

Corrigiola, Portulacaria ; of Euphorbia;, Xylophylla ; of Ca- 
ryop/iyllece, Pharnaceum, Drypis; of Chenopodea;, Basella. 
15 Gen. 85 Sp. 

4. Tettagyma. It contains of Capparidei f *Parnassia. 1 Gen. 
3 Sp. 

5. Peiitagynia. It contains of Aralitt, Aralia; of Plumbaginece, 
*Armeria, *Statice, a beautiful maritime genus, with a kind 
of everlasting calyx; of Caryophyllea; f *Linum; of Cappa- 
rides t *Drosera ; of Portulacea; Gisekia ; of Sempervivee, 
Larochea, Crassula, a numerous succulent genus ; of TiKa 
cece, Mahernia ; of Meliaceo>, Commersoma ; of Roiacete, 
*Sibbaldia. 11 Gen. 131 Sp. 

C. Pulygynia. It contains of Raminculacea, *Myosurus, a 
remarkable instance of few stamens (though they often ex- 
ceed five) to a multitude of pistils ; also Ceratocephalus, 
Zanthorhiza. 3 Gen. 3 Sp. 

CLASS VI. Hexandna. Stamens 6. Orders 4. 

1. Monogynia. This, as usual, is the most numerous. The 
Liliaceous family, with or without a tpatha, called by Lin- 
naeus the nobles of the vegetable kingdom, constitute its 
most splendid ornament. The beautiful White Lily is 
commonly chosen by popular writers to exemplify the sta- 
mens and pistils. It contains of Pontederea, Pontedera . 
of MiMacea?, Musa, Urania; of Bromelies, Bromelia, Pitcairnia, 
Tillandsia, Agave, Furcro3a; of Commelinete , Tradescantia ; 

ricum, Arthropodium, Phalangiuni, Chforophytum, Caesia, 
*Narthecium, Dianella, Eustrephus, *Asparagus, Drimia, 
Uropetalon, * Hyacinthus, Muscari, Lachenalia, Dracaena, 
Phylloma, Phormium, Hypoxis, Curculigo, Cyanella; of 
AtnaryUidea;, Haemanthus, *Galanthus, *Leucojum, Stru- 
maria, Crinum, Cyrtanthus, Brunsvigia, Amaryllis, *Nar- 
cissus, Pancratium, Eucrosia, Doryanthes, Gethyllis; ot 
Hemerocallidea:, Blandfordia, Agapanthus, *Hemerocallis, 
Aletris, Tritoma, Veltheimia, Polianthes, Sanseviera, 
Tulbagia, Brodiasa ? Aloe ; of Lilia, *Fritillaria, *Lilium, 
*Tulipa, Alstrcemeria, Gloriosa, Yucca, Erythronium, 
Uvularia; of Melanthacea:, Bulbocodiur 

Buonapartea ; of Berberideae, Diphylleia, Nandina ; of Smila- 
ceas, Streptopus, *Convallaria, Smilacina, *Polygonatum, 
Ophiopogon ; of Hamadoraceoi, Lophiola, Lanaria, Anigo- 
zanthos ; of Berberidece, Leontice, Caulophyllum, *Berberis ; 
of Aroideie, *Acorus, Orontium, Tupistra, Peliosanthes ; 
Tacca ? of PalAue, Corypha, Licuala, Thrinax, Calamus ; of 
Juncea;, *Juncus, *Luzula ; of R hamni, Prinos ; of Rubiacea;, 
Hillia, Richardia ; of Campanulaceee, Canarina ; of Caryo- 
phyllea; Frankenia; of Salicang, *Peplis; of Gramineec, 
Bambusa, Ehrharta. 106 Gen. 730 Sp. 

2. Digynia has but few genera It contains of Graminea;, 
Oryz'a, the Rice, of which there now seems to be more than 
one species ; of Convolvulacea;, Falkia ; of Polygonea:, Atra- 
phaxis. 3 Gen. 4 Sp. 

3. Trigynia. It contains of Polygonex, *Rumex ; ofJuncea- 1 
Flage'flaria ; of Alumacea, *Scheuchzeria, *Triglochin ; of 
Melanthacea:, *Tofieldia, Melanthium, *Colchicum, Helo- 
nias, Nolina; of SmUaceat Myrsiphyllum, Medeola, Tril- 
lium; of Naiades, Aponogeton ; of Paltrue, Sabal. 14 Gen. 

4. Polygynia. It contains of Menispennete, Wendlandia ; of 
Hydro'charidca:, Damosonium ; of Alismacea;, *Actinocarpus, 
*Alisma. 4 Gen. 9 Sp. 

CLASS VII. Heptandria. Stamens 7. Orders 4. 

1. Monogynia. It contains of Primulacea;, *Trientalis ; of 
Pedicutares, Disandra ; of Nyctaginete, Pisonia ; of Chenopodea, 

*Petiveria; of Accra:, ./Esculus; of Jonesia; of 

Aroidete, Dracontium, Calla. 8 Gen. 21 Sp. 

2. Digynia. It contains of Portulacea, Limeum. 1 Gen. 1 Sp. 

3. Tetragynia. It contains of Naiades, *Saururus. 1 Gen. 

4. Heptagyma. It contains of Sempervivae, Septas, 1 Gen. 
3 Sp. 





CLASS VIII. OctnnJnn. Stamens S. Orders 4. 

1. Mtmu^'/iiiti. A very various and rich order, consisting of 
the well known Ti'twrttlunt, or Nasturtium, wliose original 
Latin name, given from the flavor of the plant, like garden- 
cresses, is now become its English one in every body's mouth. 
The elegant and fanciful Linnqean appellation, equivalent to 
a trophy vlitnf, alludes to its use for decorating bowers, and 
the resemblance of its peltate leaves to shields, as well as 
of its flowers to golden helmets, pierced through and 
through, and stained with blood. EpUobium, with its allies, 
makes a beautiful part of this order ; but above all are con- 
spicuous the favorite Fuchsia, the American genus Vacci- 
nium ; the immense and most elegant genus Erica, so 
abundant in southern Africa, but not known in America ; 
and the fragrant Daphne, of which last the Levant possesses 
many charming species. It contains of Gerania; t Tropaeo- 
lum ; of Melasiomacem, Osbeckia, Rhexia ; of Onagraria:, 
*(Enothera, Gaura, *Epilobium; of Salicaria, Griilea, 
Lawsonia; of Melanthacus, Roxburghia; of Tremandrea-, 
Tetratheca; of Myrtacete, Jambolifera; of Diosmeae, 
Corraea, Boronia ; of Sat/otae, Mimusops ; of Sapindi, 
Ornitrophe, Dime-carpus, Melicocca, Blighia, Ephielis, Koel- 
reuteria? of MMa, Guarea; of Terebintacett, Amyris; Do- 
donaea ? of Aurantits, Ximenia; of Santalacete, Fuchsia, 
Memecylon ; of Myrtaceie, Baeckia; of Gentianece, *Chlora; of 
Campanulacetje, Michauxia ; of Papaveracece, Jeffersonia ; of 
Ericetf, *Oxycoccus, Calluna, * Erica ; of Rhodoracea:, *Men- 
ziesia; of Thymelece, Lagetta, *Daphne, Dirca, Gnidia, SteU 
lera, Passerina, Lachntea. 41 Gen. 163 Sp. 

2. Digynia has a few plants, but little known ; among them 
are Galena africana, and Moehringia muscosa. The former 
belongs to Cfunopodete, and the latter to Caryopkylltxe. 
2 Gen. 2 Sp. 

3. Trigyrda. Polygonum is a genus whose species differ in 
the number of their stamens and styles, and yet none can 
be more natural. Here therefore the Linnaean system claims 
our indulgence. Paullinia and Cardiosptrmum are more con- 
stant. It contains of Polygons, *Po!ygonum, Coccoloba; 
of Sapindi, Paullinia, Seriana, Cardiobpermum, Sapindus. 

6 Gen. 50 Sp. 

4. Tetragynia. Here we find the curious Part* and Adoxa. 
It contains of Sempervirif, Calanehoe, Bryophyllum ; of 
Smilaceas, *Paris ; of Saj'ifragea; *Adoxa ; of Caryophyllecs, 
Elatine ; of Onagraritf, Haloragis ; of Urticea, Forskohlea. 

7 Gen. 10 S P . 

CLASS IX. Enneandria. Stamens 9. Orders 3. 

1. aonogyma. Here we find the precious genus Laurus, in- 

cluding the Cinnamon, Bay, Sassafras, Camphor, and many 
other noble plants. It contains of Laurinte, Laurus ; of 
Terebintacete, Anacardium ; of Polygonea, Eriogonum. 
3 Gen. 20 Sp. 

2. Trigyma. It contains of Polygonta, Rheum. 1 Gen. 

3. Hexagyma. Containing of Butomea, * Butomus. 1 Gen. 
1 Sp. 

CLASS X. Decandria. Stamens 10. Orders 5. 

1. Monogynia. A numerous and fine assemblage, beginning 
with a tribe of flowers more or less correctly papilionaceous 
and leguminous. It contains of Leguminoste, Edwardsia, 
Sophora, Ormosia, Anagyris, Thermopsis, Virgilia, Cyclopia, 
Baptisia, Podalyria, Cnorizema, Podolobium, Oxylobium, 
Callistachys, Brachysema, Gompholobium, Burtonia, Jack- 
sonia, Viminaria, Sphserolobium, Aotus, Dillwynia, Eutaxia, 
Sclerothamnus, Gastrolobium, Euchilus, Pultenaea, Davie- 
sia, Mirbelia, Cercis, Bauhinia, Hymenasa, Cynometra, 
Cassia, Cathartocarpus, Parkinsonia, Poinciana, Caesalpinia, 
Guilandina, Hyperanthera, Hoffmanseggia, Adenanthera, 
Cadia, Prosopis, Hsematoxylon, Copaifera, Scholia ; of Ru- 
tacece, Guaiacum, Zygophyllum, Fagonia, Tribulus, Dictam- 
nus. Ruta ; ofDiotmea Crowea; of Solanacete, Codon; of 
Ertcea, Monotropa ; of Droieracete, Dionrca ; of ......... 

Garuga ; of Samydes, Samyda ; of Guttifera, Gomphia ; of 
Magnolia; f Quassia; ofAurantia, Limonia, Murray a, Cookia; 
of Malpightacea, Gffirtnera; of Melim, Trichilia, Ekebergia, 
Heynea, Melia, Swietenia; of Oiuigrariie, Jussieua; of Com- 
bretacea:, Getonia, Quisqualis ; of Thymelece, Dais ; of M ela- 
*fom;,Melastoma; ofSalicarte, Acisanthera; of RJwdora- 
cea, Kalmia, Ledum, Rhodora, *Rhododendron, Epigsea; 
of Ericete, *Vaccinium, *Andromeda, Enkianthus, Gaul- 
theria, *Arbutus, Clethra, Mylocaryum, *Pyrola, Chima- 
phila ; of Santalacea-, Bucida ; of Sapotete t Inocarpus ; of 
Ebenacete, Styrax. 92 Gen. 443 Sp. 

2. Digynia. Here we find Saxifraga, remarkable for having 
the germen inferior, half inferior, and superior, in different 
species. It contains of Ebenaoeit, Royena ; of Portulacece, 
Trianthema, Scleranthus; of Cunoniacetr, Cunonia; of Sam- 
frageie, Hydrangea, * Chrysosplenium, * Saxifraga, Tiarella, 

Mitella; of Caryophyllete, Gypsophila, *Saponaria, *Di- 
anthus. 12 Gen. 1130 Sp. 

3. Trigyrda. Contains of Caryophyllete, * Cucubalus, * Silene, 
*Steilaria, *Arenaria, *Cherleria; of Pol^onete, Brun- 
nichia ; of Ranunculacea, Garidella ; of Malpighiacas, Mal- 
pighia, Banisteria ? 9 Gen. 158 Sp. 

4. Pentagyrda. Containing of Terebintacea f Averrhoa; Spon- 
dias ; of Semperviva, * Cotyledon, * Sedum, Penthorum ; 
of Gtraida 1 Grielum, * Oxalis ; of Caryophyllete, 
* Agrostemma, * Lychnis, * Cerastium, * Spergula. 1 Gen. 

6. Decaeynia. Containing of Chenopodea, Phytolacca. 11 Gen. 
164 Sp. 

CLASS XI. Dodecandria. Stamens 12 to 19. Orders 6. 

1. Monogynia. A rather numerous and very various order, 
with scarcely any natural affinity between the genera. Some 
of them have twelve, others fifteen or more stamens, which 
should be mentioned in their characters. It contains of- 
Arutolochia, * Asarum ; of Papaveracee, Bocconia ; of Sa- 
poictr, Bassia ; of Melastomacete, Blakea ; of Rliodoraceir, Be- 
jaria; of Gutttfera;, Garcinia ; of Ebenacea:, Halesia ; of 
Myrtacex, Decumaria ; of Rhamnete, Aristotelia; of Melne, 
Canella ; of Capparideae, Crataeva ; of Tiliaccte, Triumfetta ; 
of Rutaceie, Peganum ; of Ericeas t Hudsonia ; of Ficotdete, 
Nitraria; of fortulaceif, Portulaca, Talinum, Anacamp- 
seros ; of Saticariat, * Lythrum, Cuphea ; of Malvaceae, 
Kleinhofia. 22 Gen. 54 Sp. 

3. T 

2. Digynia. Containing of Cuncmiaceee, Callicoma ; of T//'-,rw, 
Hehocarpus; of Rosuceir, *Agrimonia. 3 Gen. 8 Sp. 

Containing of C,ip,,aridea;t * Reseda; of Eu- 
-, * Euphorbia; of tibenaceae, Visnea. 3 Gen. 

4. Tetragynia. Containing of Polygonetf, Calligonum. 1 Gen. 

5. Pentagyma. Containing of Ficoidece, Glinus. 1 Gen. 1 Sp. 

6. Dodecagyma. Containing of Sempervivce, *Sempervivum. 
1 Gen. 17 Sp. 

CLASS XII. Icotandria. Stamens 20 or more, inserted into 
the Calyx. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia consists of fine trees, bearing for the most part 
stone-fruits, as the Peach, Plum, Cherry, &c. though the 
leaves and other parts are bitter, acrid, and sometimes very 
dangerous, owing to a peculiar essential oil, known by its 
bitter-almond flavor. The Myrtle tribe, so plentiful in New 
Holland, is another natural order, comprehended chiefly 
under Icosandria Monogynia, abounding in a fragrant ami 
wholesome aromatic oil. It contains of Cacti, Cactus, 
Rhipsalis; of Loatetr, Bartonia ; of Myrtacep, Philadelphus, 
Leptospermum, Fabricia, Metrosiderbs, Psidium, Kuji-niii, 
Caryophyllus, Myrtus, Calyptranthes, Eucalyptus, Punica ; 
of Rosacetp, Amygdalus, *Prunus, Armeniaca, Chryso- 
balanus. 18 Gen. 178 Sp. 

2. Di-Pentagynia. In this order it is most convenient to in- 
clude such plants as have from two to five styles, and 
occasionally, from accidental luxuriance only, one or two 
more. Pyru* is an example of it. Spirtea stands here, 
most of its species having five styles, though some have a 
much greater number. Here is Mfsembryanthtmum, a vast 
and brilliant exotic genus, of a succulent habit, abound- 
ing in alkaline salt. It contains of Rosacea, Waldsteinia, 
* Mespilus, * Pyrus, * Cydonia, * Spiraea ; of FiaiidetF, 
Sesuvium, Tetragonia, Mesembryanthemum, Aizoon. 9 
Gen. 303 Sp. 

3. Polygynia. An entirely natural order of genuine Rosaceous 
flowers. Here we find Rosa, Rubus, Fragaria, Poteniilli,, 
Tormentilla, Geum, Dryas, and Comarum, all elegant plants, 
agreeing in the astringent qualities of their roots, bark and 
foliage, and in their generally eatable, always innocent fruit. 

The vegetable kingdom does not afford a 


example of a natural order, composed of natural genera, 
than this ; and Linnaeus has well illustrated it in the Flora 
Lapponica It contains of Rosaces, *Rosa, *Rubus, Dali- 
barda, *Fragaria, *Comarum, *Potentilla, *Tormentilla, 
*Geum, *Dryas, Calycanthus. 10 Gen. 240 Sp. 

CLASS XIII. Polyandria. Stamens numerous, inserted into 
the Receptacle. Orders 5. 

1. lUonogynia. The genera of this order form a numerous 
and various assemblage of handsome plants, but many are 
of a suspected quality. Among them are the Poppv, the 
Caper-shrub, the Sanguinaria caiutdenjiis, remarkable for its 
orange juice, like our Celandine; also the beautiful genus 
Cittua, with its copious but short-lived flowers, some of 
which have irritable stamens; and the splendid aquatic 
tribe of Nymphaea. It contains of Capparidex, Capparis ; 
Marcgravia ? of Raminculacea?, *Acta;a ; of Pavareruceie, 
Sanguinaria, Podophyllum, * Chelidomum, *Glaucium, 

*Papaver, Argemone ; of Sarracenia ; of 

NympfiaacciE, *Nymphaea, Nuphar, Euryale ; of Tiliuceiv, 
Bixa, Sloanea, Aubletia, Sparmannia, Muntingia, Grewia, 
*Tilia, Corchorus; of Guttifertf, Grias, Calophyllum, Mam- 
mea, Ochna, Elaeocarpus; of JUyrtaceie, Alangium ; of Lo 
asete, Mentzelia ; of Salicaria, Lagerstrcemia ; of Aitranlia; 
Mele ; of Cisti, Cistus, *Helianthemum. 32 Gen. 161 Sp. 

2. Digynia. Containing of Bunoniacece , Bauera ; of Ameniam,-, 
Fothergilla ; of Magnolia t Curatella ; of Ranunculacea-, 
Paeonia. 4 Gen. 21 Sp. 

3. Trigyrda. Containing of Dilleniacus, Hibbertia ; of Ranun- 
cidacea, *Delphinium, Aconitum. 3 Gen. 36 Sp. 

4. Pentagynia. Containing of Ranunculacett, Cimicifuga, 
*Aquilegia, Nigella; of Ficoidcte, Reaumuria. 4 Gen. Is Sp. 

5. Polygynia. An order for the most part natural, compre- 
hending some fine exotic trees, as Dillema. Liriodendron, the 
Tulip-tree, the noble Magnolia, &o. To these succeed a 
family of plants, either herbaceous or climbing, of great 
elegance, but of acrid and dangerous qualities, as Anemone, 
in a single state the most lovely, in a double one the most 
splendid ornament of our parterres in the spring ; Atrageiie 
and Clematis, so graceful for bowers; Thalictrum, Adonis, 
Ranunculus, Trollius, Helleborus and Caltha, all conspicuous 
in our gardens or meadows, which, with a few less familiar, 
close this class. It contains of Nympha-acea, Nelumbium ; 
of DiUeniacetz, Dillenia; Magnoliaceas, Liriodendron, Mag- 
nolia, Michelia; of Annotut, Uvaria, Illicium, Annona, 
Porcelia, Xylopia ; of Ranunculacea, *Hepatica, *Anemone, 

*Pulsatilla, Atragene, *Clematis, *Thalictrum, *Adonis, 
Knowltonia, *Ficaria, *Ranunculus, *TroIlius, Isopymin, 
Eranthis, *Helleborus, Coptis, *Caltha, Hydropeltis, ~ 
drastis. 28 Gen. 185 Sp. 


CLASS XIV. Didynanda. Stamens 2 long and 2 short. Or- 
ders 2, each on the whole very natural. 

1. Gymnotperrnia. Seeds naked, in the bottom of the calyx, 
four, except in Phryma, which has a solitary seed. Corolla 
monopetalous and irregular, a little inflated at the base, and 
holding honey, without any particular nectary. Stamens in 
two pairs, incurved, with the style between them, so that 
the impregnation rarely fails. The plants of this order are 
mostly aromatic, and none, we believe, poisonous. The 
calyx is either in five nearly equal segments, or two-lipped. 
Most of the genera afford excellent essential characters, 
taken frequently from the corolla, or from some other part. 
It contains of Labiate, *Ajuga, Anisomeles, *Teucnum, 
Westringia, Satureja, Thvmbra, Hyssopus, Pycnanthemum, 
*Nepeta, Elsholtzia, Lavandula," SicUm-,' livstropogon, 
*Mentha, Perilla, Hyptis, Lepechinia, *Glechoma, *La- 
mium, *Galeopsis, *Galeobdolon, * Betonica, * Stachvs, 
*Ballota, *Marrubium, *Leonurus, Phlomis, Leucas, Le- 
onotis, Moluccella, *Clinopodium, *(h-iganum, *Thymtis, 
Acynos, Calamintha, Melissa, Dracocephalum, *Melittis, 
Ocymum, Plectranthus, Trichostema, Prostanthera, *Scu- 
tellaria, *Prunella, Cleonia, Prasium, Phryma; of Verlx- 
benacex, Selago. 48 Gen. 279 Sp. 




2. AngiMpermuf. Seeds in a capsule, and generally very mime- 
rous. The plants of this ordur have the greatest possible 
affinity with some fiunfflfl in Pentandria ttottogynia. Some 
species even vary from one class to the other, as Hignonia 
rtidiciiia, and Antirrhinum Liniiria, in which the irregular 
corolla becomes regular, and the four unequal stamens are 
changed to five equal ones ; nor does this depend, as has been 
asserted, on the action of any extraneous pollen upon the 
stigmas of the parent plant, neither are the seeds always 
abortive. No method or arrangement, natural or artificial, 
could provide against such anomalies as these, and therefore 
imperfections must be expected in every system It con- 
tains of Vvrbenaceef, Hebenstretia, Clerodendrum, Volka- 
ineria, Holmskioldia, Vitex, Cornutia, Hosta, Gmelina, 
Petnea, Citharexylum, Duranta, Lantana, Spielmannia, 
Zapania, Priva, Aloysia, * Verbena ; of M.yoporiiue, Myopo- 
rum, Stenochilus, Bontia, Avicennia ; of Pedamve, I'eda- 
lium ; of liigmniiacea:, Bignonia, Sesamum, Tourrettia, Mar- 
tinia; of Gesnereie, Gloxinia, Gesneria ; of Orobanchea-. *La- 
tlmea, *Orobanche; of Acaiithacue, Acanthus, Thunbergia, 
Barlerin, Kuullia, Blechum, Aphelandra, Crossandra ; of 
ScrophuluriiH!-, Limosella, Browallia, Stemodia, iNlazus, Lin- 
drnia, Herpestis, Capraria, Teedia, Besleria, Trevirana, 
Columnea, Kusselia, ]k>dartia, Halleria, Mimulus, Horne- 
inannia, *Uigitalis, *Scrophularia, Penstemon, Chelone, 
Celsia, Alonsoa, Maurandia, Cymbaria, Nemesia, Anarrhi- 
iium, *Antirrhinum, *Linaria; of Pedicularea;, *Gerardia, 
*Pedicularig, Melampyrum, *Rhinanthus, JJartsia, Cas- 
tilleja, *Euphrasia, Bucbnera, Manulea, Erinus, *3ibthorpi ; 
of Sulnnete ? Brunfelsia, Crescentia, Anthocercis ; of Capri- 
Jitliai, *Linnaea ; of Itutacax, Melianthos. 81 Gen. 346 Sp. 

CLASS XV. Tetradynamia. Stamens 4 long and 2 short. 
Orders 2, perfectly natural. Flowers cruciform 

1. SUicttlusa. Fruit a roundish pod, or pouch. In some 
genera it is entire, as Draba ; in others notched, as Thlaspi, 
and Iberis. It contains of Cruciftira, *Cakile, *Crambe, 
*Myagrum, Euclidium, Itapistrum, Bunias, *Coronopus, 
BisJutVlta, Peltaria, Clypeola, *Isatis, Succowia, Vella, 
Anastatica, /Ethionema/*Thlaspi, *Hutchinsia, *Tees- 
dalia, *Iberis, *Lepidium,*Cochlearia, *Subularia, *Draba, 
Petrocallis, Camelma, *Alyssum, Farsetia, Vesicaria, Lu- 
naria, Ricotia. 30 Gen. 120 Sp. 

2. tiUiquosa. Fruit a very long pod. Some genera have a 
calyx clausus, its leaves slightly cohering by their sides, as 
Raphfumt, and Cheiranthus. Others have a spreading or 
gaping calyx, as Carilaminc, and Sisymbrivm. 

Cleome is a very irregular genus, allied in habit, and even 
in the number of stamens of several species, to the Polyan- 
dria Monogynia. Its fruit, moreover, is a capsule of one 
cell, not the real two-celled pod of this order. Most of its 
species are fcetid and very poisonous, whereas scarcely any 
plants properly belonging to this class are remarkably noxious. 
Sir J. E. Smith has great doubts concerning the disease 
called Raphania, attributed by Linnaeus to the seeds of Ra- 
phanus Raphanistrum. 

The cruciform plants are vulgarly called antiscorbutic, and 
supposed to be of an alkalescent nature. Their essential oil, 
which is generally obtainable in very small quantities by dis- 
tillation, smells like volatile alkali, and is of a very acrid 
quality. Hence the fcetid scent of water in which cabbages, 
or other plants of this tribe, have been boiled. 

It contains of Crucifera;, Heliophila, *Cardamine, *Ara- 
bis, Macropodium, *Turritis, *Barbarea, *Nasturtium, 

CLASS XVI. JUonadelphia. Stamens united by their filaments 
into one tube. Orders 8, distinguished by the number of 
their stamens. 

1. Triandria. This order contains the singular Cape plant 
Aphyteia, consisting of a large flower and succulent fruit, 
springing immediately from the root, without stem or leaves. 
It contains of LeguminosK, Tamarindus; of Iridete, Pa- 
tersonia, Ferraria, Tigridia, Galaxia. 5 Gen. 11 Sp. 

2. Pentandria. Containing of Tiliacae, Waltheria, Her- 
mannia ; of Malvaceae, Melochia, Melhania, Ochroma ; of 
Passiflorea, Passiflora ; of Geraniacece, *Erodium. 7 Gen. 
92 Sp. 

3. Heptandria. Contains of Qeraniacea, Pelargonium. 1 Gen. 

4. Oclandria. Contains of Melue, Aitonia. 1 Gen. 1 Sp. 

5. Decandria. Contains of Geraniacece, *Geranium ; ofLegumi- 
nosa, Brownea. 2 Gen. 41 Sp. 

6. Dodecandria. Contains of Geraniacea;, Monsonia ; ofMalvacea, 
Helicteres, Dombeya, Pentapetes, Pterospermum. 5 Gen. 
13 Sp. 

7. Polyandria, a very numerous and magnificent order, com- 
prising, of Malvaceae, Carolinea, Adansonia, Bombax, La- 
gunea, Napfea, Sida, Cristaria, Palavia, Malachra, *A1- 
thffia, *Malva, * Lavatera, Ruizia, Malope, Kitaibelia, 
Urena, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Pavonia, Achania, Myrodia, 
Gordonia; of Tiliaceae, Stuartia; of Aurantice, Camellia; of 
Myrtacee, Barringtonia, Gustavia ; of ...... Careya. 27 Gen. 

210 Sp. 

CLASS XVII. Diadelphia. Stamens united by their filaments 
into two parcels, both sometimes cohering at the base. 
Orders 4, distinguished by the number of their stamens. 
Flowers almost universally papilionaceous. 

1. Pentandria. Containing of Scrophularina, Monnieria; of 

Legumiruace, Petalostemum. 2 Gen. 5 Sp. 
2. Hexandria. Containing of Papaver 
19 Sp. 

2. Hexandria. Containing of Papaveracece, Corydalis, Cysti- 

capnos, *Fumaria. 3 Gen. 19 Sp. 
,~. Octandria. Containing of Polygalete, *Polygala, Securidaca. 

2 Gen.2 9 Sp. 
4. Decandria is by far the most numerous, as well as natural 

order of this class, consequently the genera are difficult to 

The genera are arranged in sections, variously charac- 

dr) Stamens all united, that is, all in one set ; as Spartium. 

(b) Stigma downy, without the character of the preceding 
section ; as Pitum. 

(c) Legume imperfectly divided into two alls, always, as in all 

the following, without the character of the preceding sec- 
tions ; as Astragalus. 

(d) Legume rvith scarcely more than one seed ; as Psoralca. 

(<) Legume composed ofihigle-vatcedjuiitt.i, which are rarely 

snliturif ; as Herlysarum. 

(/) Legume of one cdl,mth several seeds ; as Mi'lil^lm. 
Leguminous plants are rarely noxious to the largt 


of animals, though some species of Gulega intoxicate fish. 
The seeds of Cylisu* Laburnum have of late been found 
violently emetic, and those of Lathyrus salivus have been 
supposed at Florence to soften the bones, and cause death ; 
we know of no other similar instances in this class, which is 
one of the most abundant in valuable esculent plants. The 
negroes have a notion that the beautiful little scarlet and 
black seeds of Abrus precatorius, so frequently used for neck- 
laces, are extremely poisonous, insomuch that half of one is 
sufficient to kill a man. This is totally incredible. Linnaeus 
however asserts, Sir J. E. Smith tliinks, rather too abso- 
lutely, that " among all the leguminous or papilionaceous 
tribe, there is no deleterious plant to be found." 

It contains of Legvmlnota, Ni- solia, Dalbergia, Pongamia, 
Pterocarpus, Amerimnum, Dhrtenx, Abrus, Erythrina, 
Butea, Piscidia,.Borbonia, *Spartium, *Genista, Lebeckia, 
Rafnia, Aspalathus, Sarcophyllum, Stauracanthus, *l/lex, 
Amorpha, Platylobium, Bossisea, Scottia, Templetouia, 
Goodia, Loddlgesia, Wiborgia, Crotalaria, Hovea, *Ononis, 
*Anthyllis, Arachis, Lupinus, Cai^popogon, Phaseolus, I)o- 
lichos, Stizolobium, Glycine, Apios, Ker.nedia, Cvlista, Cli- 
toria, Galactia, *Pisum, Ochrus, *Orobus, Lathyrus, *Vicia, 
*Ervum, *Cicer, Liparia, Cytis\is, Mullera, Gec>rt"roya, Ro- 
binia, Colutea, Swainsona, Sutherlandia, Lessertia, Gly- 
cyn-hiza, Sesbana, Coronilla, *()rnrthopus, *Hippocrepis, 
Scorpiurus, Smitliia, jEschvnomene, Hallia, Lespede/a. 
*Hedysarum, Zornia, Flemingia, Indigofera, Tephrosia, 
Galega, Phaca, Oxytropis, *Astragalus, Biserula, Dalea, 
Psoralea, Melilotus, Lupinaster, *Trifolium, *I.otus, Do- 
rj-ciiium, Trigonella, *Medicago. 88 Gen. 800 Sp. 

CLASS XVIII. Polyadelphia. Stamens united by their fila- 
ments into more than two parcels. Orders 3, distinguished 
by the number or insertion of their stamens, which last 
particular Linnaeus here overlooked. 

\.Decandi-ia. Ten stamens. Contains of Malvaceae, the Theo- 
broma, or Chocolate-nut-tree. 1 Gen. 2 Sp. 

2. Dodecandria. Stamens, or rather anthers, from twelve to 
twenty, or twenty five^ their filaments unconnected with the 
calyx It contains of Malvaceae, Bubroma, Abroma. 2 Gen. 

3. Icoiandria. Stamens numerous, their filaments inserted 
(in several parcels) into the calyx. It contains of Myrtaceos, 
Melaleuca, Tristania, Calothanmus, Beaufortia. 4 Gen. 
32 Sp. 

4. Polyandria. Stamens very numerous, unconnected with the 
calyx. It contains of Ebenacea, Hopea; of Aurantete, Ci- 
trus; of Guttijertf, Xanthochymus ; of Hypericince, *Hy 
pericum, Ascyrum. 5 Gen. 65 Sp. 

CLASS XIX. Syngenesia. Anthers united into a tube. Flowers 

compound. Orders 5. 

This being truly a natural class, its orders are most of them 
equally so, though some are liable to exceptions. 

1. Polygamia xquaKs. In this each floret, taken separately, is 
perfect or united, being furnished with its own perfect stamens 
and pistil, and capable of bringing its seed to maturity with- 
out the assistance of any other floret. The order consists of 
three sections. 

(a) Florets all ligulate, or strap shaped, called by Toumefort 
gemijlosculous. These flowers are generally yellow, sometimes 
blue, very rarely reddish. They expand in a morning, and 
close towards noon or in cloudy weather. Their herbage is 
commonly milky and bitter; as in Leontwlm, Tragopogon, 
Hieracium, and Cichorium. 

(b) Planters globose, generally uniform and regular, their 
JloreU all tubular, five-cleft, and spreading; as Carduus. 

(c) Flowers discoid, their florets all tubidar, regular, crowded, 
and parallel, forming a surface nearly Jlat, or exactly conical. 
Their color is most generally yellow, in some cases pink. 
Santolina and Bidens are examples of this section. 

It contains ofCiehm-acece, Geropogon, * Tragopogon, Troxi- 
mon, Arnopogon, Scorzonera, Picridium, * Sonchus, * Lac- 
tuca, Chondrilla, *Prenanthes, *Leontodon, *Apargia, 
*Thrincia, *Picris, * Hieracium, *Crepis, *HeIminthia, 
' Andryala, Rothia, Krigia, Hyoseris, Hedypnois^ 
, * Hipochaeris, *Lapsana, Zacintha, Rhagadiolus, 
Catananche, * Cichorium, Scolymus; of Cynarocephalce 
*Arctium, *Serratula, *Carduus, *Cnicus, *Onopordum, 
Berardia, Cynara, CarUna, Atractylis, Acarna, Stokesia 
Stobasa, Carthamus, Staehelina, Pteronia ; of Corymbiferae 
Vernonia, Liatris, Mikania, *Eupatorium, Ageratum, Stevia, 
Cephalophora, Hymenopappus, Melananthera, Marshallia, 
Spilanthes, *Bidens, Lagasca, Lavenia, Cacalia, lileinia, 
Ethulia, Piqueria, *Chrysocoma, Tarchonanthus, Calea, 
Humea, Bassinia, Caesulia, Ixodia, *Santolina, Anthanasia, 
Balsamita, Pentzia. 74 Gen. 274 Sp. 

2. Polygamia superjlua. Florets of the disk perfect or united ; 
those of the margin furnished with pistils only ; but all pro- 
ducing perfect seed. 

(a) Discoid, the florets of the margin being obsolete or in- 
conspicuous, from the smallness or peculiar form of the 
corolla ; as Artemisia. 

(b) Ligulate, two-lipped, of which Perdicium, a rare exotic 
genus, is the only instance. 

(c) Radiant, the marginal florets ligulate, forming spreading, 
conspicuous rays ; as in Bellis. This seems an approach of 
the third section of the former order towards what is equi- 
valent to becoming double in other tribes. Accordingly, 
the Anthemis nobilis, with Chrysanthemum, Leucanthemum, 
and some others, occasionally have their whole disk changed 
to ligulate florets, destitute of stamens, and consequently 
abortive. Such are actually called double flowers in this 
class, and very properly. Many exotic species so circum- 
stanced are met with in gardens. A very few strange anoma- 
lies occur in this section ; one, Sigesbeckia, having but three 
stamens, instead of five, the otherwise universal number iu 
the class ; and Tussilago hybrida, as well as Paradoxa of Ret- 
zius, having distinct anthers. Nature therefore, even in Uiis 
most natural class, is not quite without e*ceptions 

K 3 




It contains of CorymH_ftra>, *Tanncotum, *Artemisis, 
*Gnaphaliuin, Xeranttiemum, Eliciivy.uin.Carpesiuin, Bac- 
charis, *Cony/a, Madia, *EriKeron, *Tussilago, *Seiiecio, 
*Aster, *Solidago, *Cineraria, *Inula, Grindelia.Todolepis, 
Arnica, Doronicum, Perdirium, TetragonGtheca, Ximenesia, 
Helenium, *Bellis, 'Bellium, Dahlia, Tagetes, Heterosper- 
mum, Schkuhria, Pectii, Levsera, Ilelhania, Zinnia, *Chry- 
Banthemum, *Pyrethrum, *Mricaria, Boltonia, Lidbeckia, 
Cenia, Cotula, Grangee, Anacyclus, *Antheous, Sanvitalia, 
*Achillea, Balbisia, Amellus, Starkea, Eclipta, Chrysan- 
thellum, Siegesbeckia, Verbesina. Synedrella, Galinsogea, 
Acmella, Zaluzania, Pascalia, Heliopsis, Buphthalmum. 
60 Gen. 673 Sp. 

3. Polvgamiafrustanea. Florets of the disk, as in the preceding, 
perfect or united ; those of the margin neuter, or destitute of 
pistils as well as of stamens ; only some few genera having the 
rudiments of pistils in their radiant florets. This order is, 
still more evidently than the last, analogous to double flowers 

of other classes It contains of Corymbifera, Helianthus, 

Galardia, Rudbeckia, Cosmea, Coreopsis, Osmites, Pallasia, 
Sclerocarpus, Cullumia, Berckheya, Didelta, Gorteria, Ga- 
zania, Crvptostemma, Arctotheca, Sphenogyne; ofCynaro- 
cephala:, Z"cEgea, *Centaurea, Galactites. 19 Gen. 177 Sp. 

4. Polygamia necessaria. Florets of the disk furnished with 
stamens only; those of the margin or radius, only with pistils ; 
so that both" are necessary to each other. It contains of Co- 
nmhifera, Milleria, Flaveria, Baltimora, Silphium, Alcina, 
Polymnia, Melampodium, Chaptalia, Calendula, Arctotis, 
Osteospermum, Othonna, Hippia, Gymnostyles, Psiadia, 
Eriocephalus, Filago, Micropus, Parthonium, Iva. 20 Gen. 
100 Sp. 

6. Polygamia segregata. Several flowers, either simple or com- 
pound, but with united tubular anthers, and with a partial 
calyx, all included in one general calyx. It contains of Co- 
rumbiferat, Elephantopus, (Edera, Stot:be, Nauenburgia; of 
Cynarocephalff ? Sphteranthus, Echinops, Rolandra, Brotera, 
Gundelia. 10 Gen. 17 Sp. 

CLASS XX. Gynandria. Stamens inserted either upon the 

style or germen. Orders 3. 

1. Monandria. Stamen, or sessile anther, one only. It con - 

, *Hermi- 

Disperis, Goodyera, Neottia, Fonthieva, 
is, Thelymitra, *Listera, Epipactis, Pogonia, Caladenia, 
Glossodia, Pterostylis, Caleya, Calopogon, Arethusa, Bletia, 
Geodorum, Calypso, Malays, Corallorrhiza, Isochilus, Or- 
nithidium, Stelis, Pleurothallis, Octomeria, Aerides, Cryptar- 
rhena, Dendrobium, Gomesa, Cymbidium, Brassia, Onci- 
dium, Cyrtopodium, Brassavola, Broughtonia, Epidendrum, 
Vanilla. 48 Gen. 122 Sp. 

2. Diandria. Containing of Orchidete, *Cypripedium ; of Styli- 
dea, Stylidium ; of Urticeie f Gunnera. 3 Gen. 10 Sp. 

3. Hexandria. Containing of Aristoluchite, * Aristolochia. 
IGen. 19 Sp. 

CLASS XXI. Monacia. Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, 
but both growing on the same individual plant. Orders 9. 

1. Monandna. Contains of Naiades, Zar.nichellia, *Chara ; of 
Chenopodete, Ceratocarpus ; of Vrticae, Artocarpus ; ofCasuu- 
rinete, Casuarina. 5 Gfen. 16 Sp. 

2. Diandria. Contains of Cucurbitacea, Anguria; of Naiades, 
*Lemna. 2 Gen. 5 Sp. 

3. Triandria. Contains of Typhinte, *Typha, *Sparganium ; 
of Grarmnea, Zea, Tripsacum, Coix, Olyra; ofCyperacea, 
*Carex ; of Amentacea;, Comptonia ; of Chenopodea, Axyris ; 
of Euphorbiacea:, Tragia; of Laurina, Hernandia. 11 Gen. 

Empleurum; of Onagrarws, Serpicula; of Plaidaginete, *Lit- 
torella; of Amentacea, *Alnns; of Euphorbiacea, Cicca, 
*Buxus, Pachysandra; of Cfienopodete, Biotis; of Urticete, 
*Urtica, Boehmeria, Morus. 12 Gen. 41 Sp. 
b. Pentandria. Contains of Meidspermete f Schisandra; ofCorym- 
biferaf Nephelium, Xanthium, Ambrosia, Franseria ; Cucur- 
bitaceas, Lutfa; Amaranthacea, Amaranthus. 7 Gen. 4&Sp. 

6. Hexandria. Contains of Graminete, Zizania, Pharus ; of Ru- 
biaceie, Guettarda ; of Palme, Cocos, Bactris, Elate, Sagus. 
7 Gen. 11 Sp. 

7. Polyandria. Stamens more than seven. Contains of Naiades, 
*Ceratophyllum , *Myriophvllum ; of Alismacex, *Sagittaria ; 
of Begoniacete, Begonia; of Euphorbiacea!, Acidoton ^ of Co- 


^ f _ _ w Car- 

pinus76strya, *Corylus,' Platanus, Liquidam'bar ; of Ariodea, 
*Arum, Caladium ; of Palnur, Caryota. 22 Gen. 189 Sp. 

8. Monadelphia. Contains of Palma, Areca; of Comjerce, 


Aieurites,"Hural ofstercutuicea, S'tercul'ia; of Malpighidcae, 
Heretiera; of Cucurbitacete, Trichosanthes, Momordica, Cu- 
curbita, Cucumls, *Bryonia, Sicyos. 26 Gen. 158 Sp. 
9 Gynandria. Contains of Euphorbiacea, Andrachne. 1 Gen. 

CLASS XXII. Dutcia. Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, 
situated on two separate plants. Orders 1 3. 

1. Monandria. Contains of Pandanex, Pandanus. 1 G.en. 

2. Diandria. Contains of Urticete, Cecropia; of Ameiiiacea, 
*Salix; of Euphorbiacea!, Borya. 3Gen. 87 Sp. 

3. Triandria. 'Contains of Ericece f *Empetrum; of Terebinta- 
cae.Stilago; ofSantalacea:? Osyris; of Rcsiiacm, Willdenovia, 
Restio, Elegia; of Palme, Phoenix. 7 Gen. 12 Sp. 

4. Tetrandia. Contains of Rubiacae, Anthospermum ; of 

Trophis, Schsefferia, Picramnia ; ofTerebtntacea:, Antidesma ; 
ofOnagraria, Montinia; of Lorantliacea;, *Viscum; of Tere- 
hintacea, Brucea; afUrticrte, Broussonetia ; of Elaagm, Hip- 
pophffi; of Amentacea, *Myrica; of Proteacof, Aulax, Leuco- 
dendron. 13 Gen. 46 Sp. 

5. Pentandria. Contains of Terebintacea:, Pistacia, Zanthoxy- 
lum ; ofEufhorbincea, Securinega ; of Amaranthacea, Iresine ; 
of Chenopadetf, *Spinacia, Acnida; of Urticete, *Cannabis, 
*Humulus. 8 Gen. 18 Sp. 

0. Hexandria. Contains of Smilacetf, Smilax; *Tamus? of 

Diosmrina, Rajania, Dioscorea ; of KI-enaeeitMaton ; otPalma, 
Elais, Chamn-dorea, Borassus. 8 Gen. 36 Sp. 

7. Octandria. Stamens H. Contains of Ameniacete, *Populus ; 
of Sempervivce, *Khodjola. 2 Gen. 15 Sp. 

8. Emwandria. Stamens 9. Contains of Eupliarhiacea, *Mer 
curialis; of HydntcharMea;, *Hydrccharis. 2 Gen. 6 Sp. 

9. Decaiuiria. Stamens 10. Contains of Cucurbitactcr t Carica ; 
of LeguminosK, Gymnocladus; of Euphorbiaeeac, Kiggelaria; 
of Tereliintacetc, Schinus ; of ......... Coriaria. r> (Jen. 9 Sp. 

10. Dodccandria. Stamens 11. Contains of BydrodtarUea, 
*Stratiotes; of BufflOrbiacat, Hyeenanche; of Terebintacea, 
Euclea, Datisca; of Meia.tpermca~, IMenispermuni, Cocculus, 
6 Gen. la Sp. 

11. Icosandria. Stamens 12. Contains of Tiliacece, Flacourtia; 
of .......... Gelonium, Rottlera. 3 Gen. 6 Sp. 

12. Polyandria. Stamens numerous. Contains of .......... 

Trewia; of Ebtnactis, Embryopteris; of Roiucea; Cliffbrtia; 
of Cycculca?, Cycas, Zamia. 5 Gen. 26 Sp. 

13. MunadelpMu. Stamens united. Contains of Conifers, 
Araucaria, *Juniperus, *Taxus, *Ephedra ; of 31 e nispermae, 
Cissampelos ; of Euphorbiacea, Exccecaria, Adelia ; of ........ 

Loureira, Nepenthes ; of Myristicece, Myristica; of Smilacea: f 
*Ruscus; of P:ilma; Latania. 12 Gen. 40 Sp. 

14. Gynaiulria. Stamens inserted in the style. Contains of 
Eup/wrbiacece, Cluytia. 1 Gen. 8 Sp. 

CLASS XXIII. Polygamia. Stamens and pistils separate in 
some flowers, united in others, either on the same plant or on 
two or three distinct ones ; such difference in the essential 
organs being moreover accompanied with a diversity in the 
accessory parts of the flowers. Orders 2. 

1. Slotuxcia. United flowers accompanied with barren or fer- 
tile, or both, all on one plant. It contains ofMusaceie, Musa ; 
ofiUf/an</mrra',Veratrum ; of Graminea, Andropogon, Chloris, 
Penicillaria, Sorghum, *Holcus, Ischamum, JSgilope, Mani- 
suris; of Rttlnacete, Valantia; of Urticece, *Parietaria ; of 
Chenopodea; * A triplex, Rhagodia; of Combretaceie, Termina- 
lia; of Santtilucea:, Fusanus; of Proteacecf, Brabejum; of 
.......... Feronia; of Terebintacea, Ailanthus; atGvttytm, 

Clusia ; of Apocynea-, Ophioxylon ; of Acerinas, * Acer ; of 
Amentacea, Celtis; of R/tamni? Gouania; of UnMliferte, 
Hernias; of Leguminosa; In-;'., .Mum^n, Schrankia, Desman- 
thus, Acacia; of Palmte, Rhapis. 31 Gen. 204 Sp. 

2. Duma. The different flowers on two different plants. 
Contains of Leguminous, Gleditschia, Ceratonia ; of Oleina, 
*Fraxinus ; of .......... Brosimum ; of Tcreliintame, Hamil- 

tonia ; of .......... Laurophyllus ; of Ebenacea;, Uiospyros ; 

of Myrsinea, Myrsine; of Santitlacea: t Nyssa; cfTtrebiraatai. 
Bursera; of Umbcllifera 1 Arctopus; of Araliic, Panax; of 
Vrticeos, Ficus; ofPalmie, Chamserops. 14 Gen. 76 Sp. 

CLAPS XXIV. Cryvtogamia. Stamens and pistils either not 
well ascertained, or not to be numbered with any certainty. 
Orders 10. 

1. Gonopterides. Fructification in a terminal catkin. Contains 
of Equisctacea, *Equisetum. 1 Gen. 7 Sp. 

2. Stachyopteridct. Fructification in a spike. Contains of Ly- 
copodinex, *Lycopodium, Psilotum; of Filicet, *Ophioglds- 
sum, *Botrychium. 4 Gen. 18 Sp. 

3. Pororteridet. Capsules opening by a pore. Contains of Fi- 
lices, Marattia. 1 Gen. 1 Sp. 

4. Filicet. Fructification on the back, summit, or near the 
base of the frond This order contains ofFilices, Acrosti- 
chum, Hemionitis, Meniscium, Grammitis, *Polypodium, 
*Woodsia, Nephrodium, Allantodia, *Aspidium, *Asple- 
nium, *Scolopendrium, Diplazium, *Pteris, Vittaria, Ono- 
clea,*Blechnum, Woodwardia, Doodia, *Adiantum, Cheil- 
anthes, Lonchitis, Davallia, Dicksonia, Cyathea, *Tricho- 
maiies, *Hymenophyllum. 26 Gen. 150 Sp. 

5. Hydropterides. Fructification nearly radical. Contains of 
Marsileaceie, *Isoetes, *Pilularia. 2 Gen. 2 Sp. 

6. Schitmatopteridei. Fructification in branched spikes. Con- 
tains ofFilices, Lygodium, Anemia, *Osmunda. 3 Gen. 9 Sp. 

7. Musti. Mosses. These are really herbs with distinct leaved, 
and freguently as distinct a stem. It contains of the natural 
order 01 the same name, and described in Smith's Flora Bri- 
tannica, *Andraea, *Bartramia, *Br)'um, *Buxbaumia, 
*Encal)-pta, *Fontinalis, *Funaria, *Grimmia, *Gymnosto- 

Neckera, *Ortho- 

, , , l'terogonium, Sphag- 

*Splachnum, *Tetraphis, *Tortula, *Trichosto- 
mum, and numerous others, amounting by estimateto 460 Sp. 
(See Turner's Historia Muscorum.) 

8. Hepatiae. Liverworts. Of these the herbage is commonly 
frondose, the fructification originating from what is at the 
same time both leaf and stem. This character, however, 
proves less absolute than one founded on their capsules, which 
differ essentially from those of the preceding order in having 
nothing like a lid or operculum. The corolla, or veil, of some 
of the jjenera is like that of Mosses, but usually bursts at the 
top. The barren flowers in some are similar to the stamens 
of the last-mentioned plants, as in Jungcrmannia (see Hooker's 
Monograph of this genus) ; in others they are of some peculiar 
conformation, as in Marchantia, where they are imbedded in 
a disk like the seeds of lichens, in a manner so contrary to all 
analogy, that botanists can scarcely agree which are the barren 
and which the fertile flowers of this genus. Linnaeus com- 
prehended this order under the following one, to which, 
says Sir J. E. Smith, it is most assuredly far less akin than to 
the foregoing. British species estimated at 85. 

9. Alga. Flags. In this order the herbage is frondose, some- 
times a mere crust, sometimes of a leathery or gelatinous tex- 
ture. The seeds are imbedded, either in the frond itself, or in 
some peculiar receptacle. The barren flowers are but im- 
perfectly known. The aquatic or submersed y%rform a dis- 
tinct and peculiar tribe. Some of these abound in fresh w ater, 
others in the sea, whence the latter are commonly denomin- 
ated sea-weeds. British species 18. 

10. Lichcnes. Herbage frondose and leathery ; seeds generally 
in the frond. This order was included by Linna'us under the 
former one. Estimated number of British species 573. 

11. Fungi. Mushrooms. These cannot properly be said to 
have any herbage. Their substance is fleshy, generally of 
quick growth and short duration, differing in firmness, from 
a watery pulp to a leathery or even woody texture. By some 
naturalists they have been thought of an animal nature, clm-lly 
because of their foetid scent in decay, and because little white 

mum, *Hookeria, *Hypnum, *Mnium, * 
trichum, *Phascum, *Polytrichum, *l'te 




ganised beings, though, like others, subject to varieties. Their 
sequestered and obscure habitations, their short duration, 
their mutability of form and substance, render them indeed 
more difficult of investigation than common plants, but there 
is no reason to suppose them less perfect, or less accurately 
defined. Splendid and accurate works, illustrative of this 
order, have been giv ' " 
and Sowerby, which a 

fungi cannot well be preserved. The mosi 
writer upon them, indeed the only good systematic one, is 
Persoon, who has moreover supplied us with some exquisite 
figures. See bis Nynopiis MModica Fmigorum. Estimated 
number of species, natives of Britain, 800. 

the world by Schcerler, Bulliard, 
nd Sowerby, which are the more useful, as the generality of 

bodies like eggs are found in them at that period. But these 
are truly the eggs of flies, laid there by the parent insect, and 
destined to produce a brood of maggots, to feed on the decay- 
ing fiiiigiit, as on adead carcase. Kllis's beautiful discoveries, 
relative to corals and their inhabiting polypes, led to the 
strange analogical hypothesis that these insects formed the 
fungus, which IMunchausen and others have 'asserted. Some 
have thought fungi were composed of the sap of corrupted 
wood, transmuted into a new sort of being ; an idea as unphilo- 
sophical as the former, and unsupported by any semblance of 
truth. Dryaneler, Schceffer, and Hedwig have, on much better 
grounds, asserted their vegetable nature, detected their seeds, 
and in many cases explained their parts of fructification. In 
fact they propagate their species as regularly as any other or- 

SECT. II. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according to the Jussieuean System. 
589. The plants grown in Britain, whether native or exotic, are thus arranged according 
to the system of Jussieu. The genera, of which there are species natives of the country, 
are marked thus (*), for the sake of those who may wish to arrange a herbarium or grow- 
ing collection of indigenous plants according to this method. The authorities followed 
are, Sweet's Hortus. Sub. Land. 1818, and Smith's Comp. Flora Brit. 1816. 

Blighia, Ephielis ? Kosl 
ullinia, Seriana, Cardio- 
20 Sp. 
6. 'Accrete, contains of Triandr. Monogyn. Hippocratea ; of 

CLASS I. DICOTYLEDONEJE. Thalamijlora;, sect. 1. with nu- 
merous pistils, and stamens opposite to the petals. Five 

Order 1. Ranunculacea; , contains of Pent. Polyg. *Myosurus, 
Ceratocephalus, Zanthorhiza ; of Decand. Tngy. Garidella ; 
of Polyuiul. Monog. *Actsea; of Polyand. Digif. *Pceonia; of 
Polya'ml. Trig. Delphinium, Aconitum ; of Polyand. Pentag. 
Cimicifuga,*AquilegiaNigella; of Polyand. Polyg Hepatica, 
*Anemone, Pulsatilla, Atragene, *Clematis, *Thalictrum, 
*Adonis, Knowltonia, *Ficaria, *Ranunculus, *Trollius, 
Isopyrum, Eranthis, *Helleborus, Coptis, *Caltha, Hydro- 
peltis, Hydrastis. 29 Gen. 214 Sp. 

2. Magnaliaceas, contains Decand. Monogym'a. Quassia ? ofPo- 
lyaiul. Digy. Curatella ? of Polyand. Trig. Hibbertia ? of Po- 
tyand. Polyg. Dillenia ? Illicium, Magnolia, Michelia. 8 Gen. 
26 Sp. 

3. Annonea, or Anonacetc, contains of Polyand. Polyg. Uvaria, 
Annona, Porcelia, Xylopia. 4 Gen. 16 Sp. 

4. Menispenneae, contains of Hept. Polyg. Wendlandia ; ofMo- 
ncecia. Pent. Schizandra ; of Dine. Dodecan. Menispermum, 
Cocculus ; of Dicec. Monad. Cissampelos. 5 Gen. 11 Sp. 

5. Berberides, or Berberidcif, contains of Tetrand. Monog. *Epi- 
medium ; of Tetrand. Digy. Hamamelis; of Hexand. Monog. 
Leontice, Caullophyllum, *Berberis. 5 Gen. 11 Sp. 

CLASS II. DICOTYLEDONEJE. Thalamijlone, sect. 2. with 
pistils solitary, or adhering together, placentas equal. Six 

Order 1. Papavaraceae* , contains of Tetrand. Digy. Hypecoum ; 
of Octand. Monog. Jeffersonia ; of Dodecand. Monog. Bocconia ; 
of Polyand. Monog. Sanguinaria, Podophyllum, *Chelido- 
nium, *Glaucium, * Papaver, Argemone ; of Diadelph. 
Hexand. Corydalis, Cystycapnos, *Fumaria. 12 Gen. 46 

2. Nympheacete, of Polyand. Monogyn. *Nymphaea, *Nuphar, 
Kuryale ; Polyand. Polygyn. Nelumbium. 4 Gen. 20 Sp. 

3. Cruciferte, contains of Tetradynamia, Siliculosa, *Cakile, 
*Crambe, Myagrum, Euclidium, *Rapistrum, *Bunias, 
*Coronopus, Biscutella, Peltaria, Clypeola, Isatis, Succowia, 
*VeIla, Anastatica, ^thionema, *Thlaspi, *Hutchinsia, 
*Teesdalia, Iberis, Lepidium, *Cochlearia, *Subularia, 
*Draba, Petrocallis, *Camelina, Alyssum, Farsetia, Vesi- 
caria, Lunaria, Ricotia ; of Tetrady. Siliqu. Heliophila, *Car- 
damine, * Arabis, Macropodium, *Turritis, *Barbarea, 
*Nasturtium, *Sisymbrium,*Erysimum, Notoceras, *Cheir 

anthus, *Mathiola, Malcomia, *Hesperis, Erucaria, *Bras- 
*Sinapis, Raphanus, Chorispermum. 49 Gen. 281 Sp. 


4. Capparides, or Capparidea, contains of Pentand. Tetragy. 
*Pamassia? of Pentand. Pcntagy. *Drosera; of Dodecand. 
Monogy. OratnKva; of Dodecand. Trig. * Reseda; of Polyand. 
Honor. Capparis, Marcgravia ? ofTetradyn. Siliquosa, Cleome. 
7 Gen. 51 Sp. 

5. Passiflorea:, contains of Monadelph. Pentand. Passiflora. 
1 Gen. 24 Sp. 

C. Violets, or Violacea, contains of Pentand. Monogy. *Viola, 

lonidium. 2 Gen. 41 Sp. 
7. Ciiti, or Cutinte, contains of Polyand. Mmogyn. Cistus, *He- 

lianthemum. 2 Gen. 66 Sp. 

CLASS III. DICOTYLKDONEJB. Tholamiflorcs, sect. Z. with 
OTary solitary, placenta central. Sixteen Orders. 

Order 1. Caryophyllex, contains of Triand. Monogyn. Ortegia, 
Lceflingia; of Triand. Trigyn. *Holosteum, Polyearpon, 
Mollugo, Minuartia, Queria, Lechea; of Tetrand. Digyn. 
Buttbnia; of Tetrand. Tetragy. *Sagina, Mcenchia; of Pen- 
tand. Digyn. Velezia, Pharnaceum ; of Pentand. Trigyn. 
Drypis ; of Pentand. Pentagyn. *Linum ; of Hexand. Mono- 
gyn. *Frankenia? Octand. Monogyn. Moehringia; 'of Octand. 
Tetragyn. *Elatine ; of Decand. Digyn. Gypsophila, *Sapo- 
naria, *Dianthus ; of Decand. Trigyn. *Cucubalus, *Silene, 
*Stellaria, *Arenaria, *Cherleria; of Decand. Pentagyn. 
*Agrostemma, *Lychnis, *Cerastium, *Spergula. 30 Gen. 
289 Sp. x 

2. Malvaceae, contains of Pentand. Monogy. Buttneria, Ayenia ; 
of Decand. Monogyn. Kleinhofia; of Monadelph. Pentand. 
Melhania, Ochroma ; of Monadelph. Dodecand. Helicteres, 
Dombeya, Pentapetes, Pterospermum ; of Monadelpk. Poly. 
Adansonia, Bombax, Lagunoa, Napsea, Sida, Cristaria, Pa- 
lavia, Malachra, *Altha;a, *Malva, *Lavatera, Ruizia, Ma- 
lope, Kitaihelia, Urena, Gossypium, Hibiscus, Pavonia, 
Achania, Myrodia, (Jordonia ; of Polyadelph. Decand. Bu- 
broma, Abroma. 35 Gen. 217 Sp. 

3. SterciUiacece, contains of Monxcia. Monadelph. Sterculia. 
1 Gen. 5 Sp. 

4. Tiliacea, contains of Pentand. Pentagy. Mahernia; of Dode- 
cand. Monogy. Triumfetta ; of Dodecand. Dit;yn. Heliocarpus ; 
ofPolyandr. Monogyn. Bixa, Sloania, Aubletia, Sparmannia, 
'Muntingia, (irewia, Tilia, Corchorus ; of Monadelph. Pen- 
tandr. Valtheria? Hermannia ? of Monadelph. Polyand. 
Stuartia; of Dia-c. Icosandr. Flacourtia. 15 Gen. 80 Sp. 

'< Sapindi, or Hapindace, contains of Octand. Monogy. Orni- 

trophe, Dimocarpus, Melicocca, Blighia 

reutevia ; of Octand. Trigy. I'aullinia, 

spermum, Sapindus. 10 Gen. 20 Sp. 


Acerece, contains o Triandr. Monogyn. Hippocratea ; of 
Heptand. Monogyn. jEsculus; of Poly gam. Maniac. *Acer. 
3 Gen. 24 Sp. 

7. Malpighiacea;, contains of Decandr. Monogyn. Ga?rtnera; of 
Decandr. Trigyn. Malpighia, Barmisteria. 3 Gen. 27 Sp. 

8. Pittosperea? i contains of Pentand. Monogyn. Bursaria Bil- 
lardiera, Piltosporum. 3 Gen. 10 Sp. 

9. Hypericinx, contains of Polyadelph. Polyand. *Hypericum, 
Ascyrurn. 2 Gen. 54 Sp. 

10. Gitttifercc, contains of Decandr. Monogyn. Gomphia; of Do- 
decandr. Monogyn. Garcinia ; of Polyaiulr. Monogyn. Grias, 
Calophyllum, Marnmea, Ochna? El'ceocarpus ? ofPvtygam. 
Monosc. Clusia. 8 Gen. 15 Sp. 

11. Vites, contains of Tetrandr. Monogyn. Cissus; of Pentand. 
Monogyn, Vitis. 2 Gen. 21 Sp. ' 

12. Geranice, or Geraniacea;, contains of Pentand. Monogyn. 
*Impatiens ? of Octandr. Monogy. Tropoeolum ? of Decandr. 
Pentagy. *Oxalis ; of Monadelph. Pentand. *Erodium ; of 

Heptand. Pelargonium; of Monadelph. Decandr. 
; of Monadelph. Dodecand. Monsonia. 7 Gen. 

or Meliacecs, contains of Pentand. Monogyn. Cedrella ? 
Leea ; of Octandr. Monogy. Gaurea ; of Decand. Monogyn. 
Trichilia, Ekebergia, Heynea, Melia, Swietenia ; of Dode- 
cand. Monogy. Cariella; of Monadelph. Octandr. Aitonia. 
10 Gen. 16 Ts> 

14. Aurantix, or Hesperidea, contains of Octandr. Monogyn. 
Ximenia ; of Decand. Monog. Limonia, Murraya, Cookja ; 
of Polyand. Monogyn. JEgle; of Monadelph. Polyand. Ca- 
mellia ; of Polyadelph. Polyand. Citrus. 7 Gen. 21 Sp. 

15. Rutacea, contains of Decandr. Monogy. Guiaicum, Zygo- 
phyllum, Fagonia, Tribulus, Dictamnus, Ruta, of Dode- 
candr. Monogy. Peganum; of Didynam. Angiosp. Melian- 
thus ? 8 Gen. 28 Sp. 

16. Diosmetg, contains of Pentandr. Monogy. Adenandra, Ba- 
rosma, Diosraa, Agathosma; of Octandr. Monogy. Corraea; 
of Moncec. Tetrandr. Empleunim. 6 Gen. 32 Sp. 

CLASS IV. DICOTYI.KDONE.^. Thalamiflora, sect. 4. -with 
fruit in scattered cells, but joined on the same base. Two 
Orders, but no examples in British Gardens. 

CLASS V. DICOTYI.EDOKEJE. Calyciflorte, with petals free, or 
more or less adhering together,' always inserted in the calyx. 
Thirty-two Orders. 

Order 1. Terenintaceie, contains of Triandr. Monogy. Cneorum, 

neandr. Monogy. Anacardium ; of Decandr. Pentagyn. Aver- 
rhoa, Spondias ; of Monac. Polyandr. Juglans ; of Ditec. 
Tetrandr. Brucea ; of Diac. Pentandr. Pistacia ; Zanthoxy- 
lum ; of Diac. Decandr. Schinus ; of Polygam. Monac. 
Ailanthus ; of Polygam. Diac. Bursera. 19 Gen. 75 Sp. 

2. Rhqmni, or Rhamneas, contains of Tetrandr. Tetragyn. My- 
ginda, *Ilex; of Pentand. Monogyn. Elaeodendrum, *Rham- 
nus, Zizyphus, Celastrus, Senacia, *Euonymus, Hovenia, 
Ceanothus, Pomaderris, Phylica, Brunia ? Staavia, Plectro- 
nia; of Pentandr. Trigy. Cassine, Staphylea; of Hexandr. 
Monogyn. Prinos; ofMoncec. Tetrandr. Aucuba ; of Polygam. 
Mentec. Gouania. 20 Gen. 126 Sp. 

3. Legvminosas, contains of Decandr. Monogyn. Edwardsia, 
Sophora, Ormosia, Anagyris, Thermopsis, Virgilia, Cyclopia, 
Baptisia, Podalyria, Chorizema, Podolobium, Oxylobium, 
Callistachys, Brachysema, Gompholobium, Burtonia, Jack- 
sonia, Viminaria, Sphoerolobium, Aotus, Dillwynia, Eutaxia, 
Sclerothamnus, Gastrolobium, Euchilus, Pultenia, Daviesia, 
Mirbelia, Cercis, Bauhinia, Hymensea, Cynometra, Cassia, 
Cathartocarpus, Parkinsonia, Poinciana, Casalpinia, Guilan- 
dina, Hyeranthera, HotT'manseggia, Adenanthera, Cadia, 
Prosopis, Haematoxylon, Copaifera, Scholia ; of Monadelph. 
Triandr. Tamarindus; of Diadelph. Pentandr. Petaloste- 
rnum ; of Diadelph. Octandr. Securidaca ; of Diadelph. De- 
candr. Nissolia, Dalbergia, Pongamia, Pterocarpus, Ame- 
rimnum, Dipterix, Abrus, Erythrina, Butea. Piscidia, 
Borbonia, *Spartium, *(Tenista, I,ebeckia, Raffnia, Aspa- 
lathus, Sarcophyllnm, Stauracanthus, *Ulex, Amorpha, 
Platylobium, Bossiaea, Scottia, Templetonia, Goodia, Lod- 
digesia, Wiborgia, Crotalaria, Hovea, *Ononis, *Anthyllis y 
Arachis, Lupinus, Carpopogon, Phaseolus, Dolichos, Stizolo- 
bium, Glycine, Apios. Kennedia, Cylista, Clitorii, Galactia, 
*Pisum, Ochrus, *Orobus, *Lathyrus, *\\a&, *Ervum. 
Cicer, Liparia, Cytisus, Mullera, Geoffroya, Robinia, Colu- 
tea, Swainsonia, Sutherlandia, Lessertia, Glycyrhiza, Ses- 
bana, Coronilla, *Ornitbcrpus, *Hippocrepis, Scorpiurus, 
Smithia, ^Sschynomene, Hallia, Lespedeza, *Hedysarum, 
Zomia, Fleraingia, Galega, Indigofera, Tephrosia, Phaca, 
*Oxytrophis, *AstraRalns, Biserrula, Dalea, PsoraUa, *Meli- 




lotus, Luplnaster, *Trlfolium, Lotus, Dorycnhim, Trlgonella, 
Medicago ; of Diasc. Dtcandr. Gymnocladus ; of Polygam. 
Monac. Inga, Mimosa, Schrankia, Pesmanthus, Acacia; of 
Polygam. Diac. Gleditschia, Ceratonia. 145 Gen. 1085 Sp. 

4. Roiacea, contains of Diandr. Monogy. Acaena ; of Tetrand. 
Mnnogy. *Sanguisorba, *Alchemilla; of Pentand. Monogy. 
Hirtelia ; of Pentand. Pentagyn. *Sibbaldia ; of Dodccandr. 
Digyn. *.4grimonia; of Kotaadr. Monogy. Amygdalus ; 
*Prunus, Armeniaca, Chrysobalanus, Waldsteinia, *Mespi- 
lus, *Pyrus, Cydonia, *Spira?a ; of Icosandr. Polygam. 
*Rosa, *Rubus, Dalibarda, *Fragaria, *Comarum, *Poten- 
tilla, *Tormentilla, *Geum, *Dryas, Calycanthus ? of 
Monac. Pol:/a:idr. *Poterium ; of Diac. Polyandr. ClirTortia. 
27 Gen. 316 Sp. 

5. Salicarice, contains of Tetrant!. Monogj/. Ammannia; of 
Pentandr. ISonogy. *Glaux ; of Hexand. Monogy. *Peplis ; of 
Octand. Monogy. Grislea, Lawsonia ; of Dec'antl. Monogy. 
Acisanthera; W Dodecand. Monogy. *Lythrnm, Cuphaa; of 
Polyand. Monogy. Lagerstraemia. 9 Geii. 23 Sp. 

6. Mdastomie, of Melastomacete, contains of Octandr. Monogy. 
Osbeclcia, Rhexia; of Decaml. Monogy. Melastoma; of Do- 
decand. Monogy. Blakea. 4 Gen. 24 Sp. 

7. Myrti, or Myrtacea; contains of Octandr. Monogyn. Baeckia ; 
of Dotlecand. Monogy. Decumaria ; of Icosandr. Monogyn. 
Philadelphus, Leptospermum, Fabricia, Metrosideros, Psi- 
dium, Eugenia, Caryophylius, Myrtus, Calyptranthes, Eu- 
calyptus, Punica ; of Pulyandr. Monogyn. Alangium ; of 
Monaddph. Polyandr. Barringtonia, Gustavia ; of Polyadelph. 
Icosandr. Melaleuca, TrLstania, Calothamnus, Beaufortia. 
20 Gen. 121 Sp. 

8. CorrJbrelacta, contains of Pentamlr. Monoey. Conocarpus ; of 
Decandr. Monogy. Combretum, Getonia, Quisqualis ; of Poly- 
gam. Monac. Terminalia. 5 Gen. 10 Sp." 

9. Cucurbitacete, contains of Triand. Monogyn. Melothria ; of 
Pentand. Monogyn. Gronovia ; of Monac. Diand. Anguria ; 
of Moncccia P&and. Luffa; ofMona-cia Monaddp h. Tricho- 
santhes, Momordica, Cucurbita, Cucumis, *Bryonia, Sicyos ; 
of Diacia Decand. Carica. 11 Gen. 48 Sp. 

10. LoatetK, contains oflcosand. Monogyn. Bartonia; of Poly- 
and. Monogyn. Mentzelia. 2 Gen. 4 Sp. 

11. Onagrarue, contains of Monand. Monogyn. Lopezia; of 
Diand Monogyn. Circaea ; of Tetradyn. Monogy. Ludwigia, 
Jsnardia; of Octand. Monog. *(Enothera, Gaura, *Epilo- 
bium ; of Octand. Tetragy. Haloragis ; of Decand. Monogyn. 
Jussieua ; of Diacia Tetrand. Montmia. 10 G_en. 54 Sp. 

12. Ficoideee, contains of Dodecandr. Monog. Nitraria; of Do- 
decandr. Pentagyn. Glinus ; of Icosandr. Pentagyn. Sesuvium, 
Tetragonia, Mesembryanthemum, Aizoon ; of Polyand. Pen- 
tagyn. Reaumuria. 7" Gen. 229 Sp. 

13. Semperviva, contains of Tetrandr. Tetragyn. Tillaea ; of 
Pentandr. Pentagyn. Larochea, Crassula ; of Heptand. Hep- 
tag. Septas ; of Octandr. Tetragyn. Calanchoe, Bryophyllum ; 
of Decand. Pentag. *Cotyledon, *Sedum, Penthorurn ; of 
Decand. Decagyn. *Sempervivum ; of Diacia Pentandr. 
*Rhodiola. 11 Gen. 12f,Sp. 

14. Portulacea, contains of Tetrand. Tetragyn. *Montia; of 
Pentandr. Monogy. Claytonia ; of Pentandr. Trigyn. *Ta- 
marix, Turnera, Telep'hium, *Corrigiola, Portula'caria ; of 
Pentandr. Pentagyn. Guekia ; of Heptand. Digyn. Limeum ; 
of Decandr. Digyn. Trianthema, *Scleranthus ; of Dodecand, 
Monogyn. Portulaca, Talinum, Anacampseros. 14 Gen. 
39 Sp. 

15. Cacti, contains of Pentand. Monogyn, Ribes ; of Icosandr. 
Monogyn. Cactus, Rhipsalis. 3 Gen. 81 Sp. 

16. Saxifrages, contains of Pentand. Monogyn. Itea ; of Pen- 
tand. DigZm. Heuchera; of Octandr. Tetragy. *Adoxa ; of 
Decandr. Digyn. Hydrangea; *Chrysosplenium, *Saxifraga, 
Tiarella, Mitella. 8 Gen. 94 Sp. 

17. Cunoniacea, contains of Decandr. Digyn. Cunonia ; of Do- 
decan. Digyn. Callicoma, Bauera. 2 Gen. 3 Sp. 

IS. Aralite, or AraHacett, contains of Pentandr. Digyn. Cusso- 
nia; of Pentandr. Pentagyn. Aralia; of Polygam. Diac. 
Panax. 3 Gen. 12 Sp. 

19. Caprifvlta, contains of Tetrandr. Monogyn. *Comus; of 
Pentand. Monogy. Lonicera, Syrophorea, l.Hervilla, Trios- 
teum, *Hederl'; of Pentand. Trigyn. *Viburnum, *Sam- 
bucus; of Di'lynam. Ar^iosp. *Linnsea ; of Diacia Tetran. 
*Viscum. 10 Gen. 60 Sp. 

20. Umbellifera, contains of Pentandr. Monog. Lagoscia ; of 
Pentand, Digyn. *Eryngium, *Hydroctyle, Spananthe, *Sa- 
I'icula, Astrantia, *Bupleurum, *Echinophora, Hasselquis- 
tia, Torch-Hum, *Caucalis, Artedia, *Daucus, Visnaga, 
Ammi, *Bunium, *Conium, *Selinum,*Athamanta, *Peu- 
cedanum, *Crithmum, Cachrys, Ferula, Laserpitium, *He- 
racleum, *Ligusticum, *Angelica, *Sium, *Sison, Bubon, 
Cuminum, *CEnanthe, *Phellandrium, *Cicuta, *^thusa, 
*Meum, *Coriandrum, *Myrrhis, *Scandix, OUveria,*An- 
thriscus, *Chaerophylium, * Imperatoria, Seseli, Thapsia, 
*Pastinaca, *Smymium, *Anethum, *Carum, *Pimpi- 
nella, *Apium, *iEgopodium ; of Polygam. Monacia, Her- 
mas; of Polygam. Diacia, Arctopus ? 54Gn. 282 Sp. 

21. Corymbifme, contains of Syngenes. Polygam. ^Eyualu, 
Vernonia, Liatris, Mikania, * Eupatorium, Ageratum, 
Stevia, Cephalophora, Hymenopappus, Melananthera, Mar- 
shallia, Spilanthes, *Bidens, Lagasca, Lavenia, Cacalia, 
Kleinia, Ethulia, Piqueria, *Chrysocoma, Tarchonanthus, 
Calea, Humia, Caesulea, Ixodia, *Santolina, Athanasia, 
Balsamita, Pentzia ; of Sygena. Polygam. Superflua, *Ta- 
nacetum, *Artemesia, *Gnaphalium, Xeranthemum, Heli- 
chrysum, Carpesum, Baccharis, *Conyza, Madia, *Erigeron, 
*Tussilago, *Senecio,*Aster, *Solidago,*Cineraria, *Inula, 
Grindelia, Podolepis, Arnica, *Doronicum, Perdicium, Te- 
tragonotheca, Ximensia, Helenium, *Bellis, Bellium, Dahlia, 
Tagetes, Heterospermum, Schkuhria, Pectis, Levsera, Rel- 
hania, Zinnia, *Chrysanthemum, *Pyrethrum, *AIatricaria, 
Boltonia, Lidbeckia, Cenia, Cotula, Grangea, Anacj-clus, 
*Anthemis, Sanvitalia, *Achillea, Balblsia, A mellus, Star- 
Ida, Eclipta, Chrysanthellum, Siegesbeckia, Syndrella, Gal- 
ingsoga, Acmella, Zaluzania, Pascalia, Heliopsis, Buphthal- 
mum ; of Syngenes. Polygam. Frustan. Helianthus, Galardia, 
Rudbeckia, Cosmea, Coreopsis, Osmites, Pallasia, Sclerocar- 
pus, Cullumia, Berckheya, Didelta, Gorteria, Gazarua, 
Cryptostemma, Arctotheca, Sphenogvne ; of Syngen. Poly- 
gam. Nectssar. Milleria, Flaveria, Baltimora, Sylphium, 
Alcina, Polymnia, M^elampodium, Chaptalia, *Calendula, 
Arctotis, Osteospermum, Othonna, Hippia, Gymnostyles, 
Uriocephalus, *Filago, Microi)us, Partlienium, Iva; of 

Syngenrt. Poh/yam. Kegregata, Elephantopus, (Edera, Stacbe, 
Nauenbergia; of Momtc. Pentandr. Nepheleum, Xanthiura, 
Ambrosia, Franseria. 131 Gen. 998 Sp. 

22. RiMacetf, contains of Tetrandr. Monogy. Cephalanthus, 
Spermacoce, *Sherardia, *AsperuIa, Houstonia, *Gallium, 
Crucianella, Catesbica, Ixora, Pavetta, Bouvardia, Sidero- 
dendron, Chomelia, Mitchella, Coccocypsilum, Manettia; of 
Pentandr. Monogy. Cinchona, Pinckneya, Mussamda, Port- 
landia, Genipa, Gardenia, Oxvanthus, Randea, 'SVebera, 
Erithalis, Morinda, Nauclea, Cephslis, Hamellia, Ronde- 
letia, Macronemum, \'anguiera, Dentella, Serissa, Psvcho- 
tria, Coffea, Cbiococca, Pcederia, Plocama ; of Peniandr. 
Digyn. Phyllis; of Hejcand. Monogyn. Hillia, Richardia; of 
Monac. Hexandr. Guettarda; of Diac. Tetrandr. Antho- 
spernium; of Polygam. Monac. *Valantia. 47 Gen. 

23. Cynarocephalu, contains of Syngenes. Polyg. JEqualix, 
*Arctium, *Serratula, *Carduiis, *Cnicus, *Onopordum, 
Berardia, Cynara, *Carlina, Atractylis, Acarna, Stokesia, 
Stoboea, Carthamus, Staehelina, Pteronia ; of Syngenes. 
Polygam. Frustan. Zoegea, *Centaurea, Galactites , otSyn. 
genes. Polygam. Segrega. Sphaeranthus, Echinops, Rolandra. 
Brotera, Gundelia. '23 Gen. 221 Sp. 

24. Dipsacea, contains of Diandr. Monogyn, Morina ; of Triand. 
Monogy. *Valeriana, Fedia ; of Tetrand. Monog. *Dipsacus, 
*ScaD(osa, Knautia. 6 Gen. 70 Sp. 

25. Gentianete, contains of Tetrandr. Monogy. *Exacum, Se- 
baea, Frasera ; of Pentandr. Monogyn. *!Uenyanthes, *Vil- 
larsia, Logania, Spjgelia, Lisianthus, *Chironia, Sabbatia, 
*Erythr8ca, Eusroma ; of Pentandr. Digyn. *Swertia, *Gen 
tiana ; of Octandr. Monogy. *Chlora. 15 Gen. 21 Sp. 

26. Cichoracex, contains of Syngen. Polygam. Squalls, Gero- 
pogon, *Trasopogon, Troxmion, Amopogon, *Scorzonera, 
Picridium, *Sonchus, *Lactuca, Chondrilla, *Prenanthes, 
*Leontodon, *Apargia, *Thrincia, *Picris, *Hieracium, 
*Crepis, Helminthia, Tolpis, Andryala, Kothia, Kriria, 
*Hyoseris, *Hedypnois, Seriola, *HypochEeris, *Lapsana, 
Zacintha, Rhagadiolus, Catananche, *Cichorium, Scolymus. 
31 Gen. 214 Sp. 

27. Campannlacetf, contains of Pentandr. Monogy. Litfitfootia 
*Campanula, Roella, *Phyteuma, *Trachelium, '*Jasione, 
*Lobelia ; of Hexand. Monogyn. Canarina of Octandr 
Monogyn. Michauxia. 9 Gen. 1 18 Sp. 

28. Styltdea:, contains of Gynandr. Diand. Stylidium. 1 Gen. 

, contains cf Pentandr. Monogyn. *Azalea. 
*Men-ziesia; of Decandr. Monogyn. Kalmia, Ledum, Rho- 
dora.Rhododendron, Epigsea ; of Dodecand. Monogyn, Bejaria. 

30. Goodenovicf, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. Goodenla, Eu- 
thales, Scsevola, Dampiera. 4 Gen. 8 SpT^ 

31. Ericece, contains of Tetrand. Monogy. Blaeria ; of Pen- 
tand. Monogyn. Cyrilla, Brossaea ; of Octand. Monog. *Oxy- 
coccus, *Calluna, *Erica ; of Decandr. Monog. *Vaccinium 
*Andromeda, Enkianthus, Gaultheria, *Arbutus, Clethra, 
Mylocarium, *Pyrola, Chimaphila; of Dodecand. Monogyn. 
Hudsonia; of Diac. Triandr. *Empetrum. 19 Gen. 
410 Sp. 

32. Epacridece, contains of Pentandr. Monogf/. Sprengelia, An- 
dersonia, Lysinema, Epacris, Monotoca, te'ucopogon, Stenan- 
thera, Astrdoma, Styphelia. 9 Gen. 20 Sp. 

CLASS VI. DICOTTI.ETONBJE. Cordiflore, with stamens ad- 
hering to a corolla, which is not attached to the calyx. 
Twenty-two Orders. 

Order 1. Myrsinea, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. Ardisia ; of 
Polygam. Diac. Myrsine. 2 Gen. 11 Sp. 

2. Sapotecp, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. Jacquinia, Achras 
Chrysophillum, Sideroxylon, Sersalisia, Bumelia ; of Octand. 
Monogyn. Mimusops; of Decandr. Monogyn. Inocarpus; of 
Dodecandr. Mcntog. Bassia. 9 Gen. 22 Sp. 

3. Kbenacea, of Decandr. Digyn. Royena; of Dodecandr. 
Monogy. Halesia; of Dodecandr. Trigyn. Visnea ; of Poly- 
adelpK. Polyandr. Hopea; of Disc Hexand. Maba ; of Did-c. 
Polyan. Embryopteris ; of Polygam. Diac. Diospyros. 8 Gen, 
it Sp. 

4. Oleinte, contains of Diandr. Monogyn. *Ligustrum, Olea, No- 
telaea, Chionanthus, Linociera, Ornus, *Syrinea ; of Poly- 
gam. Diac. *Fraxinus. 8 Gen. 40 Sp. 

5. Jasminea, contains of Diand. Monogyn. Nyctanthes, Jasini- 
mnn. 2 Gen. 14. Sp. 

6. Verbenaceee, contains of Diandr. Monog. Ghinia, Stachytar- 
pheta; of Tetrand. Monogyn. ^giphila, Callicarpa ; of Pen- 
tand. Monogyn. Tectona ; of Didynam.Gymnosperm. Selago ; of 
Dii/ynnfa.- Angioiperm. Hebenstretia, Clerodendrum, Volka- 
meria,.Holmskioldia, Vitex, Comutia, Hosta, Gmelina, Pe- 
trsea, Citharexylum, Duranta, Lantana, Spielraannia Zapa- 
nia, Priva, Aloysia, *Verbena. 23 Gen. 96 Sp. 

7. Asdepiadea, contains of Pentand. Digyn, Periploca, Hemides- 

oy Stap5ia,' Piaranthus, HuemizC CaraUuma. 21 Gen! 
126 Sp. 

8. Apocynea, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. Strychnos, Geles- 
mium, Rauwolfia, Carissa, Arduina, Cerbera, Allamanda. 
Vinca, Nerium, Wrightia, Echites, Ichnocarpus, Plumeria. 
Cameraria, Tabernasmonta, Amsonia; of Pentand. Digyn, 
Apocynum, Melodinns; of Polygam, Monac. Ophioxylon. 
19 Gen. 61 Sp. 

9. Bignoniacea, contains of Diandr. Monogyn. Catalpa ; of Pen- 
tandr. Monogyn. Coboea; of Didynam. Angiotnerm. Bignonia 
Sesamum? Pentstemon, Chelone, Tourrettia? Martynia'-* 
Gloxinia? Gesneria? 10 Gen. 49 Sp. 

10. Pedalinae, contains of Didynam, Angios. Pedalium. 1 Gen. 

11. Polemoniacea:, contains of Pentandr. Monog. *Polemonium, 
Phlox, Ipomopsis. 3 Gen. 22 Sp. 

12. Conrolvulacta, contains of Pentandr. Monogy. *Con volvulus 
*Calystegia, Ipomaea, Retzia; of Pe*ind. Digy. Falkia, Di- 
chondra, Evolvulus, Hydrolea, *Cuscuta. 9 Gen. 91 Sp. 

13. Boraginea, contains of Pentand. Monogyn. Coldenia, Helio- 
tropiura, *Myosotis, *Lappula, *Lathospermium, Batsehia, 
Onosmodium, * Anchusa, *Cynoglossum , *Pulmonaria, Svro- 
phytum, Cerinthe, Onosma, *Borago. Trichodesma, *Aipe- 
rugo, *Lvcop&is, *Echium, Toumrfbrtia, Cordia, Bourreria, 
Ehretia, Hydrophyllum, EUsia, Nolana. 25 Gen. 143 Sp. 




IS. Vgoforwm, oontaim of Didynam. Angtoy, 1 

Stenochilus, Bontia, Avicennia. 4 Gen. 11 Sp. 
19. Acanihaceir, contains of DtOfldr. iMnnngun. Elytr 

14. Solanfcc, contains of Pentandr. Monogy. Ramondia, *Verbas- 
cum, * Datura, Brugmansia, *Hyosrvamus, Nieotiana, Man- 
dragora, *Atropa, Solandra, Physalis, Nicandra, *Sola- 
nurn, Capsicum, (V.truin, *Lycium, Vestra; of Didynam. 
Angiosperm. Brundfelsia ? Crescentia, Anthocercis. 19 Gen. 

15. Scrvphnlarince, contains of Diand. Monogyn. *Veronica, 
*Gratiola, Schwenkia, Calceolaria ; of Tetrand. Monogyn. 
Biukllea, Soparia ; of Didynam. Anglos serm. *Limosella, 
Browallia, Stemodia, J\Ia/.us, Ldndernia, i lerpestis, Capraria, 
Teedia, Besleria, Trevirana, Columnea, Russelia, Dodartia, 
Halleria, Mimulus, Hornemannia, *Digitalis, *Scrophularia, 
Celsia, Alonsoa, Maurandia, Cymbaria, Nemesia, Anar- 
rhinum, *Antirrhinum, *Linaria, Gerardia, *Pedicularis, 
*Melampyrum, *Rhinanthus, *Bartsia, Castilleja, *Eu- 
phrasia, Buchnera, Manulea, Erinus, Sibthorpia, Disandra. 
43 Gen. 242 Sp. 

16. OrohancheiE, contains of Didynam. Angiosperm. *Lathrcea, 
*Orobanche. 2 Gen. 7 Sp. 

17. LaJriutm, contains of Di/nid. Monogyn. *Lycopus, Amethy- 
stea, Cunila, Zi/.iphora, Hedeoma/ J\Ionarda, Rosmarinus, 
Salvia, Collinsonia; of Didynam. Gymnosperm. *Ajuga, Ani- 
someles, *Teucrium, Westringia, Batnrqa, Thymbra, Hys- 
sopus, Pycnanthemum, *Nepeta, Elsholtzia, Lavandula, 
Sideritis, Bystropogon, * Jlentha, Perilla, Hyptfa, Lepechinia, 
*Glechoma, *Lamium, *Galeopsis, *(ialeobdolon, *Beto- 
nica, *Stachys, *Ballota, *Marrubium, *Leonurus, Phlomis, 
Leucas, Leonotis, Moluccella, *Clinopodium, *Origanum, 
*Thymus, *Acynos,*Calamintha, Melissa, Dracocephalum, 
Melittis, Ocynuim, Plectranthus, Prostanthera, *Scutellaria, 
* Prunella, Cleonia, Prasium, Phryma. 57 Gen. 493 Sp. 


. raria, Justi- 

cia, Eranthemum ; of Dirhiiunn. Angtotperm. Acanthus, 
Thunbergia, Barleria, Ruellia, Blechurn, Aphelandra, Cros- 
sandra. 10 Gen. 61 Sp. 

20. Lmtibnl/tria:, contains of Diandr. Monogyn. *Pinguicula, 
*Utriculai-ia. 2 Gen. 8 Sp. 

21. I'rimulacece, contains of Tetrand. Monogy. *Centunculus ; 
of Pentand. Monngyn. Aretia, Androsace, *Trimula, Cortusa, 
Soklantlla, Dodecatheon, *Cyclamen, *Hottonia, *Lysima- 
chia, *Anagallis, *Samolus, Coris ; of Heptand. Monogyn. 
*Trientalis, Diapensia, Pyxidanthera. 1C (/en. C8 Sp. 

2?. GlohularitK, coiitains of Tdra,ul.Mom>gyn. Globularia, Adina. 
2 Gen. 7 Sp. 

CLASS VII. DICOTYLEDONB^. Monochlamydece, in which the 
Calyx and the Corolla form only a single envelope. Seventeen 

3 Gen. 

2. Plaittaginece, contains of Pentand. Monogy. *Plantago ; of 
Moncec. Tetrand. *Littorella. 2 Gen. 38 Sp. 

3. Nyctagineif, contains of Monand. Monogy. Boerhavia ; of 
Triand. Monogy. Oxybaphus ; of Tetrand. Monogyn. Allionia, 
Opercularia, CryptOSpermum ; of Pentand. Munugij. Mirabilis ; 
of Heptamlr. Monogyn. Pisonia. 7 Gen. 18 Sp. 

4. Amarant/iacece, contains of Pentand. Monogy. Gomphrena, 
I'hiloxerus, Achyranthes, Pupalia, Dieringia, Celosia, Lesti- 
budesia, Alternanthera, ^Erua, *Illecebrum, Paronychia, 
Anychia, Mollia ; of Pentand. Digyn. *Herniaria; of nHona-c. 
Pentand. *Amaranthus ; of Dicec. Hexandr. Iresine. 16 Gen. 
78 Sp. 

5. Chenopodece, contains of Diandr. Monogy. *Salicornia ; of 
Diand. Digyn. Corispermum, *Blitum ; of Triand. Monogyn. 
Polycnemum ; of Tetrandr. Tetrag. Rivina, Camphorosma ; 
i>f Pttandr. Monogyn. Chenolea ; of Pentfindr. Digyn. *Cheno- 
podium, *Beta, *Salsola, Kochia, Anabasis, Bosea; of Pen- 
tandr. Tetragyn. Basella ; of Heptandr. Monogyn. Petiveria ; 
of Octandr. Digyn. Galenia ; of Decandr. Decagy'n. Phytolacca ; 
of Moncec. Monandr. Ceratocarpus ; of Monccc. Triandr. Axy- 
ris; of Moncec. Diotis; of Dicec. Pentandr. Spinacia; of Poly- 
gam. Moncec. *Atriplex, Rhagodia. 23 Gen. 100 Sp. 

C. Polygonece, contains of Triand. Trigyn. Kosnigia'; of 
Hexandr. Digyn. Atraphaxis, of Hexand. Trigyn. llumex ; 
of Octand. Trigyn. *Polygonum, Coccoloba; .of Enneand. 
Eriogonum ; of Enneand. Trigyn. Rheum ; of 
>. Trigyn. Brunnichia; of Dodecandr. Tetragyn. Calli- 
gonum. 9 Gen. 80 Sp. 
. Laurimc, contains of Enneandr. Monogyn. Laurus; of 
Moncec. Tetrand. Hemandia ? 2 Gen. 18 Sp. 

', contains of Dicec. Monadelph. Myristica. 1 Gen. 

Order 1. Phtmbaginea, contains of Pentand. Monogyn. 
bago ; of PeiUandr. Pentagy. *Armeria, *Statice. 
44 8p. 

J. Myristici,w. 

9. Proteaceie, contains of Tetrand. Monogyn. Petrophila, Iso- 
pogon, Protea, Leucospermum, Mimetes, Serruria, Nivenia, 
Sorocephalus, Spatalla, Persoonia, Grevillea, Hakea, Lam- 
bertia, Xylomelum, Telopea, Lomatia, Rhopala, Banksia, 
Drvandra ; of Di&c. Tetrandr. Aulax, Leucadendron ; of 
Polygam. Mon<cc. Brabejum. 22 Gen. 191 Sp. 

10. Thymelea;, contains of Diandr. Monogyn. Fimelea; of 
Tetrandr. Monogyn. Struthiola; of Octandr. Monogyn. La- 
getta, *Daphne, JDirca, Gnidia, Stellera, Passerina, tachnea; 
of Decandr. Monogyn. Dais. 10 Gen. 47 Sp. 

11. Santalacete, contains of Triand. Monogyn. Santalum ; of 
Pentandr. Monogyn. *Thesium ; of Octandr. Monogyn. 
Fuchsia, Memecylon; of Decandr. Monogyn. Bucida; of 
Diffc. Triandr. Osyris ; of Polygam. Monaec. Fusanus, Nyssa. 
8 Gen. 17 Sp. 

12. EleagntK, contains of Tetrand. Monogyn. Eleagnus; of 
Dia-c. Tetrand. Hippophae. 2 Gen. 6 Sp. 

13. Aristolochia, contains of Dodecandr. Monogyn. *Asarum; of 
Gynandr. Hexandr. *Aristolochia. 2 Gen. 22 Sp. 

H. Euphorbiacea:, contains of Pentandr. Trigyn. Xylophila ; of 
Dodecand. Trigyn. *Euphorbia; of Montcc. Triandr. Tragia; 
of Moruec. Tetrandr. Cicca, *Buxus, Pachysandra; of Mcewec. 
Monadelph. Plukenetia, Dalechampia, Acalypha, Croton, Ja- 
tropha, Ricinus, Omphalea, Hippomane, Sapium, Phyllan- 
thus, Stillingia, Aleurites, Hura ; of Disc. Diandr. Borya ; of 
Ware. Pentand. Securinega; of Dicec. Enneandr. *Mer- 
curialis ; of Dim. Decandr. Kiggelaria ; of Dia:c. Monadelph. 
Eccaria, Adelia; of Dicec. Gynand. Cluytia. 26 Gen. 
^0 Sp. 

15. Urhcea, contains of Diandr. Trigy. Piper; of Tetrandr. 
Uomigy. Dorstenia ; of Octandr. Tetragyn. Forskohlea ; of 
nynand. Driand. Gunnera; of Monac. Monand. Artocarpus; 

modoracea, contains of Triand. Monogyn. Wachendorfia, 
lidium, Dilatris, HaBmodorum ; of Hexandr. Monogyn. 
liola, Lanaria, Anigozanthus. 7 Gen. 13 Sp. 
aryllidea, contains of Hexand. Monogyn. Haemanthus, 

of Monccc. Tetrand. * Urtica, Boehmerla, Morns ; of Moneec. 
Polyandr. Thelygonum ; of Dicec. Diandr. Cecropia ; of 
Dia-c. Peiitaiulr. Cannabis, *Humulus; of Polygam. Monac. 
*Parietaria ; of Polyg. Dicccia, Ficus. 14 Gen. 103 Sp. 

16. Amentacea;, contains of Pentand. Digyn. Ulinus; of Po- 
li/amlr. Digyn. Fotht-rgilla ; of Mima'c. Trimitlr. Comptonia; 
of Afo/MEc/ Titruiul. *Alnus; of Momrc. Polyand. *0uercus, 
*Fagus, Castanea, *Betula, *Carpinus, Ostrya, *Corylus, 
Platanus, Lic.uidambar ; of Diac. Diamlr. *Salix; of Dicec. 
Octand. *Populus; of Polygam. Monac. Celtis. 16 Gen. 

17. Conifera, contains of Monac. Monand. Casuarina, *Pinus, 
Thuja, Cupressus, Podocarpus ; of Dia'c. Monottelph. Arau- 
caria, *Juniperus, *Taxus, Ephedra. 9 Gen. 74 Sp. 

CLASS VIII. MONOCOTYLKJIONBJE. Phanerogameie, or Plants, 
with one Seed-lobe, in which the fructification is visible. 
Twenty-five Orders. 

Order 1. Cycadea; contains of Dicec. Polyand. Cycas, Zamia. 

2. Hydrocharidea:, contains of Tetrand. Monogyn. Trapa; of 
Heutandr. Monogyn. Damasoniuiri ; of Bute. Enneandr. 
* Hydrocharis ; of Dicec. Dodecand. * Stratiotes. 4 Gen. 

3. Butomece, of Enneand. Hexagyn. *Butomus. 1 Gen. 

4. Alismacece, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. *Potamogeton ; 
of Hexand. Trigyn. *Scheuchzeria, *Triglochin ; of Hexandr. 
Polyg. Actinocanms, *Alisma; of Monac. Polyandr. *Sa- 
gittaria. 6 Gen. 30 Sp. 

5. Orckidea', contains of Gynand. Monandr. *Orchis, *Gymna- 
denia, *Aceras, *Herminium, *Habenaria, Bartholina, *Se- 
rapias, *()phrys, *Satyrium, Disa, Pterygodium, Disperis, 
*Goodyera, *?\'eottia, Ponthieva, Diurus, Thelymitra, *Lis- 
tera, *Epipactis, Pogonja, Caledonia, Glossodia, Pterostylis. 
Caleya, Calopogon, Arethusa, Bletia, Geodorum, Calypso, 
*Malaxis, *Corallhorrhiza, Isochilus, Ornithodium, Stelis, 
Pleurothallis, Octomeria, Aerides, Cryptarrhena, Dendro- 
bium,Gomesa,Cymbidium, Brassia,Oncidium, Cyrtopodium, 
Brassavola, Broughtonia, Epidendrum, Vanilla; of Gynand. 
Diamlr. *Cypripedium. 49 Gen. 128 Sp. 

6. Musacece, contains of Pentandr. Monogyn. Heliconia, Stre- 
litzia ; of Hexand. Monogyn. Musa, Urania. 4 Gen. 14 Sp. 

7. Iridece, contains of Triandr. Monogyn. *Crocus, *Tricho- 
nema, Geissorhiza, Hesperantha, Sparaxis, Ixia, j^noma- 
theca, Tritonia, -\\-atMn.ii., Cladiolus, Melaspharula, An- 
tholyza, Babiana, Aristea, Witsenia, Lapeyrousia, Morcea, 
*Iris, Marica, Pardanthus ; of Monadelph. Triandr. Pater- 
sonia, Ferraria, Tigridia, Galaxia. 24 Gen. 224 Sp. 

8. Hcemodoraceo', contains of Triand. Monogyn. Wachendorfia, 
Xiphidiurr * 


9. Amaryllii aij ___________ ^ 

*Galanthus, 'Leucojum, Strumaria, Crinura, Cyrtanthus^ 
Brunsvigia, Amaryllis, *Narcissus, Pancratium, Eucrosia, 
Doryanthes, Gethyllis. 13 Gen. 170 Sp. 

10. Hemerocallidece, contains of Hexandr. Monogyn. Blandfordia, 
Hemerocallis, Aletris, Tritoma, Veltheimia, Polianthes, 
Sanseviera, Tulbagia, Brodcea.Aloe. 11 Gen. 110 Sp. 

11. Dioscorincf, contains of Dicec. Hexand. Rajania, Dioscoria. 
2 Gen. 9 Sp. 

12. Smilacece, contains of Hexand. Monogyn. Streptopus, *Con - 
vallaria, Smilacina, *PoIygonatum, Ophiopogon ; of Hexandr . 
Trigyn. Myrsiphyllum ? Medeola, Trillium; of Octand. 
Tetragyn. *Paris ; of Dicec. Hexandr. Smilax, *Tamus ; of 
Montec. Monadelph. *Ruscus. 12 (Jen. 59 Sp. 

13. Lilice, or Lihacece, contains of Hexandr. Monogyn. *Fri- 
tillaria, Lilium, *Tulipa, Erythronium, Gloriosa, Alstrce- 
meria, Uvularia, Yucca. 8 Gen. 57 Sp. 

14. Bromelece, contains of Hexandr. Momigyn. Bromelia, Pit- 
cairnia, Tillandsia, A gave, Furcrcea, Buonapartea. 6 Gen. 

15. Asphodelece, contains of Hexandr. Monogyn. Pontederia? 
Eucomis, Aphyllanthes, Sowerba?a,*Allium, Albuca, Xan- 
thorrhsea, Tliysanotus, Eriospermum, *Gagea, *Omithoga- 
lum, *Scilla; Massonia, Asphodelus, Anthericum, Arthro- 
ppdium, Phalangium, Chlorophyturn, Ccesia, *Narthecium, 
Bianella, Eustrephus, Asparagus, Drimia, Uuropetalun, 
*Hyacinthus, *Muscari, Lachenalia, Dracaena, Phylloma, 
Phormium, Hypoxis, Curculigo, Cyanella. 33 Gen. 
273 Sp. 

16. Melanttiacefe, contains of Hexandr. Monogyn. Bulbocodium, 
of Hexand. Trigyn. *Tofieldia, Melanthi'um, *Colchicum, 
Helonias, Nolina ; of Polygam. Monaec. Veratrum. 7 Gen. 
31 Sp. 

17. Juncea, contains of Diandr. Monogyn. Philydrum ; of 
Hexand. Monogyn. * Juncus, *Luzula ; of Hexand. Trigyn. 
Flagellaria ? 4 Gen. 30 Sp. 

18. Itestiacece, contains of Triand. Monogyn. Xyris; of Triandr. 
Trigyn. *Eriocaulon; of Dicec. Triandr. Willdenovia, Restio, 
Elegia. 5 Gen. 7 Sp. 

19. Commelinece, contains of Triandr. Monogyn. Commelina, 
Aneilema, Callisia; of Hexandr. Monogy. Tradescantia. 
4 Gen. 22 Sp. 

20. Palme, contains of Hexandr. Monogyn. Corypha, Lic- 
cuala, Thrinax, Calamus ; of Hexandr. Trigyn. Sabal ; of 
Moncec. Hexandr. Cocus, Bactris, Elate, Sagus ; 'of Monccc. 
Polyandr. Caryota; of Monccc. Monadelph. Areca; of Dicec. 
Tnandr. Phoenix; of Dicec. Hexandr. Elais, Chamsedorea, 
Borassus; of Dicec. Monadelph. Latania, of Polygam. Rha- 
phis ; of Polygam. Dicec. Chamserops. 18 Gen. 29 Sp. 

21. Connect, contains of Monand. Monogyn. Canna, Maranta, 
Thalia, Phrynium. 4 Gen. 15 Sp. 

22. Pandante, contains of Dicec. Monand. Pandanus. 1 Gen. 

23. Scitaminece, contains of Monandr. Monogyn. Hedychium, 
Alpinia, Hellenia, Zinziber, Elettaria, Costus, Kaempferia, 
Amomum, Curcuma, Globba. 10 Gen. 35 Sp. 


24. Cyperaceos, contains of Triandr. 

Kyllingia, *Cyperus, Isolepis, *Scirpus, Eleocharis, *Ryn- 
chospora, *Schcenus, *Cladium, *Trichophorum, *Eriopho- 
rum ; of Moncec. Triandr. Carex. 12 Gen. 133 Sp. 

25. Aroidea, contains of Tetrand. Monogyn. Pothos ; of Hexand. 
Monogyn. *Acorus, Orontium, Tupistra, Tacca; of Heptand. 
Monogyn. Dracontium, Calla; of Montrc. Triandr. *Typha, 
*Sparganium ; of Montec. Polyand. *Arum, Caladium. 
11 Gen. 61 Sp. 




5>6. Grarmnea, contains ot Dicindr Dipyn. *Anthoxanthum ; 
of Trianti. Munogyn. *Nardus, Lyceum, Cornucopia', ('en- 
chrus *SesU:ria,' Limnctis ; of 7 'rimntr Trigyn. *Tricho- 
dium, Sporabolus, *Agrostis, *Knappia, Pterotis, *Pol- 
pogon, "" 

i' Sporabolus, *Agrostis, 

11, *Stipa, Trisetum,*Avena, *15romus,*Fcstuca,*Tri- 
th-um, *Secale, *Hordeum, *Elymus, *I.oUum, Kreleria, 
*Triodia, *Calamasrostis, *Arundo,*Aira, 

GIyceria, *Poji, *Triodia, *Calamasrostis, * Arundo, *Aira, 
Melica, Echinaria, Lappago, Eleusine, Chrysurus, *Cyno- 
rus, Beckmannia, *I)actvlis, Uniola, *Briza, *Cynodon, 
*Milium,*I.agurus, *Alopecurus, *Phleum, Crypsis, *Pha- 
laris, Torrettia, Paspalium, Pifjitaria, Panicum, (')rthopogon, 
*Pennisetum, Sarcharum, *Hottlx)llia, Michrochloa, I.eer- 
sia ; of Herandr. Minui^yn. Barabusa, Khrharta; of Hexamlr. 
Digyn. Oryza ; of ilotozc. Tnandr. Zea, Tripsacum, Coix, 
Olvra; of Monac. Hcxandr. Zi/.ania, Pharus; of Pulygam. 
Moncec. Andropogon, Chloris, Penicillaria, Sorghum, *Hol- 
cus, Ischsemum, VEgilops, Manisuris. 74 Gen. 377 Sp. 

CLASS IX. MONOCOTYLBDONRH!. Cryptogamae, in which the 
fructification is concealed, unknown, or irregular. Five 

Order 1. NauKlet, contains of Monandr. Monogyn- *Hippuris; 
of Dianrlr. Digyn. *Calitriche ; of Tetratui. 'Tetrapyn. *Rup- 
pia ; of Hciiindr. Trigyn. Apooogeton ; of Hrptand. Tc- 
traeyn. Saururus; of TUotwc. M^uimlr. * Zannichelia, 
*Chara; of Mature. Diaitd. *I.emna; of Monac. Polyaiul. 
*Ceratophyllum,*.Myrioi>hylluin. 10 Gen. 23 Sp. 

2. Eaitisetuceie, contains of Crypteg. Gonopterid. *Equisetum. 
1 Gen. 7 Sp. 

3. Maniliaceae, contains of Cryptogam. Hydropterid. *Isoetes, 
*Pilularia. 2 Gen. 2 Si.. ' 

4. Lycopodinea:, contains 61 Cryptogam. Stachyopierid. *Lycopo 
dium, Psilotum. 2 Gen. 12 Sp. 

5. Filices, contains ot Cryptogam. Stadtyofierid. *O^)hioglossum, 
*Botr>-chiuin ; of Crypto. PoropterO. Marattia; of Cryftog. 
Sdaanotopterid. Lyg.xlium, Anemia, *()smunda ; of ( .Vm>/. 
Filic. Acmticani, Hemi<miti>, Menbdam, (irammitis, *Po- 
Ivpodium, Allantodia, *Aspidum, *Asplunium, *Scoloj>en- 
drium, Diplazium, *Pteris, Vittaria, Onoclea, *Blechnum, 
Woodwardia, Doodia, *Adiantum, Cheilanthes, Lonchitis, 
Davallia, Dicksonia, Cyathea, *Trichomanes, *Hymenc- 
pbyllum. 32 Gen. 139 Sp. 

Vegetable Organology, or the external Structure of Plants. 

590. Vegetables are reducible to classes, according as they are distinguished by a structure, 
or organisation, more complicated or more simple ; or, according as they are found to be 
formed with or without certain parts or organs entering into the general idea of the plant. 
The former constitute what may be denominated perfect plants, and form a class compre- 
hending the principal mass of the vegetable kingdom. The latter constitute what may be 
denominated imperfect plants, and form a class comprehending all such vegetables as are 
not included in the foregoing class. Such is the arrangement of Keith, from whose 
work, as by far the best for general purposes, we have chiefly extracted this and the 
three following chapters. 

CJECT. I. Perfect Plants. 

591. The parts of perfect plants may be distributed into conservative and reproductive, as 
corresponding to their respective functions in the economy of vegetation. 

SUBSECT. 1. Conservative Organs. 

592. The conservative organs are such as are absolutely necessary to the growth and 
preservation of the plant, including the root, trunk, branch, leaf, and frond. 

The root is the principal organ of nutrition. 

The trunk constitutes the principal bulk of the individual. 

The branches are the divisions of the trunk, originating generally in the upper extremity, but often also 
along the sides. 

The leaf is a temporary part of the plant, issuing generally from numerous points towards the extremi- 
ties of the branches, but sometimes also immediately from the stem or root, and distinguishable by the 
sight or touch into an upper and under surface, a base and an apex, with a midrib and lateral nerves. 

The frond is to be regarded as a compound of several of the parts already described ; it consists of ;i 
union or incorporation of the leaf, leaf-stalk, and branch or stem, forming as it were but one organ, of 
which the constituent parts do not separate spontaneously from one another by means of the fracture of 
any natural joint, as in the case of plants in general, but adhere together even in their decay. 

SUBSECT. 2. Conservative Appendages. 

593. The conservative appendages are accessory or supernumerary parts found to accom- 
pany the conservative organs occasionally, but not invariably. 

Gems, or buds, are organised substances issuing from the surface of the plant, and containing the rudi- 
ments of new and additional parts which they protrude ; or the rudiments of new individuals which they 
constitute by detachihg themselves ultimately from the parent plant, and fixing themselves in the soil. 

Glands are small and minute substances of various different forms, found chiefly on the surface of the 
leaf and petiole, but often also on the other parts of the plant, and supposed to be organs of secretion. 

The tendril is a thread-shaped and generally spiral process issuing from the stem, branch, or petiole, and 
sometimes even from the expansion of the leaf itself, being an organ by which plants of weak and climb- 
ing stems attach themselves to other plants, or other substances for support ; for which purpose it seems 
to be well fitted by nature, the tendril being much stronger than a branch of the same size. 

JThe stipula? are small and foliaceous appendages accompanying the real leaves, and assuming the ap- 
pearance of leaves in miniature. 

Ramenta are thin, oblong, and strap-shaped appendages of a brownish color, issuing from the surface 
of the plant, and somewhat resembling the stipula?, but not necessarily accompanying the leaves. The 
term, which literally signifies bits of chips or shavings, seems to have been employed by Linna?us to de- 
note the small and scattered scales that are frequently found on the stems of vegetables, originating in the 
bark, and giving it a rough or chopped appearance. Hence a branch or stem that is covered with thin and 
dry scales or flaps is said to be ramentaceous, as in the case of tamarix gallica. 

The armature consists of such accessory and auxiliary parts as seem to have been intended by nature to 
defend the plant against the attacks of animals. 

The pubescence is a general term, including under it all sorts of vegetable down or hairiness, with which 
the surface of the plant may be covered, finer or less formidable than the armature. 

Anomalies. There are several other appendages proper to conservative organs, which are so totally dif- 
ferent from all the foregoing, that they cannot be classed with any of them ; and so very circumscribed in 
their occurrence, that they do not yet seem to have been designated by any peculiar appellation. The 




first anomaly, as affects 
the conservative appen- 
dages, occurs in dioncea 
muscipula, or Venus's fly- 
trap C/f#.43. ft). A second is 
that which occurs in sarra- 
cenia purpurea, or purple 
sidesaddle-flower (/). A | 
third, which is still more | 
singular, occurs in ne- 
penthes distillatoria (c). 
The last anomaly is that 
of a small globular and 
membranaceous bag, at- 
tached as an appendage 
to the roots and leaves of 
some of the aquatics. It 
is confined only to a few 
genera, but is to be seen 
in great abundance on the 
roots or leaves of the seve- 
ral -species of utricularia 
inhabiting the ponds and 
ditches of this country; 

and on the leaves of aldrovanda vesiculosa, an inhabitant of the marshes of Italy. In utriculorfca vulgaris 
this appendage is pear-shaped, compressed, with an open border at the small end furnished with several 
slender fibres originating in the margin, and containing a transparent and watery fluid, and a small bubble 
of air, by means of which it seems to acquire a buoyancy that suspends it in the water. 

SUBSECT. 3. Rejrroductive Organs. 

594. The reproductive organs are such parts of the plant as are essential to its propaga- 
tion, corresponding in extent to the fructification of Linnaeus, which he has elegantly 
defined to be a temporary part of the vegetable, whose object is the reproduction of the 
species, terminating the old individual, and beginning the new. It includes the flower 
with its immediate accompaniments or peculiarities, the flower-stalk, receptacle, and 
inflorescence, together with the ovary or fruit. 

The flower, like the leaf, is a temporary part of the plant, issuing generally from the extremity of the 
branches, but sometimes also from the root, stem, and even leaf, being the apparatus destined by nature 
for the production of the fruit, and being also distinguishable, for the most part, by the brilliancy of its 
coloring or the sweetness of its smell. It has been happily styled by Pliny, the joy of plants, " flos 
gaudium arborum ;" of which the lily, the tulip, and the rose, are magnificent examples. 

The flower-stalk is a partial trunk or stem, supporting one or more flowers, if the flowers are not sessile, 
and issuing from the root, stem, branch, or petiole, and sometimes even from the leaf. It is considered by 
botanists as comprehending two different species, the scape and peduncle. 

The receptacle is the seat of the flower, and point of union between the different parts of the flower, or 
between the flower and the plant, whether immediate and sessile, or mediate and supported upon a 
flower-stalk. Some botanists have considered it as a part of the flower itself, thongh this view of the sub- 
ject is not entirely correct ; but it is at any rate a part of the fructification, and cannot possibly be wanting 
in the case of any flower whatever. Like the flower-stalk, it has been discriminated by botanists into two 
different species, which are not indeed designated by proper names, but characterised by the appellations 
of the proper receptacle, and the common receptacle. 

The inflorescence is the peculiar mode of aggregation in which flowers are arranged or distributed upon 
the plant, whence it is called sometimes also the mode of flowering. 

The fruit. In the progress of fructification, when the several organs of the flower have discharged their 
respective functions, the petals, the stamens, the style, and often the calyx, wither and fall. The ovary 
alone remains attached to the plant, and swells and expands till it reaches maturity. It is now denominated 
the fruit. But at the period of its complete developement it also detaches itself from the plant and drops 
into the bosom of the earth, containing and protecting the embryo of the future vegetable. The fruit then 
is the ripened ovary and the parts which it contains. In popular language the term is confined chiefly to 
such fruits as are esculent, as the apple, the peach, and the cherry, or perhaps to the esculent part only ; 
but with the botanist the matured ovary of every flower, with the parts contained, constitutes the fruit. 

SUBSECT. 4. Reproductive Appendages. 

595. Various additional and supernumerary parts, not at all essential to their consti- 
tution, because not always present, are often found attending the reproductive organs. 
Many of them are precisely of the same character with that of the conservative appen- 
dages, except that they are of a finer and more delicate texture. Such are the glands, 
down, pubescence, hairs, thorns, or prickles, with one or other of which the parts of the 
fructification are occasionally furnished. But others are altogether peculiar to the repro- 
ductive organs, and are to be regarded as constituting, in the strict acceptation of the 
term, true reproductive appendages. Some of them are found to be proper to the flower, 
and others to the fruit. 

The appendages proper to the flower are the involucre, spathe, and bracte, generally designated by the 
appellation of floral leaves, as being leaf-like substances situated near the flower, though different in their 
color, form, or substance, from the reaUeaves of the plant ; together with the nectary, and several other 
minute organs presumed to be nectaries, though not certainly known to be so. 

Appendages of the fruit. When the flower with its appendages has fallen, the ovary, which is still 
immature, is left attached to the plant, to complete the object of the fructification in the ripening of the 
contained seed. If it is left without any extraneous or supernumerary appendage, which is a case that 
often occurs, as in the cherry, apricot, and currant, the fruit is said to be naked. The naked fruit, how- 
ever, is not to be confounded.with the naked seed, from which it is altogether distinct. For it is the want 
of a conspicuous pericarp that constitutes the naked seed ; but it is the want of an additional integument 
enveloping the pericarp, that constitutes the naked fruit. But all parts of the flower are not always deci- 


duous, and it often happens that one or other of them still continues to accompany the pericarp or seed 
both in its ripening and ripened state, constituting its appendage, and covering it cither wholly or in part, 
or adhering to it in one shape or other. 

SECT. II. Imperfect Plants. 

596. Plants apparently defective in one or other of the more conspicuous parts or 
organs, whether conservative or reproductive, are denominated imperfect. Lin- 
nasus characterised them by the appellation of cryptogamous plants, because their 
organs of fructification are not yet detected, or are so very minute as to require the aid of 
the microscope to render them visible ; and in the system of Jussieu they are included 
in the monocotyledoneae and acotyledoneae, composing the cryptogameas of the former, 
and the whole of the latter division. As in the perfect plants, so in the imperfect plants, 
the eye readily recognises traces of a similitude or dissimilitude of external habit and 
deportment characterising the different individuals of which they consist, and suggesting 
also the idea of distinct tribes or families. And upon this principle different botanists 
have instituted different divisions, more or less extensive, according to their own peculiar 
views of the subject. But one of the most generally adopted divisions of imperfect 
plants is that by which they are distributed into the natural orders of filices, equisitacea?, 
lycopodineae, musci, hepaticae, algae, lichenae, and fungi. Dillcnius, Micheli, 
Bulliard, Hedwig, and Acharius, have rendered themselves illustrious by the study of 
these tribes. 

SUBSECT. 1. Filices, Equisitacea; and Lycopodinece. 

597. The filices, equisitacece, and lycopodineae, are for the most part herbaceous, and 
die down to the ground in the winter, but they- are furnished with a perennial root, from 
which there annually issues a frond bearing the fructification. The favorite habitations of 
many of them are heaths and uncultivated grounds, where they are found intermixed with 
furze and brambles ; but the habitations of such as are the most luxuriant in their growth, 
are moist and fertile spots, in shady and retired situations, as on mossy dripping rocks, or 
by fountains and rills of water. Some of them will thrive even on the dry and barren 
rock, or in the chinks and fissures of walls ; and others only in wet and marshy situations 
where they are half immersed in water. 

SUBSECT. 2. Musci. 

598. The mosses are a tribe of imperfect plants of a small and diminutive size, consisting 
often merely of a root, surmounted with a tuft of minute leaves, from the centre of which 
the fructification springs, but furnished for the most part with a stem and branches, on 
which the leaves are closely imbricated, and the fructification terminal or lateral. They are 
perennials and herbaceous, approaching to shrubby ; or annuals, though rarely so, and 
wholly herbaceous, the perennials being also evergreens. Their most favorite habit- 
ations are bleak and barren soils, such as mountains, heaths, woods, where they are 
found, not only rooted in the earth, but attached also to the roots and trunks of trees, 
and even to the flinty rock ; or immersed in bogs and ditches, or floating, though fixed by 
the roots, in streams of running water. As they affect the most barren soils, so they 
thrive best also in the coldest and wettest seasons. In the drought of summer they 
wither and languish ; but in the more moderate temperature of autumn they begin to 
recruit, so that even the chilling cold of winter that deprives other plants of their verdure 
and foliage, and threatens destruction to the greater part of vegetables, tends but to refresh 
and revive the family of the mosses. (Jig. 44.) Hence their capacity of retaining moisture 
for a great length of time without discovering any tendency to putrefaction, and of recover- 
ing their verdure when moistened with water, even after having been completely dried, and 
kept in a dried state for many years. From the extreme minuteness of their parts, they 
are apt to be overlooked by the superficial observer, or disregarded by the novice in 


botany, who is attracted perhaps only by what is specious in the plant or flower, but who, 
when the desire of botanical knowledge shall have inspired him with a relish for micro- 
scopical observation, will find the study of the mosses to be no less interesting than that 
of the more perfect plants, and the form and texture of their parts to be no less beautiful 
and elegant than that of the most gaudy flowers. (Jig. 44.) 

SUBSECT. 3. Hepaticee. 

599. The hepatlcte are a tribe of small and herbaceous plants resembling the mosses, but 
chiefly constituting fronds, and producing their fruit in a capsule that splits into longi- 
tudinal valves. The name is derived from a Greek word signifying the liver, because 
perhaps some of them were formerly employed as a remedy in diseases of the liver ; or 
because some of them exhibit, in their general aspect, a slight resemblance to the lobes 
of the liver. In their habitations, they affect for the most part the same sort of situations 
as the mosses, being found chiefly in wet and shady spots, by the sides of springs and 
ditches, or on the shelving brinks of rivulets, or on the trunks of trees. Like the mosses, 
they thrive best also in cold and damp weather, and recover their verdure, though dried, 
if moistened again with water. The hepaticae and the mosses are indeed so nearly al- 
lied, that they have generally been regarded as constituting but one family, and classed 
together accordingly ; the latter under the title of musci frondosi, and the former under 
that of musci hepatici. Such was the division even of Hedwig ; but later botanists have 
found it to be more consonant to the principles of sound and scientific arrangement, 
to separate the hepaticae from the mosses altogether, and to convert them into a distinct 

SUBSECT. 4. Algce and Lichencz. 

GOO. The term algce, or sea-weeds, among modern botanists, includes not merely marine 
and many other immersed plants, but also a great variety of plants that are not even 
aquatics. All the algae, or, according to the Jussieuean terminology, algeae, however, 
agree in the common character of having their herbage frondose, or but rarely admitting 
of the distinction of root, stem, and leaf, and their fructification imbedded either in the 
substance of the frond itself, or in some peculiar and generally sessile receptacle. The 
algeae were formerly divided into the six following genera, lichen, tremella, fucus, ulva, 
conferva, byssus ; but now the genus lichen forms an order of itself. 

601. The utility of the algae is obviously very considerable, whether we regard them as 
furnishing an article of animal food, or as applicable to medicine and the arts. The 
fucus edulis, and several other fuci, are eaten and much relished by many people, whether 
raw or dressed, and it is likely that some of them are fed upon by various species of fish. 
The fucus lichenoides {Turner, c. 118.) is now believed to be the chief material of the 
edible nests of the East India swallows, which are so much esteemed for soups, that they 
sell in China for their weight in gold. When disengaged from their placaof growth and 
thrown upon the sea-shore, the European algae are often collected by the farmer and used 
as manure. They are often also employed in the preparation of dyes, as well as in the 
lucrative manufacture of kelp, a commodity of the most indispensable utility in the im- 
portant arts of making soap and glass. . 

602. The utility of the lichena is also worthy 
of. notice. The lichen rangiferinus (Jig. 45.) 
forms the principal nourishment of the rein-deer 
during the cold months of winter, when all other 
herbage fails. The lichen islandicus is eaten 
by the Icelanders instead of bread, or used in 
the preparation of broths, and like the lichen 
pulmonarius, has been lately found to be bene- 
ficial in consumptive affections. Many of them 
are also employed in the preparation of some of 
our finest dyes, or pigments ; and it is from the 
lichen parellus that the chemical analysist ob- 
tains his litmus. The lichens and the mosses 
seem instituted by nature to provide for the uni- 
versal diffusion of vegetable life over the whole 
surface of the terrestrial globe. The powdery 
and tuberculous lichens attach themselves even 
to the bare and solid rock. Having reached 

the maturity of their species, they die and are converted into a fine earth, which forms a 
soil for the leathery lichens. These again decay and moulder into dust in their turn ; 
and the depth of soil, which is thus augmented, is now capable of nourishing and support- 
ing other tribes of vegetables. The seeds of the mosses lodge in it, and spring up into 




plants, augmenting also by their decay the quantity of soil, and preparing it for the sup- 
port of plants of a more luxuriant growth, so that in the revolution of ages even the sur 
face of the barren rock is covered with a soil capable of supporting the loftiest trees. 

SUBSECT. 5. Fungi. 

603. The fungi are a tribe of plants whose herbage is a frond of ajteshy or pulpy texture, 
quick in its growth, and fugacious in its duration, and bearing seeds or gems in an appro- 
priate and exposed membrane, or containing them interspersed throughout its mass. But 
this rule is not without its exceptions ; for many of the fungi are converted, during the 
process of vegetation, or rather when their vegetation is over, into a tough, leathery, and 
even woody substance, which gives them a permanency beyond that of their congeners, 
and a trait of character that is not included in the above definition. They are also a tribe 
of plants that may be regarded as 

the lowest in the vegetable scale, 
exhibiting a considerable resem- 
blance to the tribe of zoophites, and 
thus forming the connecting link 
between the vegetable and animal 
kingdoms. The habitations they 
affect are very various, many of them 
vegetating only on the surface of the 
earth ( t fig. 46. a), and some of them 
even buried under it ; others on 
stumps and trunks of rotten trees'(6); 
others on decayed fruit ; others on 
damp and wet walls ; and others on 
animal ordure. 

Conservative organs. Many of the fungi are altogether destitute of any conspicuous root, being attached 
to some appropriate basis of support merely by means of a large and flattened surface. The frond is often 
merely a thin, flat, and leathery sort of substance, adhering to a basis of support by means of the whole of 
its under-surface, as in the boleti. In others it is globular and sitting, as in lycoperdon ; and in others, it 
is bell-shaped and sitting, as in nidularia. 

Reproductive organs. In fungi furnished with gills and a curtain, if the inner surface of the curtain is 
carefully examined with a good magnifier, before the time of its natural detachment from the stipe or 
pileus, there will be found adhering to it a number of fine and delicate threads supporting small globules ; 
and in such as have no curtain the same sort of substances may be found adhering to the edge of the 
pileus. These Hedwig regards as stamens. If the gills are next examined in the same manner and about 
the same time, there will be found sitting on their edge or surface a multitude of small, tender, and cylin- 
drical substances, some of which are surmounted with a small globule, and others not. These he regards 
as being probably the styles and summits. Similar substances may be detected on the other genera of 
fungi also. But from the extreme minuteness of their parts, and from their strong similitude to the down 
with which the finer organs of vegetables are generally covered, it is easy to perceive how very difficult it 
must be to decide upon their true character. 

604. Uses of the fungi- The powder of the lycoperdons is said to be an excellent 
stvptic ; and is remarkable also for its property of strongly repelling moisture. If a basin 
is filled with water, and a little of the powder strewed upon the surface so as to cover it 
thinly, the hand may be plunged into it and thrust down to the bottom without being 
wetted with a single drop of water. Several of the boleti, when dried, afford a very use- 
ful tinder ; and several of the agarics and tubers are used as articles of food, or as ingre- 
dients in the preparation of seasoning. The truffle is much esteemed for the rich and 
delicate flavor which it imparts to soups and sauces ; and the mushroom for its esculent 
property, and utility in the preparation of ketchup. 

Vegetable Anatomy) or the internal Structure of Plants. 

605. The organs of plants discoverable by external examination, are themselves reducible 
to component organs, which are again resolvable into constituent and primary organs. 
These are called the decomposite, the composite, and the elementary. 

SECT. I. Decomposite Organs. 

606. The decomposite organs constitute the vegetable individual, and are distinguishable 
by external examination ; to the dissection of which we will now proceed, taking them in 
the retrograde order of the seed, pericarp, flower, leaf, gem, and caudex, or branch, stem, 
and root, with their decomposite appendages. 

607. The seed. The mass of the seed consists of two principal parts, distinguishable without much difficulty; 
namely, the integuments and nucleus, or embryo and its envelopes. The integuments proper to the seed 


are two in number, an exterior integument and an interior integument ; which are sometimes, however, 
enveloped by the additional integument constituting an appendage of the seed, under the title of the 
pellicle or seminal epidermis. The exterior Integument, or testa, is the original cuticle o'f the nucleus, not 
detachable in the early stages of its growth, but detachable at the period of the maturity of the fruit, 
when it is generally of a membranaceous or leathery texture ; though sometimes soft and fleshy, and 
sometimes crustaceous and bony. It may be very easily distinguished in the transverse or longitudinal 
section of the garden-bean or any other large seed, and may be also easily detached by the aid of a little 
manipulation. The interior integument, r sub-testa, lines the exterior integument, or testa,' and immedi- 
ately envelopes the nucleus, deriving its origin from the interior portion of the umbilical cord, which, after 
perforating the testa, disperses into a multiplicity of ramifications connected by a fine membrane, and 
forms the interior integument. Like the testa, to which indeed it adheres, it may be easily distinguished 
in the garden-bean (Jig. 47.), or in a ripe walnut ; in which last it is a fine transparent and net-like mem- 

608. The nucleus is that part of the seed which is 
contained within the proper integuments, consisting 
of the albumen with the vitellus, when present, and 
embryo. The albumen is an organ resembling in its 
consistence the white of an egg, and forming, in most 
cases, the exterior portion of the nucleus, but always 
separable from the interior or remaining portion. 
The vitellus is an organ of a fleshy but firm contex- 
ture, situated, when present, between the albumen 
and embryo ; to the former of which it is attached 
only by adhesion, but to the latter by incorporation 
of substance, so as to be inseparable from it, except 
by force. The embryo (fig. 47. a) which is the last and 
most essential part of the seed and final object of the 
fructification, as being the germ of the future plant, 
is a small and often very minute organ, enclosed 

within the albumen and occupying the centre of the seed. The cotyledon or seed-lobe (A), is that portion 
of the embryo, that encloses and protects the plantlet, and springs up during the process of germination 
into what is usually denominated the seminal leaf, if the lobe is solitary; or seminal leaves, if there are 
more lobes than one. In the former ease the seed is said to be monocotyledonous ; in the latter case, it 
is said to be dicotyledonous. Dicotyledonous seeds, which constitute by far the majority of seeds, are 
well exemplified in the garden-bean. As there are some seeds whose cotyledon consists of one lobe only, 
falling short of the general number, so there are also a few whose cotyledon is divisible into several lobes, 
exceeding the general number. They have been denominated polycotyledonous seeds, and are exempli- 
fied in the case of lepidium sativum or common garden-cress, in wnich the lobes are six in number ; as in 
that also of the different species of the genus pinus, in which they vary from three to twelve. But 
although by far the greater number of seeds are furnished with two cotyledons, or with a cotyledon divi- 
sible or not divisible into several lobes, there is also a considerable proportion in which the cotyledon is 
altogether wanting, or at least believed to be wanting by botanists in general. These, according to 
Gaertner, are exemplified in the fuci, ferns, and fungi, the embryo being merely a germinating cicatrice 
imbedded in the surface of a vitellus which forms the mass of the seed. But Hedwig, to whose opinions 
on this subject much deference is also due, maintains that the seeds of the plants in question are famished 
with cotyledons as well as those of other plants, and that no seed whatever is without them. This is a 
case, however, in which the general opinion of botanists is against him, as may be seen from the many 
systems founded upon the presence, or absence, or number of the cotyledons, and exemplified, as we have 
seen, in that of the great and justly celebrated Jussieu, whose primary divisions are those of acotyledonous, 
monocotyledonous, and dicotyledonous plants, the polycotyledonous being thought to be too few in num- 
ber to constitute a separate division. It should be recollected, however, that the above divisions were 
instituted at a time when the subject had not yet undergone any thing like a rigorous scrutiny, that 
already many changes have been found necessary, and that future investigations will in all probability 
point out the necessity of more. In watching the germination of fern-seed, Mirbel observed some sub- 
stances which he regards as cotyledons, and so far supports the position of Hedwig. The plantlet, or future 
plant in miniature, is the interior and essential portion of the embryo, and seat of vegetable life. In some 
seeds it is so minute as to be scarcely perceptible ; while in others it is so large as to be divisible into dis- 
tinct parts, as in the garden-bean. 

609. The pericarp, which in different species of fruit assumes so many varieties of contexture, acquires its 
several aspects, not so much from a diversity of substance as of modification. The valves of the capsule, 
but particularly the partitions by which it is divided into cells, are composed of a thin and skinny mem- 
brane, or of an epidermis covering a pulp more or less indurated, and interspersed with longitudinal fibres. 
The capsule of the mosses is composed of a double and net-like membrane, enclosed within a fine epider- 
mis. The pome is composed of a fine but double epidermis, or, according to Knight, of two skins, enclosing 
a soft and fleshy pulp, with bundles of longitudinal fibres passing through it, contiguous to, and in the 
direction of, its longitudinal axis. The valves of the legume are composed of an epidermis enclosing a 
firm but fleshy pulp, lined for the most part with a skinny membrane, and of bundles of longitudinal fibres, 
forming the seam. The nutshell, whether hard or bony, or flexible and leathery, is composed of a pulp 
more or less highly indurated, interspersed with longitudinal fibres, and covered with an epidermis. The 
drupe is composed of an epidermis enclosing a fleshy pulp, which is sometimes so interwoven with a mul- 
tiplicity of longitudinal fibres as to seem to consist wholly of threads, as in the cocoa-nut. The berry is 
composed of a very fine epidermis enclosing a soft and juicy pulp. The scales of the strobile are composed 
of a tough and leathery epidermis, enclosing a spongy but often highly indurated pulp interspersed with 
longitudinal fibres that pervade also the axis. 

610. The flower-stalk, or peduncle supporting the flower, which is a prolongation of the stem or branch, or 
rather a partial stem attached to it, if carefully dissected with the assistance of a good glass, will be found 
to consist of the following several parts : 1st, An epidermis, or external envelope ; 2dly, A parenchyma, 
or soft and pulpy mass ; 3dly, Bundles of longitudinal threads or fibres, originating in the stem or branch, 
and passing throughout the whole extent of the parenchyma. The several organs of the flower are merely 
prolongations of the component parts of the flower-stalk, though each organ does not always contain the 
whole of such component parts, or at least not under the same modifications. The epidermis, however, 
and parenchyma are common to them all ; but the longitudinal threads or fibres are seldom if ever to be 
found except in the calyx or corolla. 

611. The leaf-stalk, or petiole supporting the leaf, which is a prolongation of the branch or stem, or rather 
a partial stem attached to'it, exhibits upon dissection the same sort of structure as the peduncle, namely, an 
epidermis, a pulp or parenchyma, and bundles of longitudinal threads or fibres. 

612. Gems. There exist among the different tribes of vegetables four distinct species of gems, two peculiar 
to perfect plants, the bud and bulb, and two peculiar to imperfect plants, the propago and gongylus ; the 
latter being denominated simple gems, because furnished with a single envelope only ; and the former being 
denominated compound gems, because furnished with more than a single envelope. 



PART 11. 

Bwb are composed externally of a number of spoon-shaped 
scales overlapping one another, and converging towards a jioint 
In the apex, and often cemented together by means of a gluti- 
nous or mucilaginous substance exuding from their surface. If 
these scales are stripped off and dissected under the microscope, 
they will be found to consist, like the leaves or divisions of the 
calyx, of an epidermis enclosing a pulp interspersed with a net- 
work of fibres, but unaccompanied with longitudinal threads. 
If the scales of a leaf-bud are taken and stripped off, and the 
remaining part carefully opened up, it will be found to consist 
of the rudiments of a young branch terminated by a bunch of 
incipient leaves imbedded in a white and cottony down, being 
minute but complete in all their parts and proportions, and 
folded or rolled up in the bud in a peculiar and determinate 

Du&t, which are either radical or caulmary, exhibit in then- 
external structure, or in a part of their internal structure that 
is easily detected, several distinct varieties, some being solid, 
some coated, and some scaly ; but all protruding in the process 
of vegetation the stem, leaf, and (lower, peculiar to their 

The propago, which is a simple gem, peculiar to some genera 
of imperfect plants, and exemplified bv Gaertner in the lichens, 
consists of a small and pulpy mass forming a granule of no regu- 
lar shape, sometimes naked, and sometimes covered with an 
envelope, which i 

The gongyliu, which is also a simple gem peculiar to some 
enera of imperfect plants, and exemplified by Giertn 
fuci, consists of a slightly indurated pulp moulded into 

Giertner in the 

and globular granule of a'firm and solid contexture, and invested 
with an epidermis. 

613. The term caudex, in its present application, is to be understood as including the whole mass or body 
both of the trunk and root, as distinct from the temporary parts of the plant, or parts already investi- 
gated ; and as comprehending both the caudex ascendens, and caudex descendens of Linnsus, or the 
trunk and its divisions, with the root and its divisions. In opening up and dissecting the caudex, whether 
ascending or descending, the dissector will soon discover that its internal structure, like its external aspect 
or habit, is materially different in different tribes of plants. 

614. The first general mode of the internal structure of the caudex is that 
in which an epidermis encloses merely a homogeneous mass of pulp or 
slender fibre,which forms the principal body of the caudex, and becomes some- 
what indurated with age, though not woody, without discovering any further 
variety of component parts. This, Mirbel observes, is the simplest mode of 
internal structure existing among vegetables ; it is exemplified in the lower 
orders of frondose and imperfect plants, particularly the algse and fungi. 

615. TJie second general mode of internal structure of the caudex is that in 
which an epidermis encloses two or more substances, or assemblages of 
substances, totally heterogeneous in their character. A very common va- 
riety of this mode is that in which an epidermis or bark encloses a soft and 
pulpy mass, interspersed with a number of longitudinal nerves or fibres, or 
bundles of fibres, extending from the base to the apex, and disposed in a 
peculiarity of manner characteristic of a tribe or genus. This mode pre- 

vails chiefly in herbaceous and annual or biennial plants, (fig. 48.) The 
pulp being solid, as in apsidium filix-mass, and tubular, as in the garden 
parsnep or common hemlock. A second variety of this mode is that in which 
a strong and often thick bark encloses a circular layer of longitudinal fibres, 
or several such circular and concentric layers, interwoven with thin transverse and 
divergent layers of pulp, so as to form a firm and compact cylinder, in the centre of 
which is lodged a pulp or pith. This mode is best exemplified in trees and shrubs 
(fig. 49.), though it is also applicable to many plants whose texture is chiefly or 
almost wholly herbaceous, forming as it were the connecting link between such 
plants as are purely herbaceous on the one hand, and such as are purely woody on 
the other. In the latter case the wood is perfect ; in the former case it is imperfect. 
The wood being imperfect in the root of the beet, the common bramble, and burdock ; 
and perfect in the oak or alder. 

61& The appendages of the plant, whether conservative or reproductive, exhibit 
nothing in their internal structure that is at all essentially different from that of the 
organs that have been already described. 

SECT. II. Composite Organs. 

617. From the preceding analysis, it appears the decomposite organs are reducible to 
one or other of the several following substances, namely, epidermis, pulp, pith, cortical 
layers, ligneous layers, and vegetable fibre. These now remain to be further analysed, under 
the title of composite organs, as being still compound, with a view to reach the ultimate 
and elementary organs of the vegetable subject. 

618. Structure of the vegetable epidermis. The epidermis of the vegetable, which, from its resemblance 
to that of the animal, has been designated by the same name, is the external envelope or integument of 
the plant, extending over the whole surface, and covering the root, stem, branches, leaves, flower, and 
fruit, with their appendages ; the summit of the pistil only excepted. But although it is extended over 
the whole surface of the plant, it is not of equal consistence throughout. In the root and trunk it is a 
tough and leathery membrane, or it is a crust of considerable thickness, forming a notable portion of the 
bark, and assuming some peculiar shade of color ; while in the leaves, flowers, and tender shoots, it is a 
fine, colorless, and transparent film, when detached ; and when adherent, it is always tinged with some 
peculiar shade, which it borrows from the parts immediately beneath it. Du Hamel, Saussure, Hedwig, 
Comparetti, Bauer, and others, have examined the epidermis, and, according to their descriptions, it is 
represented as consisting of at least two if not more layers, which in the stem of many plants, are very 
easily distinguished, particularly in that of the paper-birch, the bark of which may, perhaps, be regarded 
as a succession of individual cuticles. 

619. The pulp is a soft and juicy substance, constituting the principal mass of succulent plants, and a notable 
proportion of many parts even of woody plants. It constitutes the principal mass of many of the fungi and 
fuci, and of herbaceous plants in general. Of those phytologists who have described the pulp, Mirbel is con- 
sidered the most accurate. He compares it to clusters of small and hexagonal cells or bladders, con- 
taining for the most part a colored juice, and formed apparently of the foldings and doublings of a fine 
and delicate membrane, in which no traces of organisation are to be distinguished. In the trunk of what 
are called dicotyledonous plants, he regards the pulp, or cellular tissue, as consisting of two distinct 
portions, which he designates by the respective appellations of the herbaceous tissue, and the parenchyma. 
The former is the exterior portion of the cellular tissue, of which the cells always contain a resinous and 
colored juice, that communicates its peculiar tinge to the epidermis. The latter is the interior portion of the 
tissue, composed also of cells, But differing from those of the herbaceous tissue in containing only a 
watery juice without color, because it has not been exposed to the action of the light, though in the calyx 
and fruit this watery juice is said to be also often colored. But in the description of the vegetable pulp, 
the only distinction necessary to be made is that by which it is divided into two parts, namely, an 
apparatus of hexagonal cells or vesicles, and a contained juice, whether colorless or colored, the union of 
which substances forms a true pulp. 



620. The pith, as has been already shown, is a soft and spongy, but often succulent 
substance, occupying the centre of the root, stem, and branches, and extending in 
the direction of their longitudinal axis, in which it is enclosed as in a tube. The 
structure of the pith is precisely similar to that of the pulp, being composed of an 
assemblage of hexagonal cells containing a watery and colorless juice, or of cellular 
tissue and a parenchyma. 

621. The cortical layers, or interior and concentric layers, constituting the mass 
of the bark, are situated immediately under the cellular integument, where such 
integument exists, and where not, immediately under the epidermis ; or they are 
themselves external. They are distinguishable chiefly in the bark of woody plants, 
but particularly in that of the lime-tree. They are composed of two elementary 
parts bundles of longitudinal fibres constituting a network (fig.5(),}, and amass 
of pulp more or less indurated, filling up the meshes. The innermost of the 
layers is denominated the liber, and was used by the ancients to write on 
before the invention of paper. It is the finest and most delicate of them all, 
and often most beautifully reticulated (fig. 51. a), and varied by bundles of 
longitudinal fibre (6). But the liber of daphne lagetto is remarkable 
beyond that of all other plants for the beauty and delicacy of its network, 

which is not inferior to that of the finest lace, and at the same time so 
very soft and flexible that in countries of which the tree is a native the 
lace of the liber is often made to supply the place of a neckcloth. If the 
cortical layers are injured or destroyed by accident, the part destroyed is 
again regenerated, and the wound healed up without a scar. But if the 
wound penetrates beyond the liber, the part destroyed is no longer rege- 
nerated. Or if a tree is bent so as to break part of the cortical fibres, and 
then propped up in its former position, the fractured fibres will again unite. 
Or if a portion of the stem is entirely decorticated and covered with a piece 
of bark, even from another tree, the "two different barks will unite. Hence 
the practicability of ascertaining how far the liber extends. And hence also the 
origin of grafting, which is always effected by a union o'f the liber of the 
graft and stock. 

622. The ligneous layers, or layers constituting the wood, occupy the 
intermediate portion of the stem between the bark and pith ; and are 
distinguishable into two different sorts concentric layers and divergent 
layers, (fig. 50.) 

623. The concentric layers, which constitute by far the greater part of the mass of the wood, are suffi- 
ciently conspicuous for the purpose of exemplification on the surface of a horizontal section of most trunks 
or branches, as on that of the oak and elm. But though they are generally described as being con- 
centric, they are not always strictly so. For they are often found to extend more on the one side of 
the axis of the stem or branch, than on the other. Some authors say the excess is on the north side, but 
others say it is on the south side. The former account for it by telling us it is because the north side is 
sheltered from the sun ; and the latter by telling us it is because the south side is sheltered from the cold ; 
and thus from the operation of contrary causes alleging the same effect, which has been also thought to 
be sufficiently striking and uniform to serve as a sort of compass, by which the bewildered traveller 
might safely steer his course, even in the recesses of the most extensive forest. But Du Hamel 
has exposed the futility of this notion, by showing that the excess is sometimes on the one side of the 
axis, and sometimes on the other, according to the accidental situation of the great roots and branches ; 
a thick root or branch producing a proportionally thick layer of wood on the side of the stem from which 
it issues. The layers are indeed sometimes more in number on the one side than on the other, as well 
as thicker. But this is the exception, and not the rule. They are thickest, however, on the side on 
which they are fewest, though not of the same thickness throughout. Du Hamel, after counting twenty 
layers on the one side of the transverse section of the trunk of an oak, found only fourteen on the other. 
But the fourteen exceeded the twenty in thickness by one fourth part. But the layers thus discoverable 
on the horizontal section of the trunk are not all of an equal consistency throughout, there being an 
evident diminution in their degree of solidity from the centre, where they are hardest, to the circum- 
ference, where they are softest. The outermost layer, which is the softest of all, is denominated the 
alburnum, perhaps from its being of a brighter white than any of the other layers, either of wood or bark; 
from which character, as well as from its softer texture, it is also easily distinguished, though in the 
case of some plants, as in that of the poplar and lime-tree, this peculiarity of character is not very ap- 
parent. From the peculiarity of external character, however, which it possesses in general, it was at one 
time thought to be a substance essentially different from that of the layers which it invests. The ancients, 
whose phytological opinions were often very whimsical, supposed it to be something analogous to the fat 
of animals, and intended perhaps to serve as a sort of nutriment to the plant in winter. But it is now 
known to be merely wood in a less condensed state, being yet lighter and softer than the interior layers, 
but acquiring strength and solidity with age. It does not, however, acquire its utmost degree of solidity 
till after a number of years, as is plain from the regular gradation observable in the solidity of the different 
layers. But if a tree is barked a year before it is cut down, then the alburnum is converted into wood 
in the course of that year. 

624. The divergent layers which intersect the concentric layers in a transverse direction, constitute also a 
considerable proportion of the wood, as may be seen in a horizontal section of the fir or birch, or of 
almost any woody plant, on the surface of which they present an appearance like that of the radii of a 

625. The structure of the concentric layers will be found to consist of several smaller and component 
layers, which are themselves composed of layers smaller still, till at last they are incapable of farther 
division. The concentric layers are composed of longitudinal fibres, generally forming a network ; and 
the divergent layers*, of parallel threads or fibres of cellular tissue, extending in a transverse direction, 
and filling up the interstices of the network ; the two sets of fibres being interwoven and interlaced 
together, so as to form a firm and compact body in the matured layers ; and thus corresponding exactly 
to the description given of them by Grew and Malpighi, in which the longitudinal fibres are compared to 
the warp, and the transverse fibres to the woof of a web. 

626. The structure of the stem in plants that are purely herbaceous, and in the herbaceous parts of 
woody plants, is distinguished by a number of notable and often insulated fibres passing longitudinally 
throughout its whole extent, as in the stipe of apsidium filix-mass, or leaf-stalk of the alder. These 
fibres, when viewed superficially, appear to be merely individuals, but when inspected minutely, and 
under the microscope, they prove to be groups or bundles of fibres smaller and minuter still, firmly 
cemented together, and forming in the aggregate a strong and elastic thread ; but capable of being split 
into a number of component fibres, till at last you can divide them no longer. If the fibres of the bajrk 
are separated by the destruction of a part, the part is again regenerated, and the fibres are again united, 
without leaving behind them any traces of a wound. But if the fibres of the wood are separated by the 
destruction of a part, the part is never regenerated, and the fibres are never united. 




SECT. III. Elementary or Vascular Organs. 

627. From the previous analysis of the composite organs it appears they are all ulti- 
mately reducible tojibres, cellular tissue with or without parenchyma, and reticulated mem- 
brane, which we must consequently regard as being, under one modification or other, the 
ultimate and elementary organs of which the whole mass of the plant is composed. If it 
is asked of what the elementary organs are themselves composed, the reply is, they arc 
composed, as appears from the same analysis, of a fine, colorless, and transparent mem- 
brane, in which the eye, aided by the assistance even of the best glasses, can discover no 
traces whatever of organisation ; which membrane we must also regard as constituting 
the ultimate and fundamental fabric of the elementary organs themselves, and by conse- 
quence of the whole of the vegetable body. It has been asked by some phytologists 
whether or not plants are furnished with vessels analogous to the blood-vessels of the 
animal system. But if it is admitted that plants contain fluids in motion, which cannot 
possibly be denied, it will follow, as an unavoidable consequence, that they are furnished 
with vessels conducting or containing such fluids. If the stem of a plant of marigold is 
divided by means of a transverse section, the divided extremities of the longitudinal fibres, 
arranged in a circular row immediately within the bark, will be distinctly perceived, and 
their tubular structure demonstrated by means of the orifices which they present, particu- 
larly when 1 the stem has begun to wither. The same sort of structure may be observed 
in the stem of cucurbitaceous plants also, particularly in that of the gourd, in which there 
are besides discoverable several sets of longitudinal tubes situated near the centre, and 
of considerable diameter. Regarding it, therefore, as certain that plants are furnished with 
longitudinal tubes, as well as with cells or utricles for the purpose of conveying or contain- 
ing their alimentary juices, we proceed to the specific illustration of both, together with 
their peculiarities and appendages. 

628. The utricles are the fine and membranous vessels constituting the cellular tissue of the pith and pulp 
already described, whether of the plant, flower, or fruit Individually they resemble oblong bladders in- 
flated in the middle, as in the case of some plants ; or circular or hexagonal cells, as in the case of 
others. Collectively they have been compared to an assemblage of threads of contiguous bladders or 
vesicles, or to the bubbles that are found on the surface of liquor in a state of fermentation. 

629. The tubes are the vessels formed by the cavities of the longitudinal fibres, whether as occurring in the 
stem of herbaceous plants, or in the foot-stalk of the leaf and flower, or in the composition of the cortical 
and ligneous layers, or by longitudinal openings pervading the pulp itself, as in the case of the vine. They 
have generally been characterised under the denominations of proper vessels, lymphatics, and trachea?. 
But as this is rather a premature reference to their different uses, which is besides not altogether correct, 
we shall adopt, with a little alteration, the denominations introduced by Mirbel, as arising from their 
form or structure. The first and primary division founded upon this principle is that by which they arc 
distributed into large tubes and small tubes. 

630. The large tubes are tubes distinguishable by the superior width of the diameter which they present on 
the horizontal section of the several parts of the plant 

Simple tubes ( fa. 52.) are the largest of all the large 
'tubes, and are formed of a thin and entire membrane, 
without any perceptible disruption of continuity, and 
are found chiefly in the bark, though not confined to 
it, as they are to be met with also in the alburnum 
and matured wood, as well as in the fibres of herb- 
aceous plants. 

Pormu tubes resemble the simple tubes in then- 
general aspect ; but differ from them in being pierced 
with small holes or pores, which are often distributed 
in regular and parallel rows. They are found in 
most abundance in woody plants, and particularly in 
wood that is firm and compact, like that of the oak ; 
but they do not, like the simple tubes, seem destined 
to contain any oily or resinous juice. 

Spiral tubes are fine, transparent, and thread- 

like substances, occasionally interspersed with the 
other tubes of the plant, But distinguished from them 
bi being twisted from right to left, or from left to 
right, in the form of a corkscrew. They occur in 
most abundance in herbaceous plants, particularly 
in aquatics. 

Falte spiral tubes are tubes apparently spiral on a 
slight inspection, but which, upon minute examine 
ation, are found to derive their appearance merely 
from their being cut transversely by parallel fissures. 

Mixed tubes are tubes combining in one individual 
two or more of the foregoing varieties. Mirbel exem- 
plifies them in the case of the butomus umbellatus, 
in which the porous tubes, spiral tubes, and false 
spiral tubes, are often to be met with united in one. 

631. The small tubes are tubes composed of a succession of elongated cells united, 
like those of the cellular tissue. Individually they may be compared to the stem of the 
grasses, which is formed of several internodia, separated by transverse diaphragms ; and 
collectively to a united assemblage of parallel and collateral reeds. 

632. Pores are small and minute openings of various shapes and dimensions, that seem to be destined to the 
absorption, transmission, or exhalation of fluids. They are distinguishable into the following two sorts : 
perceptible pores and imperceptible pores. The perceptible pores are either external or internal, and arc 
the apertures described by Hedwig as discoverable in the network constituting the epidermis. The im- 
perceptible pores are pores that are not distinguishable by the eye, unless assisted with the best glasses ; 
but they are known to exist by the evidence of experiment, and have lately been ably delineated and de- 
scribed by A. T. Thomson, in his Lectures on Botany. (VoL i. p. 609.) 

633. Gaps, according to Mirbel, are empty, but often regular and symmetrical spaces formed in the in- 
terior of the plant by means of a partial disruption of the membrane constituting the tubes or utricles. 
In the leaves of herbaceous plants the gaps are often interrupted by transverse diaphragms formed of a 
portion of the cellular tissue which still remains entire, as may be seen in the transparent structure of the 
leaves of typha and many other plants. Transverse gaps are said to be observable also in the bark of some 
plants, though very rarely. 

634. There are various appendages connected with the elementary organs, such as internal glands, internal 
pubescence, &c. : the latter occurs in dissecting the leaf or flower-stalk of nymphaea lutea. 



Vegetable Chemistry, or jnimary Principles of Plants. 

635. As plants are not merely organised beings, but beings endowed with a species of 
life, absorbing nourishment from the soil in which they grow, and assimilating it to their 
own substance by means of the functions and operations of their different organs, it is 
plain that no progress can be made in the explication of the phenomena of vegetable 
life, and no distinct conception formed of the rationale of vegetation, without some 
specific knowledge of the primary principles of vegetables, and of their mutual action 
upon one another. The latter requisite presupposes a competent acquaintance with the 

** elements of chemistry ; and the former points out the necessity of a strict and scrupu- 
lous analysis of the several compound ingredients constituting the fabric of the plant, 
or contained within it. 

636. If the object of the experimenter is merely that of extracting such compound 
ingredients as may be known to exist in the plant, the necessary apparatus is simple, 
and the process easy. But if it is that of ascertaining the primary and radical principles 
of which the compound ingredients are themselves composed, the apparatus is then com- 
plicated, and the process extremely difficult, requiring much time and labor, and much 
previous practice in analytical research. But whatever may be the object of analysis, or 
particular view of the experimenter, the processes which he employs are either mechanical 
or chemical. 

637. The mechanical processes are such as are effected by the agency of mechanical 
powers, and are often indeed the operation of natural causes ; hence the origin of gums 
and other spontaneous exudations. But the substances thus obtained do not always 
flow sufficiently fast to satisfy the wants or necessities of man. And [men have conse- 
quently contrived to accelerate the operations of nature by means of artificial aid in the 
application of the wimble or axe, widening the passages which the extravasated fluid has 
forced, or opening up new ones. But it more frequently happens that the process 
employed is wholly artificial, and altogether effected without the operation of natural 
causes. When the juices are enclosed in vesicles lodged in parts that are isolated, or 
may easily be isolated, the vesicles may be opened by means of rasps or graters, and the 
juices expressed by the hand, or by some other fit instrument. Thus the volatile oil may 
be obtained that is lodged in the rind of the lemon. When the substance to be ex- 
tracted lies more deeply concealed in the plant, or in parts which cannot be easily de- 
tached from the rest, it may then become necessary to pound or bruise the whole, or a 
great part of the plant, and to subject it, thus modified, to the action of the press. Thus 
seeds are sometimes treated to express their essential oils. And if by the action of bruis- 
ing or pressing heterogeneous ingredients have been mixed together, they may generally 
be separated with considerable accuracy by means of decantation, when the substances 
held in suspension have been precipitated. Thus the acid of lemons, oranges, goose- 
berries, and other fruits, may be obtained in considerable purity, when the mucilage that 
was mixed with them has subsided. 

638. The chemical processes are such as are effected by the agency of chemical powers, 
and may be reduced to the following : distillation, combustion, the action of water, the 
action of acids and alkalies, the action of oils and alcohols, and lastly fermentation. They 
are much more intricate in their nature than the mechanical processes, as well as more 
difficult in their application. 

639. Of the products of vegetable analysis, as obtained by the foregoing processes, 
some consist of several heretogeneous substances, and are consequently compound, as 
being capable of further decomposition ; and some consist of one individual substance 
only, and are consequently simple, as being incapable of further decomposition. 

SECT. I. Compound Products. 

640. The compound products of analysis are very numerous in themselves, and much 
diversified in their qualities. They are gum, sugar, starch, gluten, albumen, fibrina, 
extract, tannin, coloring matter, bitter principle, narcotic principle, acids, oils, wax, 
resins, gum resins, balsams, camphor, caoutchouc, cork, woody fibre, sap, proper juice, 
charcoal, ashes, alkalies, earths, metallic oxides. 

641. Gum is an exudation that issues spontaneously from the surface of a variety of plants, in the state of a 
clear, viscid, and tasteless fluid, that gradually hardens upon being exposed to the action of the atmosphere, 
and condenses into a solid mass. It issues copiously from many fruit-trees, but especially from such as 
produce stone-fruit, as the plum and cherry-tree. From plants or parts of plants containing it, but not dis- 
charging it by spontaneous exudation, it may be obtained by the process of maceration in water. It has 
been found by chemists to consist of several varieties, known by the names of gum arabic, gum tragacanth, 
cherry-tree gum, and mucilage. Gum arabic, which is the most plentiful of all the gums, is the produce 
of the mimosa nilotica, a native of the interior of Africa and of Arabia ; whence its name. When pure, it 
is colorless and transparent, though sometimes it is tinged with yellow, varying in its specific gravity 
from 1300 to 1490. (Davy's Agric, Chem., lect. iii.) It is insoluble in alcohol ; but is readily soluble in 

L 2 


water ; and if the solution is exposed to the action of the atmosphere, the water ie gradually evaporated, 
and the gum again left in a solid mass. According to the analysis of Gay Lussac and Thenard, it consists 
of the following elements, in the following proportions, 100 parts being the integer: carbon 42'23; oxy- 
gen 50'84 ; hydrogen 6'93 ; saline and earthy matter a small quantity ; total 100 . Gum tragacanth is 
the produce of the astragalus tragacantha, a thorny shrub that grows in the islands of the Levant It is 
less transparent than gum arabic, and not so easily dissolved in water. Cherry-tree gum is obtained 
from the prunus avium, and other species of the same genus, and in general from all trees with stone- 
fruit, from which it exudes spontaneously and in great abundance. It differs from gum arabic and tra- 
gacanth in its concreting in larger masses, and being more easily melted. Mucilage is found chiefly in 
the roots and leaves of plants, particularly such as are bulbous and succulent ; the bulbs of the hyacinth 
and leaves of the marshmallow. It is found also in flax-seed, and in many of the lichens, and is to be 
obtained only by maceration in water, from which it is separated by means of sulphuric acid. 

The uses of gum are considerable. In all its varieties it is capable of being used as an article of food, 
and is highly nutritive, though not very palatable. It is also employed in the arts, particularly in calico- 
printing, in which the printer makes choice of it to give consistency to his colors, and to prevent them 
from spreading. The botanist often uses it to fix his specimens upon paper, for which purpose it is very 
well adapted. It forms likewise an ingredient in ink ; and in medicine it forms the basis of many mix- 
tures, in which its influence is sedative and emollient. 

642. Sugar is the produce of the saccharum officinarum. (Jig. 53.) 
The canes or stems of the plant, when ripe, are bruised between the 
rollers of a mill, and the expressed juice is collected and put into large 
boilers, in which it is mixed with a small quantity of quicklime, or 
strong ley of ashes, to neutralise its aci'd, and is then made to boil. 
The scum which gathers on the top during the process of boiling is 
carefully cleared away ; and when the juice has been boiled down to 
the consistence of a syrup, it is drawn off and allowed to cool in vessels 
which are placed above a cistern, and perforated with small holes, 
through which the impure and liquid part, known by the name of mo- 
lasses, escapes ; while the remaining part is converted into a mass of 
small and hard granules of a brownish or whitish color, known by the 
designation of raw sugar, which, when imported into Europe, is further 
purified by an additional process, and converted by filtration or crystal- 
lisation into what is called loaf sugar, or refined sugar, or candied 
sugar. Sugar thus obtained has a sweet and luscious taste, but is 
without smell. According to.Dr. Thomson its specific caloric is 1-086, its 
specific gravity 1'4045; and its constituent elements are oxygen 647; 
carbon 27 '5 ; hydrogen 7-8 ; total 100'. The juice of the aoer sacchari- 
num, or American maple, yields sugar in such considerable abundance 
as to make it an object witli the North American fanner to manufac- 
ture it for his own use. A hole is bored in the trunk of the vegetating 
tree early in the spring, for the purpose of extracting the sap; of 
which a tree of ordinary size, that is, of from two to three feet in dia- 
meter, will yield from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pints and upwards, in a good season. The 
sap, when thus obtained and neutralised by lime, deposits, by evaporation ? crystals of sugar in the pro- 
portion of about a pound of sugar to forty pints of sap. It is not materially different in its properties 
from that of the sugar-cane. The juice of the grape, when ripe, yields also a sugar by evaporation and 
the action of pot-ashes, which is known by the appellation of the sugar of grapes, and has been lately 
employed in France as a substitute for colonial sugar, though it is not so sweet or agreeable to the taste. 
The root of beta vulgaris, or common beet, yields also, by boiling and evaporation, a sugar which is dis- 
tinguished by a peculiar and slightly bitter taste, owing perhaps to the presence of a bitter extractive 
matter which has been found to be one of the constituents of the beet. Sugar has been extracted from 
the following vegetables also, or from their productions : from the sap of the birch, sycamore, bamboo, 
maize, parsnep, cow-parsnep, American aloe, dulse, walnut-tree, and cocoa-nut-tree ; from the fruit of 
the common arbutus, and other sweet-tasted fruits ; from the roots of the turnip, carrot, and parsley ; 
from the flower of the euxine rhododendron ; and from the nectary of most other flowers. 

643. The utility of sugar, as an aliment is well known ; and it is as much relished by many animals as 
by man. By bees it is sipped from the flowers of plants, under the modification of nectar, and converted 
into honey ; and also seems to be relished by many insects, even in its concrete state ; as it is also by many 
birds. By man it is now regarded as being altogether indispensable, and though used chiefly to give a 
relish or seasoning to food, is itself highly nutritive. It is also of much utility in medicine, and cele- 
brated for its anodyne and antiseptic qualities, as well as thought to be peculiarly efficacious in preventing 
diseases by worms. 

644. Starch. If a quantity of wheaten flower is made into a paste with water, and kneaded and 
washed under the action of a jet, till the water runs off colorless, part of it will be found to have been 
taken up and to be still held in suspension by the water, which will, by-and-by, deposit a sediment that 
may be separated by dccantation. This sediment is starch, which may be obtained also immediately from 
the grain itself, by means of a process well known to the manufacturer, who renders it finally fit for the 
market by washing and edulcorating it with water, and afterwards drying it by a moderate heat. Starch, 
when thrown upon red-hot iron, burns with a kind of explosion, and leaves scarcely any residuum behind. 
It has been found by the analysis of Gay Lussac and Thenard, to be composed of carbon 43'55 ; oxygen 
49-68 ; hydrogen 677 ; total 100'. This result is not very widely different from that of the analysis of 
sugar, into which, it seems, starch may be converted by diminishing the proportion of its carbon, and 
increasing that of its oxygen and hydrogen. This change is exemplified in the case of the malting of 
barley, which contains a great proportion of starch, and which absorbs during the process a quantity of 
oxygen, and evolves a quantity of carbonic acid ; and accordingly part of it is converted into sugar. 
Perhaps it is exemplified also in the case of the freezing of potatoes, which acquire in consequence a sweet 
and sugary taste, and are known to contain a great deal of starch, which may be obtained as follows : let 
the potatoes be taken and grated down to a pulp, and the pulp placed upon a fine sieve, and water made 
to pass through it : the water will be found to have carried off with it an infinite number of particles, 
which it will afterwards deposit in the form of a fine powder, separable by decantation ; which powder is 
starch, possessing all the essential properties of wheaten starch. It may be obtained from the pith of 
several species of palms growing in the Moluccas and several other East Indian islands, by the following 
process: the stem, being first cut into pieces of five or six feet in length, is split longitudinally so as to 
expose the pith, which is now taken out and pounded, and mixed with cold water, which after being 
well stirred up, deposits at length a sediment that is separated by decantation, and is the starch which 
the pith contained, or the sago of the shops. 

645. Salop is also a species ttf starch that is prepared, in the countries of the East, from the root of the 
orchis rnorio, mascula, bifolia, and pyramidalis, and in the isle of Portland, from the arum maculatum. 
So also is cassava, which is prepared from the root of jatropha manihot, a native of America, the ex- 
pressed juice of which is a deadly poison, used by the Indians to poison their arrows ; but the sediment 
which it deposits is a starch that is manufactured into bread, retaining nothing of the deleterious property 
of the juice ; and so also is sowans, which is prepared from the husk of oats, as obtained in the process 
of grinding. 


646. According to Parmentier, starch may be extracted from a number of plants ; as arctium lappa, 
atropa belladonna, pplygonum bistorta, bryonia alba, colchicum autumnale, spiraea filipendula, ranunculus 
bulbosus, scrophularia nodosa, sambucus ebulus and nigra, orchis morio and mascula, impcratoria ostru- 
thium, hyoscyamus niger, ruraex obtusifblius, acutus, and aquaticus, arum maculatum, iris pseudacorus 
and fcctidissima, orobus tuberosus, bunium bulbocastanum. It is found also in the following seeds : 
wheat, barley, oats, rice, maize, millet-seed, chestnut, horse-chestnut, peas, beans, acorns. 

647. Starch is an extremely nutritive substance, and forms one of the principal ingredients in almost all 
articles of vegetable food used, whether by man or the inferior animals. The latter feed upon it in the 
state in which nature presents it : but man prepares and purifies it so as to render it pleasing to his taste, 
and uses it under the various modifications of bread, pastry, or confection